International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research is a global peer reviewed open access journal that emphasis on the different aspects of clinical diabetes. It highlights the investigative reports focusing on areas such as the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, normal and pathologic pancreatic islet function and intermediary metabolism, pharmacological mechanisms of drug and hormone action, and biochemical and molecular aspects of normal and abnormal biological processes.

Clinical Diabetes acts as platform for the diabetes health care practitioners and clinicians to represent their Original Work, Reviews, Commentaries, Shorts Communications, Letters, Oral Presentations and Case Studies. The classification terms include but not limited to Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Insulin Resistance, Insulinotherapy, Endocrinology, Gestational Diabetes, Prediabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetic Risk Factors, Blood Glucose Dynamics and Diabetes-Therapeutic approaches.

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research ensures the faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. Two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. IJDCR is a permanent archive of Diabetes information which under open access category provides its global readers with free access to its content, thus serving the scientific community.

 
Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634

Editor-in-chief: Masayoshi Yamaguchi

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Diabetes Clin Res

ISO abbreviation: Int J Diabetes Clin Res

Other titles: IJDCR

Category: Diabetes

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

DOI: 10.23937/2377-3634

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Contact email: contact@clinmedjournals.org

 
Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI

 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410092

The Ketogenic Diet and its Clinical Applications in Type I and II Diabetes

Raffaele Pilla

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 06, 2018

It has been shown that metabolic-based therapies, such as nutritional ketosis, are effective to contrast seizure disorders and various acute and chronic neurological disorders. From a physiological perspective, glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for cells. However, many neurodegenerative disorders have been recently associated with impaired glucose transport and metabolism and with mitochondrial dysfunction causing energy deficits, such as in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, general ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410091

Histopathological Alteration in STZ-Nicotinamide Diabetic Rats, a Complication of Diabetes or a Toxicity of STZ?

Nahid MH Elamin, IMT Fadlalla, Shadia A Omer and Hala AM Ibrahim

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 06, 2018

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. The rapid increasing prevalence, high morbidity and mortality of the disease must be encountered by an increase in scientific research. Animal models are very important in the preclinical studies to validate the use of new drugs. Streptozotocin - nicotinamide (STZ-NA) is used to induce T2DM in animals....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410090

Insulin Regulates Circulating Omentin, Fatty Acid Binding Protein-4 and Chemerin, but not Irisin in Man

Nandita K Shankar, Clayton A Dehn, Robert V Considine and Helmut O Steinberg

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 23, 2018

Omentin, fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4), chemerin and irisin are chemokines whose circulating levels are altered in insulin resistant states. However, there is limited insight into function of these chemokines as well as the potential role of insulin in the modulation of these chemokines. We tested the hypothesis that insulin alters these chemokines by measuring changes in their circulating levels in response to elevated insulin in a group...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410089

The Protective Effect of Resveratrol on Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Tugba Karadeniz and Muammer Karadeniz

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 04, 2018

Based on the key role of hyperglycemia-caused oxidative stress in the formation of diabetic cardiomyopathy, increased antioxidant process would best restorative approach for control of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The increased nitrative stress and peroxynitrite, activation of iNOS and TGF-B1 play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Reduction of the expressions of the NOS-2 and TGF-B1 appears to be one of the important mech...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410088

Tropical Pyomyositis: Case Report

Sylvia Rannyelle Teixeira Lima, Joao Kennedy Teixeira Lima, Antonio Leonel de Lima Junior, Indira Ravena Pereira Alves Fernandes Macedo, Jaine Dantas Peixoto, Debora Laesia Sariava Ribeiro, Maria Mirelle Ferreira Leite Barbosa and Marcia Meyrilane de Alencar Aquino

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 19, 2018

The first case of pyomyositis was described by Scriba in the 19th century, being found endemically in tropical regions. Until recently, pyomyositis was considered uncommon in the temperate zone. Currently there is an increase in the number of cases of pyomyositis in temperate climates....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410087

The Impact of Individual Health Education on Health Literacy: Evaluation of the Translated Version (Sinhala) of Health Education Impact Questionnaire in Type 2 Diabetes

Bulathsinghalage Poornima Reshamie Cooray, Hana Morrissey, Eisha Indumani Waidyarathne, Patrick Anthony Ball and Manilka Sumanathilake

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 14, 2018

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications is increasingly prevalent in Sri Lanka. Patients with low health literacy worsen the glycaemic control and diabetes complications. However, lack of studies on the effect of health literacy that affects clinical health outcomes and the effect of health education on it....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410086

Cardiovascular Complications and Composition of the Intestinal Microbiome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

EG Siegel, J Lorenzo Bermejo, I Flade and C Hasslacher

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 28, 2018

Cardiovascular complications (CVCs) are still the most frequent cause of morbidity and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. The current options for the treatment of the classic risk factors such as dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension, and diabetes have so far not been able to alter this situation to a fundamental extent, meaning that new therapeutic approaches must be identified....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410085

New Pharmacist Role in Diabetes Education in Sri Lanka: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Randomized Step-Up Study

Bulathsinghalage Poornima Reshamie Cooray, Hana Morrissey, Eisha Indumani Waidyarathne, Patrick Anthony Ball and Manilka Sumanathilake

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 23, 2018

Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease, affecting more than 180 million people worldwide. It is estimated to reach 592 million by 2035; of which the majority are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Sri Lanka is one of the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world. There were 1.16 million cases of all types of diabetes were recorded in Sri Lanka in 2016 as stated in an International Federation of Diabetes Atlas....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410084

Glucose Tolerance Test in Clinical Practice is Varied in Basic Research

Kai-Chun Cheng, Yingxiao Li and Juei-Tang Cheng

Article Type: Letter To Editor | First Published: March 16, 2018

Glucose Tolerance Test in Clinical Practice is Varied in Basic Research...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410083

Different Insulin Initiation Regimens in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - A Review Article

Mir Mudassir Ali , Khin Thida Aung, Meela Ali, VS Eligar, JS Davies and Madelein Young

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 24, 2018

The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study has shown that beta-cell function declines over time, and insulin will be needed to achieve good glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies show that initiating insulin early, especially when HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) is > 9% improves glycaemic control and patient outcome....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410082

