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© 2017 Moattari M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

RESEARCH ARTICLE | OPEN ACCESSDOI: 10.23937/ijcb-2017/1710002

Smartphone Addiction, Sleep Quality and Mechanism

Mehrnaz Moattari1, Farahnaz Moattari2#*, Gholamreza Kaka3, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani1#*, Seyed Homayoon Sadraie3 and Majid Naghdi4

1Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Biological Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran

3Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4Fasa University of Medical Science, Fars, Iran

#Equally contributed in this work.


Addiction refers to "loss of control" and "despite adverse consequences". Substance-free addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Nowadays, much has been said about new Medias and technologies addiction that connect us and make us lonely at the same time, consequently, leads to adverse mental health disadvantageous. Smartphones are increased rapidly as an indispensable member of our everyday life for most people, especially students all over the world. Smartphones provide users with internet-based communication, business trading, education, entertainment media, and even clinical applications; thus, smartphone use must share many functional or psychological properties with internet use. Mobile technology addiction is driven by the human urge to connect with people, and the related necessity to be seen, heard, thought about, guided, and monitored by others, that reaches deep in our social brains and far in our evolutionary past. Internet-based technologies addiction can eventually lead to individual social and psychological damage, accompanied by somatic symptoms.

This study aimed to explain definition, classification of addiction emphasizing on substance-free type of addiction (here, smartphone technology) and the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this kind of addiction disorders. In sleep deprivation affects higher sympathetic activity. After those two important hormones, leptin (a hormone contributing to satiety perception) and ghrelin (a hormone contributing to energy expenditure) affect the homeostatic center in hypothalamus and reward centers and thus modulates orexinergic neurons which connect between sleep and food intake.