Israel is a country with a mosaic of different cultures. All residents undergo a process of change and are united under a single culture. The study main purpose was to investigate whether Ethnic diversity have effect on illness perception and self-management of Type 2 Diabetes patients (DSMES) in Israel. The methodology used was a descriptive, exploratory design, 250 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), born in Israel, or in the former USSR, aged 35-75, (response rate 80%). Two instruments were used: The Illness Perception Questionnaire and Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire. A significant positive correlation was found between illness perception and self-care management among the two ethnic groups: The Israeli natives comparing to Immigrants from former USSR. The Immigrants from former USSR attributed less importance to the T2DM perception, and DSMES, compared to those who were Israeli's born. These findings provide further evidence about the important significance of the reference to the subject of cultural diversity. The study's results highlight the challenges of the nurses, who are the patients' advocate, and in addition, within their framework, they must deliver and enable the provision of support and guidance to all patients especially the new immigrants. In conclusion, activities should be aimed at developing awareness of ethnic diversity, offering the patients a chance to acquire and exercise proper illness perceptions and self-managements and providing them tools that they can reuse when exposed to any health change that may occurred.