Severe Kidney Damage in Diabetics on Alternative Medicine

Dalip Ragoobirsingh, Errol Morrison and Herbert Thompson

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 22, 2018

Thirteen diabetic patients who had a history of exposure to herbal treatment and/or food toxins were compared to 10 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients and 10 normal controls. Each group was matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and in the case of the diabetic controls duration of diabetes. Microalbumin, urinary amylase, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood pressure were measured using standard techniques....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410081

Age at the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Correlates with Phenotype of Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase

Gloria-Bottini F, Antonacci E, Neri A, Magrini A and Bottini E

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 15, 2018

Several lines of evidence suggests that cytosolic Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (cLMWPTP), encoded by ACP1 gene, could be a candidate gene for T2D. Previous studies, however, have not found a direct association between the enzyme phenotype and susceptibility to the disease but have only found associations with its clinical manifestations....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410080

Role of TXNIP Biology in Glucose Metabolism

Alec B Chaves, Jacob M Haus and Joseph A Houmard

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 08, 2018

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a major contributor to the natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A common underpinning that exists behind the mechanisms of insulin resistance is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which may be exacerbated by a protein target known as thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410079

Do Patients Value Nutritional Therapy? A Quantitative Study in Type-2 Diabetes Patients

Ezequiel Pinto, Nidia Braz, Tania Nascimento and Eurico Gomes

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 28, 2017

Type 2 diabetes patients' adherence to pharmacotherapy is higher than adherence to nutritional therapy or lifestyle change behaviours, and patients do not value nutritional therapy in the same level as they value other types of interventions....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410078

Multicentre Evaluation of Adherence to Extended-Release Metformin in Daily Practice in Russia

Hostalek U, Ametov A, Barykina I, Bondar I, Vaysberg A, Verbovaya N, Zhukova L, Zamyatina O, Kiseleva T, Morugova T, Shabalina E and Hildemann S

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 16, 2017

Major guidelines support the use of metformin the initiation of pharmacologic antihyperglycaemic therapy within the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is available as a standard, immediate-release formulation (usually taken two or three times daily) and also in Extended-Release (XR) formulations (designed to be taken once-daily)....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410077

Network Pharmacology and Traditional Chinese Medicine: Development of Anti-Diabetic Therapies

Zhongxia Lu, Wenjun Xu, Xi Chen, Changyu Li and Yitao Chen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 04, 2017

Partly due to the failure of single-target drugs, diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease with complex pathogenesis and long-term medication requirements, is increasing in prevalence worldwide and urgently needs multi-component and multi-target treatments....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410076

Biocompatible Scaffolds: An Effective Means for Improving Islet Cells Viability and Function

Reza B Jalili and Aziz Ghahary

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 17, 2017

Islets of Langerhans are endocrine units of the pancreas. Local microenvironment of islets includes their immediate extracellular matrix and other molecules that surround islets within the exocrine pancreas. Transplantation of pancreatic islets, which is a promising method for treatment of type 1 diabetes....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410075

Technology Driven Diabetes Management: Application of Cellular Transmission of Glucose Data

John P Bernot, Manali Patel, Holly Borders, Jade Hairston, Steven Davis and Julienne Kirk

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 16, 2017

A prospective study was performed in 10 patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Subjects received a wireless glucose monitor with the capability to transmit their glucose measurements to an external server via cellular service. The clinician analyzed these measurements, and communicated with the patient via the glucometer....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410074

Elevated Hemoglobin A1C is Significantly Associated with Decreased Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Hasan Hareem, Everman Sarah, Alawi A Al sheikh Ali, Farooqi Hamed, Blanchon Bruno and Hassoun Ahmed

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 11, 2017

Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) has been associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in both healthy individuals and those with diabetes. We examined the association between Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and post-exercise HRR in patients with diabetes. Participants who were free from known cardiac disease or severe orthopedic problems referred to an exercise specialist for a fitness assessment....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410073

New Development of Hypoglycemia in a Previously Poorly-Controlled Type 2 Diabetic: Ackee Fruit-Induced Hypoglycemia

Summaya Abdul Latif and and Pooja Luthra

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 26, 2017

We report a patient with new onset hypoglycemia due to the consumption of the Ackee fruit. Patient is a 95-year-old Jamaican male with history of uncontrolled, insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes mellitus. He presented with new onset of hypoglycemia and improvement in hemoglobin A1C without any changes in diabetes regimen....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410072

Seniors and Diabetes Education on Social Media

Edson da Silva, Marileila Marques Toledo and Luciana de Freitas Campos

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: September 28, 2017

The growing life expectancy of the population has shown significant increase in the number of elderly and seniors have more diabetes than any other age-group. Worldwide, the number of people aged 60 or older is growing faster than all younger age groups, with most of the increase in developing countries....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410071

Indices for Assessment of the Quality of Glycemic Control and Glucose Dynamics from Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Klaus-Dieter Kohnert, Peter Heinke, Lutz Vogt, Petra Augstein, Andreas Thomas and Eckhard Salzsieder

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 26, 2017

Continuous glucose monitoring data obtained during an observational study involved 256 subjects with type 1 (n = 22), type 2 diabetes (n = 222), and 12 non-diabetic control subjects. We compared the indices for the quality of glycemic control and determined their relationship with glucose profile complexity....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410070

Could We Really Use Aloe Vera Food Supplements to Treat Diabetes?

