Citation

Heidari A (2018) Enhancing the Raman Scattering for Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors Using Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles. J Toxicol Risk Assess 4:012. doi.org/10.23937/2572-4061.1510012

RESEARCH ARTICLE | OPEN ACCESS DOI: 10.23937/2572-4061.1510012

Enhancing the Raman Scattering for Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors Using Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles

Alireza Heidari*

Faculty of Chemistry, California South University, USA

Abstract

In the current paper, the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) effect induced by Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles is used to observe Raman spectrum of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors. The diagnosis and treatment of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors in sample is investigated through Nanomaterial Surface Energy Transfer (NSET) process from human cancer cells, tissues and tumors to the surface of nanoparticles, and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) process, as effective factors for Raman spectrum detection. For interaction of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors with Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles, colloidal state and Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) methods were used. Both methods have shown good agreement with each other in detecting the Raman spectrum. It should be noted that these methods and techniques can be applied on different types of human's cancer cells, tissues and tumors, respectively.

Keywords


Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR), Nanomaterial Surface Energy Transfer (NSET), Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM), Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors, Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles

Introduction


Since the discovering time of Raman scattering, a great effort has been begin to enhance Raman signal for increasing the detection limit and sensitivity of this method due to inherent low scattering cross section of Raman. Today, Plasmon structures are widely used to enhance Raman signal. This method is known as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) [1-27]. The Enhancement Factor (EF) of Raman signal can reaches up to 1015 times. The main mechanism that affects EF of signal is electromagnetic mechanism and is induced by enhancing the scattered light by the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles or in sharp points and other curvatures of Plasmon structures. In this method, molecule should be placed at distance lower than 10 (nm) from the surface of nanoparticle [28-43].

In recent years, a considerable attention has been paid to pair and enhance the surface Plasmon fields in the connection point of metallic nanoparticles through creating various arrays and geometries [44-63]. In order to produce an ideal SERS substrate, various methods such as Electron-Beam Lithography, Nanoimprint Lithography, Self-Assembling of nanoparticles and etc. are used. The first two methods can create very regular and uniform structures with high repeatability. However, such methods need high cost and special laboratory conditions. In contrast, Self-Assembling of nanoparticles is used as a low cost and high productivity method [64-75].

In addition, utilizing Plasmon structures leads to increase the maximum effective distance of Forster (fluorescence) Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from 10 (Aº) to 220 (Aº). This process of energy transfer between fluorophore and surface of nanoparticle named as Nanomaterial Surface Energy Transfer (NSET). In this condition, the quantum gain of energy transfer is defined as:

ϕ Tr = 1 1+ ( d d 0 ) 4                   (1)

where d0 is the distance in which fluorophore has a same probability for emission and energy transfer to nanoparticle [76-106]. The emitted fluorescence signal by molecule can be enhance by Plasmon field at the vicinity of nanoparticle either at emissive wavelength or at excitation wavelength. At the other hand, fluorescence signal of molecule can be transferred to the neighboring nanoparticle through non-radiant process of NSET. As Plasmon modes are mainly damped in non-radiant form, this process can be led to considerable reduction of fluorescence in the sample. Domination of each of these two processes and its intensity are depend on factors such as overlapping of nanoparticle absorption spectrum with fluorescence spectrum of sample, distance and relative direction between them, size and form of nanoparticles and etc. [107-161].

In the current paper, SERS spectrum of a very light emissive sample of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors is obtained at colloidal condition and over the substrate monolayer produced using Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) method and the effects of enhanced Raman scattering and NSET are studied for observing the spectrum of these human cancer cells, tissues and tumors. It should be noted that these methods and techniques can be applied on different types of human's cancer cells, tissues and tumors, respectively [162-191].

Martials, Research Method and Experimental Techniques


Materials and tools

Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles, Sodium Citrate (Na3C6H5O7), Sulfuric Acid, Hydrogen Peroxide, HPLC, Water and APTES (3-Aminopropyl-Triethoxysilane) were supplied from Sigma-Aldrich Corporation.

SERS spectra for samples were obtained using the designed arrangement for Raman spectroscopy. A schematic view of this arrangement is shown in (Figure 1). A laser with 532 (nm) wavelength was used as excitation source. Laser light was focused on the sample by a 4X thing and the scattered Raman signal was collected by that thing and was sent to spectrometer for analysis.

Figure 1: Schematic view of experimental arrangement for Raman Spectroscopy. View Figure 1

Sample preparation method

Nanoparticles were synthesized based on Alireza Heidari and Christopher Brown method [1]. Briefly, 18 (mg) Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles solution was heated up to boiling point at 90 (ml) water. Then, 2 (ml) of 1% citrate solution was added to it and was maintained at boiling point for 90 minutes [1].

