The burden of thyroid diseases in the general population and patients with Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is enormous. To estimate retrospectively the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with MetS in Saudi community based hospital.
We analyzed retrospectively 3632 participants whom are between the age 18 to 105 years. All patients were from the population of the Primary health centre at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All data were collected on the basis of a review of electronic medical data. Patients with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) above the normal range of TSH for our laboratory reference, history of hypothyroidism and taking thyroid replacement therapy were included. Metabolic risk factors were defined using the 2006 IDF criteria. The total number of cohort were separated on basis of age values into four groups: < 40 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years and μ 60 years.
3632 subjects were included. There were 830 (22.9%) male and 2802 (77.1%) were female with mean age 44.4 ± 15.6. Hypothyroidism was present in 684 (18.8%). The mean TSH and FT4 values were 3.3 ± 5.4 mIU/l and 15.0 ± 3.0 pmol/l respectively. There were 1556 (42.8%) cases with MetS where female was 1130 (72.6%) and male was 426 (27.4%) with male to female ratio of 1 to 2.6, p < 0.0001, Table 1. Cases with hypothyroidism were significantly more prevalent in patients with MetS, 21.8 vs. 16.6%, p < 0.0001. Regression analysis of odd ratio of risk factors for patients with MetS showed that age and presence of hypothyroidism were associated with higher likely hood of MetS, (OR = 1.095; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.088, 1.101), p < 0.0001) and (OR = 1.301; 95% CI = 1.064, 1.589), p = 0.01) respectively. Hypothyroidism was significantly more prevalent in all decades (p < 0.0001) and non-significantly higher across each age groups. Hypothyroidism was non-significantly more prevalent in females below the age 60 years.
The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high in the patients with MetS. The majority of our patients with primary hypothyroidism were old and predominantly females.