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Clinical Medical
Image Library
ISSN: 2474-3682
IMAGE ARTICLE | VOLUME 3, ISSUE 2 | OPEN ACCESS DOI: 10.23937/2474-3682/1510064

Kallmann Syndrome: MRI Findings

Ender Alkan, Hasan Erdogan , Muhsin Nuh Aybay, Serdar Arslan and Mehmet Sedat Durmaz

Department of Radiology, University of Health Sciences, Turkey

*Corresponding author: Hasan Erdogan, MD, Specialist, Department of Radiology, Konya Education and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, 42090, Meram, Konya, Turkey, Tel: +90-506-473-0225, E-mail: dr.hasanerdogan@gmail.com

Received: March 29, 2017 | Accepted: June 09, 2017 | Published: June 12, 2017

Citation: Alkan E, Erdogan H, Aybay MN, Arslan S, Durmaz MS (2017) Kallmann Syndrome: MRI Findings. Clin Med Img Lib 3:064. doi.org/10.23937/2474-3682/1510064

Copyright: © 2017 Alkan E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Keywords


Kallmann syndrome, Olfactory, MRI

Case


Kallmann syndrome: MRI findings

A 14-years-old male was consulted for cryptorchidism and anosmia. There was decrease of LH, FSH and testosterone in the laboratory examinations of the patient. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to visualize the olfactory tract and evaluate the olfactory sulci in patient whose clinical and laboratory findings were compatible with Kallmann syndrome. Coronal images of the frontal region clearly demonstrated aplasia of the bilateral olfactory sulci and absence of the olfactory tracts in the patient (Figure 1).

Kallmann syndrome is a neuronal migration disorder characterised by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia or hyposmia [1]. It is generally accepted that defective rhinocephalon development result in olfactory tract abnormalities [2]. Cases generally are admitted with hyposmia, anosmia and puberte tarda [3,4]. MRI is very successful that show the hypoplastic or aplastic olfactory sulci and absence olfactory bulbs and tracts. A hypoplastic anterior pituitary may also be seen. There are other congenital disorders associated with decreased olfaction, such as holoprosencephaly, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome. But complete absence of the olfactory bulbs and tracts has been defined only in Kallmann syndrome [3]. In conclusion, MRI is a useful method to demonstrate abnormalities of the olfactory system which are always present among patients suffering from Kallmann syndrome.

Source of Support


None.

Conflict of Interest


None.

 


Figure 1: Coronal T2 weighted images. A) Normal MRI finding of bilateral olfactory sulcus (arrows) and olfactory bulbs (arrowheads); B) In the patient with Kallmann syndrome, bilateral olfactory sulcus (arrows) and olfactory bulbus cannot be seen (arrow heads).

References


  1. Dode C, Hardelin JP (2009) Kallmann syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet 17: 139-146.

  2. Madan R, Vijay S, Gupta S, Phadke RV (2004) MRI findings in Kallmann syndrome. Neurol India 52: 501-503.

  3. Knorr JR, Ragland RL, Brown RS, Gelber N (1993) Kallmann syndrome: MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 14: 845-851.

  4. Yousem DM, Turner WJ, Li C, Snyder PJ, Doty RL (1993) Kallmann syndrome: MR evaluation of olfactory system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 14: 839-843.