IMAGE ARTICLE | VOLUME 4, ISSUE 3 | OPEN ACCESS DOI: 10.23937/2474-3682/1510091

Pectoralis Muscle Aplasia in Poland's Syndrome

Hasan Erdogan, Fatih Oncu, Fatma Zeynep Arslan, Mehmet Sedat Durmaz, Serdar Arslan and Ismet Tolu

Department of Radiology, Konya Education and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Konya, Turkey

*Corresponding author: Serdar Arslan, MD, Specialist, Department of Radiology, Konya Education and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, 42090, Meram, Konya, Turkey, Tel: +90-555-866-0621, E-mail:

Received: March 04, 2018 | Accepted: May 05, 2018 | Published: May 07, 2018

Citation: Erdogan H, Oncu F, Arslan FZ, Durmaz MS, Arslan S, et al. (2018) Pectoralis Muscle Aplasia in Poland's Syndrome. Clin Med Img Lib 4:091.

Copyright: © 2018 Erdogan H, et al. This is an open-access content distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Poland's syndrome, Pectoralis muscle aplasia, CT

A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to our department due to asymmetrical appearance of the right chest wall. On physical examination, it was seen that right chest wall was asymmetrical and there was right nipple hypoplasia and syndactyly between third and fourth fingers in the right hand. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the absence of right pectoralis major muscle (Figure 1). No bone anomalies were found.

Poland's syndrome (PS) is a congenital unilateral aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, with ipsilateral thoracic and upper limb anomalies [1]. The etiology of PS is unknown. Disruption of the normal development of the subclavian artery, defective migration of fetal mesodermal tissue and intrauterine insults have been suggested as possible causes. In most cases, PS is sporadic [2]. The clinical features are variable. The sendrome classically consisting of the combination of unilateral aplasia of the sternocostal head of the major pectoral muscle and an ipsilateral hypoplastic hand with simple syndactyly and short fingers. It may also include mammary hypoplasia and further muscle and bone abnormalities [3,4]. Severe disconfiguration affecting the thoracic cavity and upper extremity may be detected at birth and may require constructive surgery. Minor forms only cause asymmetry of the thoracic wall and the breasts [4]. If absence of pectoralis major muscle is seen on chest X-ray or CT, PS should be considered.

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Figure 1: Axial chest CT image demonstrates the absence of right pectoralis major muscle (arrow).


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  2. Perez Aznar JM, Urbano J, Garcia Laborda E, Quevedo Moreno P, Ferrer Vergara L (1996) Breast and pectoralis muscle hypoplasia. A mild degree of Poland's syndrome. Acta Radiol 37: 759-762.

  3. David J, Winter M (1985) Familial absence of the pectoralis major, serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi muscles. J Med Genet 22: 390-392.

  4. Wilson MR, Louis DS, Stevenson TR (1988) Poland's syndrome: Variable expression and associated anomalies. J Hand Surg Am 13: 880-882.