The aim of this study was to describe the influence of maternal pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy on perinatal and neonatal outcomes.
Retrospective analysis of singleton pregnancies > 37 weeks of gestation delivered between 2004 and 2014. Fetal anomalies and intrauterine deaths have been excluded.
Our data demonstrate a correlation between pre-pregnancy BMI and preeclampsia (k* = 0.029, p = 0.024) as well as between the BMI at the time of delivery and maternal hypertension (k* = 0.443, p = 0.046) and preeclampsia (k* = 0.491, p = 0.02). The results also show a significant relation between maternal BMI and the birth mode (k* = 0.052, p = 0.0003) and between BMI and fetal macrosomia (r = 0.009, p = 0.03). The rate of macrosomic newborns was higher both in obese women (r = 0.165, p = 0.016) as well as in underweight women (r = 0.196, p = 0.036). Weight gain during pregnancy seems to play a minor role compared to the pre-pregnancy BMI and the maternal BMI at the time of delivery.
Optimal weight gain during pregnancy in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI remains a controversial issue in perinatology and pregnancy management. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of preeclampsia, hypertension and macrosomia. Underweight women are also at risk of adverse perinatal outcome.