The glassy substrates activated with hydroxyl group were placed in 1% solution of APTES for 4 hours. After washing with toluene, substrates were submerged into colloidal Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles solution for 24 hours and then, were maintained into the water up to the time for using. To measure the Raman spectrum of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors, substrates were placed in 1 (μM) solution of sample and then, Raman spectrum was measured.

To observe SERS signal at colloidal state, at least 3 hours before the test, 0.01 (M) solution of NaCl and 1 (μM) solution of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors were added to Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles.

Results and Discussion


The general scheme of formation mechanism of substrate is shown in (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Various stages of formation of substrate; a) Cleaning and activating the glassy medium; b) Surface functionalizing using silane group and; c) Connection of nanoparticles to the surface using silane group. View Figure 2

Figure 3 shows absorption spectrum of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles at colloidal and self-assembled states over a glassy medium. Maximum Plasmon resonance at colloidal state is about 453 (nm). However, this maximum for the substrates produced using self-assembled method shows a shift towards shorter wavelengths (418 nm). This shift can be attributed to dipole-dipole interaction between arrayed nanoparticles in a two-dimensional structure. Further, a new peak is emerged around 710 (nm) due to pairing of nanoparticles.

Figure 3: Absorption spectrum of cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles; a) At colloidal state; b) After self-assembling over substrate and; c) Fluorescence spectrum of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors. View Figure 3

Figure 4a and Figure 4b show the enhanced Raman spectrum of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors over substrate and at colloidal state, respectively. Detecting such spectrum from such human cancer cells, tissues and tumors which has very strong absorption and fluorescence in utilized wavelength of laser (Figure 3) can be attributed to Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering phenomenon at the presence of nanoparticles and to reduction in fluorescence due to energy transfer to nanoparticles through NSET process. Figure 3 shows considerable overlapping of fluorescence human cancer cells, tissues and tumors spectrum with absorption spectrum of nanoparticles, especially when placed as two-dimensional arrays over glassy medium. This overlapping is necessary for energy transferring. As the synthesized nanoparticles are mainly spherical, energy transferring process is independent of emission direction of incident light. Spectroscopy was performed during 5 seconds for all samples. In this comparison, fluorescence human cancer cells, tissues and tumors spectrum is attenuated up to 25 times due to high concentration of fluorescence in 1 (μM) solution of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors molecules and saturation of spectrometer (Figure 4c).

Figure 4: a) Raman spectrum of SERS from human cancer cells, tissues and tumors over self-assembled substrates of cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles; b) Raman spectrum of SERS from human cancer cells, tissues and tumors at colloidal state and; c) Raman spectrum of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors at normal state. View Figure 4

Table 1 shows vibration modes related to human cancer cells, tissues and tumors molecules. Frequency shift of this test is compared with a reference which its results show good agreement with reference results [1].

Table 1: Raman vibrational modes of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors molecules. View Table 1

Conclusions, Perspectives, Useful Suggestions and Future Studies


The results obtained in the current study show the effect of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles on Raman spectrum detection through two mechanisms of SERS and NSET. In order to confirm the effect of nanoparticles on various conditions, colloidal and self-assembled monolayer mediums were used. The results obtained from both states are in good agreement with each other.