Solomon Habtemariam

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: May 20, 2017

For thousands of years, mankind has used plants as a source of medicine either in their crude mixture forms or purified single chemical entities. While the use of crude plant extracts in prescription drugs today is extremely rare, we still have a significant number of our drug therapies tracing their origin back to natural products. In principle, drug therapeutic approach for complex metabolic disorders like diabetes and associated diseases, wher...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410069

Influence of Obesity in Mortality in Hospitalized Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

R Barba, R Gomez Huelgas, J Marco, J Ena, M Romero, J Ruiz, J Marrero, J Canora and A Zapatero

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 27, 2017

Overweight and obesity increase overall mortality and predict premature death (7-10). Furthermore, obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors like increased insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidemia....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410068

Conventional Versus Intensive Insulin Therapy in Young Children with Diabetes: Impact of a Long Term Targeted Multidisciplinary Education Program

Piero Balice, Gerald Theintz and Mario G Bianchetti

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 09, 2017

Intensive insulin therapy is progressively replacing conventional therapy in young children to improve diabetes control. However, the specific skills required to manage insulin pumps may hamper social integration as much as the fear of severe hypoglycemia using conventional therapy....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410067

DKA in an Adolescent with Established Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes

Yael Levy Shraga, Uri Hamiel and Orit Pinhas Hamiel

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 08, 2017

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and its complications are the most common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents with established diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The overall incidence of recurrent DKA episodes is estimated as 8 per 100 patient years. Interestingly, almost 60% of recurrent DKA episodes occur in 5% of patients....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410066

Activity-Induced Deamidation of Triose-Phosphate Isomerase May Explain the Deleterious Effects of Excessive Glucose Consumption

Alan R Hipkiss

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 25, 2016

It is suggested that the glycolytic enzyme triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) is the "Achilles' heel" in carbohydrate metabolism under conditions of excessive glycolysis. The catalytic activity of TPI can induce permanent changes in its structure and a decline in activity. Under conditions of high glycolytic flux, insufficient TPI activity may eventually cause the accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (TPI substrate) which spontaneously decomp...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410065

The Combination of Canagliflozin with a Half-Dose of Glimepiride Improves Glycemic Control and Blood Glucose Perturbation without Increasing the Risk of Hypoglycemia and Ketosis

Mayuko Harada, Yasuhisa Abe, Yuki Maeda, Michiko Kajikawa and Mitsuru Hashiramoto

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 04, 2016

The application of sulfonylurea (SU) remains one of the most popular approaches in pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients because SU exerts potent stimulatory effects on insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells and is relatively inexpensive and well tolerated. Hypoglycemia, however, is a major safety concern that is associated with the use of SUs, because it impairs a patient's quality of life and can become li...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410064

Secondary Failure of Oral Hypoglycaemic Agents among Type Two Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Northern Nigeria

Muazu Salisu Babura, Okpe Innocent Onoja, Anumah Felicia and Bakari Adamu Girei

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 28, 2016

Background: Secondary oral hypoglycaemic agent (OHA) failure is one of the many challenges of diabetes management, the consequence of which is poor diabetes control and early development of chronic complications. Prospective studies on secondary OHA failure have not been done in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with development of secondary failure of OHA among T2DM subjects....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410063

Hba1c Variability, Absolute Changes in Hba1c, and the Risk of Poor Glycemic Control among Older Adults with Diabetes Enrolled in Medicare Advantage Plans

Dingwei Dai, Susannah Higgins and Natan Szapiro

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2016

Healthcare claims data for all diabetes patients aged 65 years or older and continuously enrolled in Medicare Advantage plans in Independence Blue Cross from 2013 to 2014 and had ≥ 3 HbA1c measurements in the 2013 measurement year (MY). We used patients' zip codes to link to US census data to get socioeconomic status information. Poor glycemic control was identified as the most recent HbA1c level > 9.0% during the MY. HbA1c variability was ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410062

The Impact of Energy Drink Consumption on Vascular Endothelial Function

R Matthew Brothers

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2016

Vascular endothelial dysfunction contributes to a variety of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Despite anecdotal reports of adverse cardiovascular and hemodynamic effects of energy drink consumption there has been very little scientific research conducted on this important topic. Furthermore, the limited research available has not yielded consistent results. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of a commercially available energy...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410061

Ethanolic Extract of Bauhinia forficata: Metabolic Effects in Diabetic and Normoglycemic Rats

Liana de Oliveira Gomes, Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis Livero, Aline Maria Stolf, Carlos Eduardo Alves de Souza, Michele Pontes Werneck, Cristiane Vizioli de Castro Ghizoni, Maria Helena Verdan, Jose Ederaldo Queiroz Telles, Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich, Maria Elida Alves Stefanello, Jurandir Fernando Comar and Alexandra Acco

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 06, 2016

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia and associated complications, such as dysfunction and failure of the eyes, kidneys, nerves, brain, heart, and blood vessels. Diabetes may result from defects in secretion and/or insulin action involving specific pathogenic processes, including destruction of pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion disorders. The estimated prevalence of diabetes nowad...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410060

Evaluation of a Standardized Inpatient Insulin Therapy Based on Electronic Insulin Dose Calculation - A before after Cohort Proof of Concept Study

Rahel Nussbaumer, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Robert Thomann and Anne Katrin Borm

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: May 31, 2016

Background: Diabetes is a common comorbidity in hospitalized patients. The necessity of blood glucose control in those patients with low variability and avoidance of hypoglycemic episodes is well-known. Yet, there is still only marginal literature about the optimal therapy of hyperglycemia in non critically ill hospitalized patients using tools of modern electronic patients charts. Objectives:The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410059

Exogenous Phosphatidyl-Serine and -Ethanolamine Supports Anti-Proliferative and Chemoresistance Properties of ATAD3B and Induces S100B Recruitment at Mitochondria

Denis Rousseau

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 27, 2016

ATAD3 protein is a S100B- and PKC-regulated mitochondrial ATPase which is vital for mitochondrial biogenesis and early development. Even if suspected today to contribute in a lipid rafts transfer system, from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria, the precise function of ATAD3 is still unknown. However, ATAD3 has been previously shown to exhibits in vitro anti-proliferative and chemo resistant properties and to be a positive marker of different t...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410058

Diabetes in Rural Rwanda: High Retention and Positive Outcomes after 24 Months of Follow-up in the Setting of Chronic Care Integration

Neo Tapela, Hamissy Habineza, Sarah Anoke, Emmanuel Harerimana, Francis Mutabazi, Bethany L. Hedt-Gauthier, Symaque Dusabeyezu, Pie X F. Uwiragiye, Cadet Mutumbira, Gedeon Ngoga, Deogratias Ndagijimana, Emmanuel Rusingiza, Gene Bukhman and Charlotte Bavuma

