Autism is still considered a very complex disease, since it has diverse etiology, with multiple factors apparently associated with its appearance. However, none of them reveals to be totally responsible for its development.
Nowadays, this disorder is considered to have a strong genetic component with the interaction of several genes. Furthermore, other diseases with well-known etiology might also be related with autism.
The aim of this review is to discuss, through bibliographic search, genetic factors involved in autism development.
Some of the candidate genes of idiopathic autism (90-95% of all cases) related to brain metabolism are AVPR1a, DISC1, DYX1C1, ITGB3, SLC6A4, RELN, RPL10 and SHANK3.
All these genes are responsible for symptoms that can explain the origin of this condition. Autism is a multifactorial disorder in which genetic and environmental factors interact, triggering its development.