It is estimated that, worldwide, over 8 million babies are born following infertility treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF) since the birth of world's first IVF baby 40 years ago. Recent estimates suggest that by year 2100, 400 million individuals or 3% of the world population may be alive as a result of IVF and other fertility treatments. The developments within infertility treatment using techniques and procedures that evolved from initially animal and lately human research are enormous. Some of the technological advances in reproductive medicine have also contributed to developments and treatment possibilities in other fields of medicine. This mini review article aims to briefly describe and summarize the developments seen in this fascinating field of medicine over the past 40 years.