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 20, 2016

Aims:This study describes the baseline characteristics and 24 month outcomes of diabetic patients managed in an integrated chronic care program at public facilities in rural Rwanda. Methods:Retrospective review of routine electronic medical records of patients treated for diabetes between October 1, 2006 and September 30, 2014 was conducted. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics are described. Outcomes of HbA1c values, loss to follow-...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410057

Continuous Insulin Releasing and Blood Sugar Monitoring via Dental Implant Supported Semi-Implanted Device

Yu-Jung Li

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 17, 2016

As life expectancy prolonged currently, geriatrics become important and therefore it is urgent to improve the life quality throughout the chronic and critical diseases among the elderly above sixty-fifth years old. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most famous chronic and metabolic disease which may lead to many cardiac, renal and infectious complications. Therefore regular blood sugar control is extremely important in diabetic man...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410056

The Effects of a One-week Short Intensive Insulin Intervention on Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

Jean-Claude Katte, Eugene Sobngwi, Vicky Kamwa, Mesmin Y Dehayem, Jean-Louis Nguewa, Andre-Pascal Kengne and Jean Claude Mbanya

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 12, 2016

A 3-4 week of intensive insulin intervention corrects hyperglycemia, improves insulin secretion, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the effect of a shorter course of intensive insulin therapy on insulin sensitivity in people with T2DM. Fifteen poorly controlled subjects with severe hyperglycemia were hospitalized and treated with intensive insulin therapy for 7 days. The short insulin to...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410055

The Burden of Co-morbid Depression in Ambulatory Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Kanu Joseph E, Otieno CF Frederick, Karari Emma M, Okech-Helu Violet and Mutai Kenn

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 26, 2016

This was a cross-sectional study done on patients living with type-2 diabetes on follow-up at the diabetes out-patient clinic (DOPC) at the KNH. Systematic sampling method was used to recruit 220 study subjects. The PHQ-9 questionnaire was used to assess for co-morbid depression. Socio-demographic and clinical details were obtained both from the subjects and their medical records. Physical examination was done, including blood pressure and BMI de...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410054

High Glycaemic Variability is Associated with Worse Diabetes-related Well-being in Type 2 Diabetes Patients on Insulin Therapy, an Observational Study

W L de Ranitz-Greven, D H Biesma, B Silvius, M Bons, H W de Valk and J W J Beulens

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 01, 2016

This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU), the Netherlands (February 2010-July 2013). Type 2 diabetes patients attending the (outpatient) clinic of the UMCU were approached to participate in a nationwide biobank study. In the UMCU, patients were also approached to participate in a local add-on study (this study), which required separate consent....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410053

African-origin Mitochondrial DNA Variants as a Contributing Factor to Susceptibilities for Diabetes and Age-related Diseases

Kenney MC, Falatoonzadeh P, Atilano SR, Chwa M, Caceres-del-Carpio J, Malik D, Boyer DS, Nesburn AB and Kuppermann BD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 13, 2016

African-origin populations are more susceptible to diabetes and other age-related diseases compared to European-origin populations, but mechanisms for the differential susceptibility remain unknown. Human mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups are maternally inherited ancient polymorphisms representing different geographic origins of populations. Haplogroups are defined by accumulations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which cause c...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410052

Association of Uncontrolled Glycemia with Periodontal, Urinary Tract and Cervical Vaginal Infections in a Group of Type 2 Diabetic Women during Pregnancy and during the Postnatal Period

Rosa Maria Diaz-Romero, Gerardo Casanova-Roman, and Manuel Salvador Robles-Andrade

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 13, 2016

To determine whether periodontal infections (PI), urinary tract infections (UTI) and cervical vaginal infections (CVI) are associated with the incidence of uncontrolled glycemia (UCG) in type 2 diabetics in the third trimester of their pregnancy and during the postnatal period. An observational, prospective, longitudinal, comparative study was carried out. Patient selection was carried out through consecutive non-probability sampling....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410051

Quantitative Models for Evaluating the Correlation between Baseline Hba1c Levels and Sitagliptin as Monotherapy or Dual Therapy Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Regression Analysis

Jiajing Yin, Yi Lin, Mingyu Gu and Yongde Peng

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 04, 2016

Baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is critical in assessing anti-diabetic agent efficacy due to its ability to alter the response of HbA1c reduction to dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors. With meta-regression, we aim to investigate the quantitative relationship between baseline HbA1c levels and HbA1c reduction in response to sitagliptin as a monotherapy or metformin + sitagliptin as dual therapy. Additionally, we intend to study the sl...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410050

A Comprehensive Analysis of the Financial Burden of Diabetes Mellitus at Rafik Hariri University Hospital: The Economic Implications from the Public Sector Perspective in Lebanon

Akram Echtay, Rita Nemr, Maya Chehabeddine, Ramona Abi Gerges, Wadih Baajour, Nader Kakoun, Marwan Charif and Selim Jambart

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 18, 2015

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a pandemic health problem with an unprecedented number of patients reaching hundreds of millions, and characterized by the vascular complications and premature mortality incurring a high cost of management. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of DM management and its complications in Beirut through comparing the hospitalization cost for patients with DM to that of patients not suffering from DM....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410049

Evidence Based Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Role of Lifestyle Intervention as Compared to Pharmacological Agents

V. Naik, R. Dave, J. W. Stephens and J.S. Davies

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 08, 2015

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most costly and burdensome of chronic diseases and is a global epidemic. Estimates by the International Diabetes Federation indicate that 387 million people have diabetes, and that this figure is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 with an additional 175 million cases currently undiagnosed. Individuals with T2DM are at a significantly higher risk of co-morbidities particularly cardiovascular disea...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410048

Why, When and How We Propose Withdrawal Insulin Treatment in Type 2 Insulin Resistant Diabetes

Andreu Nubiola, Imma Remolins and Miquel Nubiola

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 17, 2015

Insulin treatment is the choice in insulinopenic diabetic patients, in order to prevent or delay microvascular lesions, related to hyperglycaemia. However in insulin resistant type 2 diabetes, the improvement in glycaemic control with insulin, is not without side effects, especially weight gain and hypoglycaemia. Many retrospective or case-control studies of insulin treatment have reported a higher prevalence of CVD in insulin-treated patients. H...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410047

Glucose Tolerance is Improved Following Surgery for Silent Somatotroph Adenoma

Aika Miya, Akinobu Nakamura, Hideaki Miyoshi, Hiraku Kameda, Hiroshi Nomoto, So Nagai, Yuko Omori, Kanako C. Hatanaka, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Chikara Shimizu, and Tatsuya Atsumi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 05, 2015

Although the excessive secretion of GH leads to insulin resistance enhancement, the involvement of a silent somatotroph adenoma in abnormal glucose tolerance has not been elucidated. A 50 - year-old man was admitted with a headache and bitemporal hemianopia caused by a pituitary macroadenoma. He had no physical signs and symptoms of acromegaly nor hypopituitarism, and his base-line serum levels of GH and insulin - like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) wer...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410046

Why so Fat ?

Franco Contaldo, Maurizio Marra, Lidia Santarpia and Fabrizio Pasanisi

Article Type: Hypothesis | First Published: October 28, 2015

We selected, from our database of obese outpatients, 90 young severely obese subjects (60 females, 30 males) in a stable body weight since at least 6 months, age range 20 - 30 years, who underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry (VMax Sensor Medics) and body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Bio impedance analysis (BIA) was performed at 50 kHz (Human Im plus II, DS Medica) in stan...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410045

Perceptions of a Culturally Tailored Adapted Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

Angela Cooper Brathwaite and Manon Lemonde

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 19, 2015

Objective: To explore African and Caribbean immigrants' perceptions of a culturally tailored intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a purposive sampling scheme, 29 participants (26 women and 3 men, mean age 48 years and average length of residency of 22 years in Canada) participated in this study. The researchers used in-depth focus groups and individual surveys to collect qualitative data from participants. Following these inter...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410044

The Safety, Efficacy and Treatment Satisfaction Comparison of Unchanged Premixed Insulin Regimen Plus Sitagliptin with Switch from the Premixed Insulin to Once-Daily Basal Insulin Plus Sitagliptin in Patients with Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes with Twice-Daily Premixed Insulin

Kanako Ono, Akinobu Nakamura, Junko Kawaguchi, Masahiro Takihata, Yuichiro Inoue, Jun Shirakawa, Akiko Kameda, Yu Togashi, Tsutomu Hayashi, Takayuki Furuki, Shun Ito, Tatsuro Takano, Satsuki Kawasaki, Hiroshi Takeda, Tetsuji Kaneko, Mari Kimura, Shunsaku Mizushima and Yasuo Terauchi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 30, 2015

Background: While adding sitagliptin to insulin therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) showing poor response to therapy with premixed insulin alone, we compared the efficacy and safety and satisfaction from continuing treatment with the premixed insulin versus switching of the premixed insulin to basal insulin therapy. Methods: The study was an open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted at 7 institutions in Japan. The study participan...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410043

Vitamin B12 Levels in Rat Organs - No Change Following Prolonged Treatment with Metformin

Thagaard MS, Nexo E and Greibe E

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2015

Few studies have explored vitamin B12 (B12) distribution in control rats and in rats treated with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug known to decrease the plasma level of B12 in humans. Here we report B12 levels in both control rats and in rats treated by two different methods of delivering metformin....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410042

Renal Denervation, Blood Pressure and Metabolic Disease: Not a Simple Solution

Cathryn M. Kolka

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 01, 2015

Diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are frequently grouped together as the 'metabolic syndrome'. The prevalence of these diseases is increasing in the United States and worldwide. In recent years, overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system has been linked to obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Promising initial research investigated the role of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension: renal denerva...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410041

Serum Endothelin-1 Elevation in Diabetes. A Reflection of Pathophysiological Process or a Biomarker beyond Expectation?

Behrouz Salehian

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 21, 2015

Endothelin or endothelium-derived constricting factor was first discovered by O'Brien et al. in 1987 as a potent vasoconstrictor protein from culture medium of bovine aortic and pulmonary endothelium. The culture medium was shown to cause aortic ring constriction in vitro and vasoconstriction when perfused into rabbit coronary arteries. Concomitantly, Yanagisawa et al. isolated and sequenced the 21 amino acid endothelin, which modulates voltage d...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410040

Risk of Falls in People with Diabetes Mellitus

Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Mariana de Carvalho Pinto, Roselene Mondolo Regueiro Lorenconi, Mariana Romanholi Palma, Fernanda Elisa Ribeiro and Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 15, 2015

Aim: To identify the risk of falling through a functional mobility test in non-diabetics, individuals with diabetic neuropathy and individuals with diabetic neuropathy and vasculopathy. Methodology: The study was composed of 61 subjects of both genders divided into the control group CG (n=32), diabetic neuropathy group DNG (n=18) and diabetic neuropathy-vasculopathy group (DNVG) (12). The participants underwent initial an evaluation through somat...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410039

Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes - Time to Realign Clinical Priorities

Soon H Song

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 05, 2015

Traditionally considered as a disease of the middle-aged, type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become increasingly more prevalent in children, adolescence and young adults below the age of 40. Of concern, this evolution of young-onset T2D is a global phenomenon. Obesity is a major predisposing factor as the age of onset is inversely associated with body mass index, reflecting the consequences of sedentary lifestyle afflicting different nations and cultural ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410038

Diabetes and Dementia

Mario Barbagallo and Ligia J. Dominguez

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 03, 2015

Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have an increased incidence of cognitive decline and dementia. An increased cortical and subcortical atrophy has been found after controlling for vascular disease and inadequate cerebral circulation. A possible role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia has been suggested to mediate the link between DM2 and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Altered insulin signaling may contribute to AD biochemical and his...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410037

Follow the Yellow Brick Road: The Pathway for NAFLD and NASH Drug Development in Early Phase Clinical Trials

Sabina Paglialunga and Clayton A. Dehn

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 31, 2015

The current market for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medications is saturated with a plethora of choices of therapeutic agents, many of which have very favorable safety profiles. It has been proposed that the combination of this crowded and competitive landscape along with the increased burden of thorough cardiovascular risk assessment required since 2008, have stifled innovation in the development of new anti-diabetic medications....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410036

Toxic AGEs (TAGE) Theory in the Pathogenesis of NAFLD and ALD

Masayoshi Takeuchi, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Jun-ichi Takino, Takanobu Takata, Tadashi Ueda and Mikihiro Tsutsumi

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 31, 2015

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have become serious health problems worldwide. These two diseases have similar pathological spectra, ranging from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including cardiovascular disease and malignancy, which influence patient survival. The chronic in...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410035

The Relationship between Diabetes and Retirement from Work: A Ten Year Follow-Up in National Registers

Bryan Cleal and Kjeld Poulsen

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 22, 2015

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between diabetes, mortality and exit from work using various Danish Pension schemes. Methods: We linked the Danish National Diabetes register with socioeconomic and population-based registers and followed prevalent and incident cases of diabetes for ten years, adjusting for gender, age and socio-occupational group. We analysed the proportion of individuals with diagnosed diabetes before and after enteri...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410034

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poorly Controlled Diabetes Mellitus in a Clinical Setting in Guayaquil, Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Study

Arosemena Coronel M, Sanchez Armijos J, Tettamanti Miranda D, Vasquez Cedeno D, Chang A and Navarro Chavez M

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 16, 2015

Objective: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (PCDM) in a clinic setting in Ecuador. Methods: A single-center, cross-sectional study conducted in the outpatient endocrinology clinic in Guayaquil, Ecuador registered 209 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, tested for glycosylated hemoglobin and interviewed face-to-face using questions from the Instrument to Measure L...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410033

The Relation between Overweight, Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Saudi Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Khalid S. Aljabri, Samia A. Bokhari and Ahmad Akl

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2015

Diabetes mellitus is the third greatest cause of death all over the world and is responsible for many complications affecting various organs in the body. Th prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. Th prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults in Saudi Arabia is 30%. Worldwide and nationally epidemic exists with respect to diabetes mellitus, primarily because of increased rates of ob...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410032

The Crossroad of Inflammation and Diabetes: Role of Toll-Like Receptor

Behrouz Salehian and Vahid Mahabadi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2015

A different facet of type 2 diabetes was recognized in the early 80s with the demonstration of the 'state of coagulation activation' and 'endothelial dysfunction / activation' in not only type 2 diabetes but also in obesity. The discovery of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and its physiological role including many aspects of coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction was later found to have a correlation with adiposity and type 2 diabet...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410031

The Hypoglucemic Effect of the Antioxidant Drug

C. Τsompos, C. Panoulis, K Τοutouzas, G. Ζografos and A. Papalois

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 04, 2015

The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of the antioxidant drug 'U-74389G', on rat model and particularly in an ischemia - reperfusion protocol. The beneficial effects or noneffectiveness of that molecule were studied biochemically using blood mean glucose levels. Materials and methods: 40 rats of mean weight 231.875gr were used in the study. Glucose levels were measured at 60 min of reperfusion (groups A and C) and 120 min o...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410030

Diabetes - A Systemic Risk Factor for the Development of Chronic Periodontitis in Bulgarian Patients

Nina M. Musurlieva and Mariya S. Bratoycheva

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 02, 2015

Aim: Diabetes is an important systemic factor for the development of periodontitis. This study examines the association between the diabetes type 2 and development of chronic periodontitis in the sample of Bulgarian patients. Material: 228 patients with chronic periodontitis were surveyed using a questionnaire specially designed for the study, and a casecontrol study was carried out....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410029

Alpha- and Beta-Cell Proliferation and Extracellular Signaling - A Hypothesis

Cyril J Craven

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 01, 2015

A model is offered towards an understanding of the cellular communications of two major cell types of the pancreas. The beta and alpha cells of the pancreas are considered to be coupled by the insulin and glucagon hormones that they produce, respectively. In this model, insulin stimulates the alpha cells to release glucagon and grow, especially by cell division, while glucagon similarly stimulates the beta cells to release insulin and grow....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410028

Prevalence of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Type II Diabetes in Females within the Slum Nuevo Jerusalen, Peru

Sudesh S. Raju and Vinayak Kumar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2015

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type II diabetes (T2D) are the leading causes of death worldwide, including those within developing countries. Few studies have measured the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and T2D within Latin America and even fewer have focused on socioeconomically depressed populations within Peru....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410027

Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Metabolic Biomarker Levels in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease or Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

J. Saluk, Bansal V, Banos A, Hopkinson W, Rees H, Syed D, Hoppensteadt D, Abro S and Iqbal O and Fareed J

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28, 2015

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a proven risk factor for diseases such as end stage renal disease (ESRD) and osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, it is not unreasonable to assume that some of the ESRD/ OA pathogenesis, namely inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, could be attributed to DM as a comorbitity. This study aims to investigate DM's effect on metabolic biomarker levels in patients with ESRD or undergoing total joint arthroplasty....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410026

Trends in the Occurrence of Type 2 Diabetes in Community-Dwelling Trinidadian Subjects, 1993-2014

Koreen Peter, Lilly Paul, Renee Richardson, Brandon Ramdass, Aisha Ali and Kameel Mungrue

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 24, 2015

301 participants were entered into the study. There was ethnic disparity but a reversal from South East to Africans. A strong inverse linear relationship (Pearson's coefficient r=-0.82, p ≤ 0.05) was found between BMI and age at diabetes onset. Between the 1990's and 2004-2014 in two regions of Trinidad the number of patients with T2DM doubled, occurring more commonly among females, the obese and overweight, a tendency towards younger age g...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410024

Assessment of Circulatory Levels of Endothelin-1 in Diabetic Subjects Screened Through a Cross Sectional Study from Rural Women in Bangladesh

Md. Arifur Rahman, Subrina Jesmin, Chishimba Nathan Mowa, Farzana Sohae, Junko Kamiyama, AKM Ahsan Habib, Nobutake Shimojo, Md. Majedul Islam, Masao Moroi, Osamu Okazaki, Naoto Yamaguchi, Satoru Kawano, Taro Mizutani and Yoshio Iwashima

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 26, 2015

Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potential marker of endothelial dysfunction, has been shown to be elevated in diabetic mellitus (DM) subjects. However, to date, the circulatory profile of ET-1 and its association with DM have not been investigated in any South Asian country, including Bangladesh. The present study assessed circulating levels of ET-1 in subjects with or without DM and further examined the association of ET-1 with clinical and metabolic par...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410023

An Oral Antioxidant Formulation Delaying and Potentially Reversing Canine Diabetic Cataract: A Placebo Controlled Masked Pilot Study

David Williams, Angus Fitchie and Carmen Colitz

Article Type: Clinical Trial | First Published: February 24, 2015

The majority of dogs with diabetes mellitus develop blinding mature cataracts through the action of the enzyme aldose reductase producing sorbitol with osmotic action drawing water into the lens thus causing opacification. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410022

Self-Care among Diabetic Amputee

David Berbrayer

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 23, 2015

Background: Diabetic amputees are at increased risk for receiving a second amputation, which may be prevented by proper selfcare. Although existing literature suggests self-care is inadequate among diabetic patients, self-care behaviour after an amputation is unknown. This study aims to identify strategies used by diabetic patients who received a lower-extremity amputation to prevent further amputation. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conduc...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410021

Early Release of HMGB1 may Aggravate Neuronal Damage after Transient Focal Ischemia in Diabetic Rat Brain

Naohiro Iwata, Mari Okazaki, Shinya Kamiuchi, Meiyan Xuan, Hirokazu Matsuzaki, Takeshi Sakamoto and Yasuhide Hibino

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 22, 2015

Objective: High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) released extracellularly from necrotic cells evokes delayed inflammatory processes via interaction with the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) or Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in postischemic brain. The diabetic state (DM) aggravated cerebral ischemic injury following the stroke in rats. Therefore, we examined the behavior of HMGB1 and the expression of RAGE in non-DM and DM rat brain afte...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410020

Torpid Diabetic Wound Healing: Evidence on the Role of Epigenetic Forces

Jorge Berlanga-Acosta, Yssel Mendoza-Mari, Maday Fernandez-Mayola, Ariana GarciaOjalvo, Calixto Valdes-Perez, William Savigne-Gutierrez, Daniel Reynaldo-Concepcion, Ileydis Iglesias-Marichal, Angel Abreu-Cruz, Celso Suarez-Lescay, Ana Mir-Benitez, Natacha Sancho-Soutelo and Luis Herrera-Martinez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2015

The increasing number of diabetes patients represents a health challenge due to disease-related, end-organs complications. Hyperglycemia is considered the proximal trigger of an intricate cascade of molecular processes that progressively deteriorate tissues and organs, leading to the onset of clinical complications. Lower extremity ulcerations and their ensued refractoriness to heal can potentially result in amputation and disability and remain t...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410019

Magnesium and Type 2 Diabetes: An Update

Mario Barbagallo and Ligia J. Dominguez

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 26, 2015

The link between magnesium (Mg) deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus is well known. Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular Mg deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesaemia is common in subjects with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulin and glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410018

Relationship between Type of Family and its Relationship to Metabolic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ixba-Villegas Mario Alberto, Marquez-Gonzalez Horacio, Jimenez-Baez Maria Valeria and Cantellano-Garcia Diana Michelle

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2015

Objective: To estimate the association between familiar function and metabolic control in patients with T2DM treated in a DiabetIMSS module in a first-level medical unit in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective and analytical study was conducted. In patients with T2DM and the target population included patients with T2DM who attended the module DiabetIMSS in Cancun, Quintana Roo. Included patients with T2DM between...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410017

Effect of Alogliptin, a DPP-4 Inhibitor, on Markers of Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Yuzuru Kishitani, Hideyuki Okuda, Daisuke Kinoshita, Kanyun Hata and Toshihiko Kawasaki

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2014

Background: DPP-4 inhibitor has been shown to improve not only blood glucose levels but also dyslipidemia, but the effect remains controversial. Further, there are few reports regarding the influence on Apo B, Apo A-1 and Apo B/Apo A-1 in alogliptin. Objective: Using the alogliptin, we focused on Apo B and Apo A-1, in addition to LDL-C, HDL-C and TG, and investigated the effect of alogliptin on markers predicting cardiovascular events, such as Ap...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410016

Correlations of OSA Severity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Jiang Xiao-zhen, Xi Feng, Chen Rui-Hua, Jiang Quan and Zou Yu-Feng

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 29, 2014

Aim: To determine whether carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) was elevated in diabetic patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), and correlations of OSA severity with IMT and other clinical characteristics. Materials and methods: The study subjects were composed of 36 diabetic patients with OSA (group A), and 34 patients without OSA (group B). In both groups, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, Epworth Sleepiness Scale...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410015

Involvement of Telmisartan on the Protective Effects Mediated by the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Pathway in Mice

Chenghu Huang, Li Yuan and Shuyi Cao

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 08, 2014

Aims: The aim of this study is to further elaborate the improving effects of telmisartan on insulin resistance, beta-cell dysfunction and islet inflammation in a PPAR-γ signaling-dependent manner. Methods: The mRNA levels of renin-angiotensin system components were detected. We compared the effects of telmisartan and telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR-γ antagonist) in mice fed a high-fat diet or isolated non-diabetic mouse islets....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410014

Ethnicity and Type 2 Diabetes in Pacific Island Adults in New Zealand

Ljiljana M Jowitt

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 02, 2014

The aim of this review was to present ethnic characteristics of type 2 diabetes in Pacific Island adults in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted in a search using the terms 'Pacific Island populations', 'New Zealand', 'ethnicity', 'obesity', 'metabolic syndrome', 'type 2diabetes', 'food security, and their combinations, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization, International Diabe...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410013

The Relative Contribution of Ethnicity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Severity to Postpartum Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

Beatriz Barquiel, Lucrecia Herranz, Javier Riveiro, Natalia Hillman, Noemi Gonzalez, Ma Angeles Burgos and Luis F Pallardo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2014

Aim: To analyze the influence of ethnicity, Body Mass Index (BMI) and gestational diabetes (GDM) severity on abnormal glucose metabolism at the early postpartum. Methods: Glucose tolerance (WHO criteria) was evaluated at 3-9 months after delivery in a group of 71 GDM women (NDDG criteria) coming from Latin America, 43 from Africa and 14 from Asia or Pacific Islands. Their glucose tolerance was compared to 1,948 European control women by prepregna...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410012

Qualitative Research: A pathway to Gain an Understanding of UAE Mothers' experiences and Perceptions of Managing a Child Newly Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes

Jennifer Louise Cooper, Suhad Marjei, Rachel Rossiter and Sharon Brownie

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 25, 2014

A childhood diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes is a life changing event for both the child and his/her family. The impact is experienced strongly by mothers who most frequently fulfil the primary caregiver role for children12 yrs old and younger. Studies which have sought to understand mothers' experiences and perceptions of managing a child newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes are mostly questionnaire-based and few, if any, explore the issues within t...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410011

Assessment of Learning Guides Improvement in Diabetes Education Program: A QI Initiative for Type I Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents

Manmohan K. Kamboj, Kathryn J. Stephens, Richard J. Brilli, Heather L. Yardley, Jeff Lewis, Richard E. McClead, Jr. and David R. Repaske

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 17, 2014

Aims: To develop objective assessment tools to evaluate proficiency of well-day (WD) and sick-day (SD) diabetes knowledge and management skills in families of pediatric type 1 diabetes patients and to utilize this information to modify our diabetes education (DE) program to improve learning of the desired knowledge and skills. Methods: Vignette-based assessment quizzes were developed to evaluate WD and SD diabetes knowledge and management skill...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410010

Type 2 Diabetes and Lifestyle- A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study among Rural Men

Anders Thelin and Sara Holmberg

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2014

The risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is related to lifestyle but less is known about how lifestyle factors interact and how they impact the risk when combined. This study was performed to analyze how lifestyle factors relate to the cumulative incidence of T2D in a Swedish rural population. Outcomes were generated from national registers and from two surveys. Two hundred sixty men (11%) with diabetes were found in the registers, and 193 men with T2D ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410009

Role of Infections in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis- A Study from South India

Poovazhagi Varadarajan and Saradha suresh

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 06, 2014

Cerebral edema is the commonest cause of mortality in DKA worldwide. Infections are known to precipitate new onset DKA, they also adversely affect the outcome of DKA in children from developing countries. Infections are major contributory factors for DKA in children with established diabetes mellitus (DM) along with poor compliance to therapy. This study among 118 episodes of DKA from a pediatric tertiary care Institute has identifid infections a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410008

The Role of Netrin-1 in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy

Wenyi Wu and Luosheng Tang

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 06, 2014

Netrin-1 which belongs to axon guidance cue is necessary for neural and vascular development. It involves in regulating axon guidance for attraction or repulsion and it has a dual function in endothelial tip cell migration during angiogenesis. Many evidences have proved that netrin-1 plays an important role in angiogenesis, cancer progression and inflmmation disease. Here we provide a comprehensive review on the role of netrin-1 in retinal and an...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410007

Does GABA Metabolism Play any Specific Role in the Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in Β-Cells?

J. Pizarro-Delgado and J. Tamarit-Rodriguez

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 05, 2014

It was recognized quite a few years ago that islet GABA metabolism might be implicated in the stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose. Since then, some studies have been addressed to investigate how GABA release by β-cells might exert a negative autocrine control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and a parallel paracrine inhibition of glucagon release trough the activation of GABAB and GABA A receptors, respectively. More recently,...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410006

Recent Advances in Insulin Therapy for Diabetes

Aiman Ahmad, Iekhsan Othman, Anuar Zaini Md Zain and Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 27, 2014

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting a great number of the world's population. Insulin therapy for diabetes is most commonly delivered via subcutaneous injections, up to four times a day. Long-term insulin therapy, compounded by the invasive nature of its administration, has caused problems with patient compliance, ultimately inflencing patient outcomes. Extensive research has been carried out to date, to explore possible improvements...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410005

Novel Insulin Receptor-Signaling Platform

Fiona Haxho, Farah Alghamdi, Ronald J Neufeld and Myron R Szewczuk

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 30, 2014

Insulin receptor (IR) signaling plays a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. A dysfunctional and/or unregulated IR activation has been shown to cause a range of clinical manifestations including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, hypertension, and cardiovascular disorders. The molecular mechanisms mediating IR activation have become an important area of scientifi and clinical research. Here, we summarize the curre...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410004

Endothelial Function in Obese and Overweight Patients: The Role of Olive Oil, Fish and Nuts

Marco Matteo Ciccone, Pietro Scicchitano, Francesca Cortese, Michele Gesualdo, Fara Fornarelli, et al.

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 22, 2014

Objective: To assess the effect of olive oil, non fried fih and nuts on endothelial function in overweight/obese patients. Methods: 47 overweight/obese patients (24 men, mean age 54 +/- 11 years) fed healthy diet (HD) defied according to the NuretaPREDIMED study for 3 months; after this 3 months of HD, the patients were blindly divided into 4 groups: Controls (24: HD), Group A (8: HD+olive oil), Group B (8: HD+not-fried fih), Group C (7: HD+nuts...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410003

Involvement of Regucalcin in Lipid Metabolic Disorder and Diabetes

Masayoshi Yamaguchi

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 03, 2014

Obesity and diabetes are currently a major health problem worldwide with growing in prevalence. The incidence of metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes with obesity, is increased to epidemic levels. Obesity and diabetes induce secondary diseases with various pathophysiologic states, which are important in clinical aspects including cardiovascular disease, neural disturbance, kidney disease, osteoporosis and cancer. Obesity is based on stimu...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410002

The Impact Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) on Metabolic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. A Developing Country Perspective

Kameel Mungrue and Verna Farrell-Williams

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 02, 2014

Introduction: The role of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) in patients with type 2 diabetes remains inconclusive. As part of the approach to improve glycaemic control in patients with T2DM in Trinidad a high prevalence setting for T2DM, the Ministry of Heath distributes free glucometers and strips. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of SMBG on glycaemic control and to determine patients' behaviors and responses. Methods: A la...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410001

The Role of OSA on Metabolic Disorders

Patrizio Tatti

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 01, 2014

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a frequent disorder in the general population, and even more common in the diabetic population, with incidences reported ranging from 17 to 48%, although these figures are probably an underestimation. As this disorder is so widespread, it is often accepted and dismissed. Patients themselves, often omit mentioning that they suffer from sleep apnea to the doctor. In extreme cases various surgical interventions have ...

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