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  91. Alireza Heidari (2017) Investigation of medical, medicinal, clinical and pharmaceutical applications of estradiol, mestranol (Norlutin), norethindrone (NET), norethisterone acetate (NETA), norethisterone enanthate (NETE) and testosterone nanoparticles as biological imaging, cell labeling, anti-microbial agents and anti-cancer nano drugs in nanomedicines based drug delivery systems for anti-cancer targeting and treatment. Parana Journal of Science and Education (PJSE) 3: 10-19.
  92. Alireza Heidari (2017) A comparative computational and experimental study on different vibrational biospectroscopy methods, techniques and applications for human cancer cells in tumor tissues simulation, modeling, research, diagnosis and treatment. Open J Anal Bioanal Chem 1: 014-020.
  93. Alireza Heidari (2017) Combination of DNA/RNA ligands and linear/non-linear visible-synchrotron radiation-driven n-doped ordered mesoporous cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles photocatalysts channels resulted in an interesting synergistic effect enhancing catalytic anti-cancer activity. Enz Eng 6: 1.
  94. Alireza Heidari (2017) Modern approaches in designing ferritin, ferritin light chain, transferrin, beta-2 transferrin and bacterioferritin-based anti-cancer nano drugs encapsulating nanosphere as DNA-binding Proteins from starved cells (DPS). Mod Appro Drug Des 1.
  95. Alireza Heidari (2017) Potency of human interferon β-1a and human interferon β-1b in enzymotherapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted therapy of encephalomyelitis disseminate/multiple sclerosis (MS) and hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F and G virus enter and targets liver cells. J Proteomics Enzymol 6: 1.
  96. Alireza Heidari (2017) Transport therapeutic active targeting of human brain tumors enable anti-cancer nanodrugs delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain diseases using nanoparticles and nanocarriers under synchrotron radiation. J Pharm Pharmaceutics 4: 1-5.
  97. Alireza Heidari, Christopher Brown (2017) Combinatorial therapeutic approaches to DNA/RNA and benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G), fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac and Sarafem), propofol (Diprivan), acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) (Aspirin), naproxen Sodium (Aleve and Naprosyn) and dextromethamphetamine nanocapsules with surface conjugated DNA/RNA to targeted nano drugs for enhanced anti-cancer efficacy and targeted cancer therapy using nano drugs delivery systems. Ann Adv Chem 1: 061-069.
  98. Alireza Heidari (2017) High-resolution simulations of human brain cancer translational nano drugs delivery treatment process under synchrotron radiation. J Transl Res 1: 1-3.
  99. Alireza Heidari (2017) Investigation of anti-cancer nano drugs' effects' trend on human pancreas cancer cells and tissues prevention, diagnosis and treatment process under synchrotron and X-ray radiations with the passage of time using mathematica. Current Trends Anal Bioanal Chem 1: 36-41.
  100. Alireza Heidari (2017) Pros and cons controversy on molecular imaging and dynamics of double-standard DNA/RNA of human preserving stem cells-binding nano molecules with androgens/anabolic steroids (AAS) or testosterone derivatives through tracking of helium-4 nucleus (Alpha Particle) using synchrotron radiation". Arch Biotechnol Biomed 1: 067-0100.
  101. Alireza Heidari (2017) Visualizing metabolic changes in probing human cancer cells and tissues metabolism using vivo 1H or proton NMR, 13C NMR, 15N NMR and 31P NMR spectroscopy and self-organizing maps under synchrotron radiation. SOJ Mater Sci Eng 5: 1-6.
  102. Alireza Heidari (2017) Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), circular dichroism spectroscopy, cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy and correlation spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Enliven: Challenges Cancer Detect Ther.
  103. Alireza Heidari (2017) Laser spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced plasma spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Int J Hepatol Gastroenterol 3: 079-084.
  104. Alireza Heidari (2017) Time-resolved spectroscopy and time-stretch spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Enliven: Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety 4: e001.
  105. Alireza Heidari (2017) Overview of the role of vitamins in reducing negative effect of decapeptyl (triptorelin acetate or pamoate salts) on prostate cancer cells and tissues in prostate cancer treatment process through transformation of malignant prostate tumors into benign prostate tumors under synchrotron radiation. Open J Anal Bioanal Chem 1: 021-026.
  106. Alireza Heidari (2017) Electron phenomenological spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Austin J Anal Pharm Chem 4: 1091
  107. Alireza Heidari (2017) Therapeutic nanomedicine different high-resolution experimental images and computational simulations for human brain cancer cells and tissues using nanocarriers deliver DNA/RNA to brain tumors under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time using mathematica and MATLAB. Madridge J Nano Tech Sci 2: 77-83.
  108. Alireza Heidari (2017) A consensus and prospective study on restoring cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles sensitivity in recurrent ovarian cancer by extending the cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles-free interval using synchrotron radiation therapy as antibody-drug conjugate for the treatment of limited-stage small cell diverse epithelial cancers. Cancer Clin Res Rep 1: 2.
  109. Alireza Heidari (2017) A novel and modern experimental imaging and spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under white synchrotron radiation. Cancer Sci Res Open Access 4: 1-8.
  110. Alireza Heidari (2017) Different high-resolution simulations of medical, medicinal, clinical, pharmaceutical and therapeutics oncology of human breast cancer translational nano drugs delivery treatment process under synchrotron and X-Ray radiations. J Oral Cancer Res 1: 12-17.
  111. Alireza Heidari (2017) Vibrational decihertz (dHz), centihertz (cHz), millihertz (mHz), microhertz (μHz), nanohertz (nHz), picohertz (pHz), femtohertz (fHz), attohertz (aHz), zeptohertz (zHz) and yoctohertz (yHz) imaging and spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. International Journal of Biomedicine 7: 335-340.
  112. Alireza Heidari (2017) Force spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. EC Cancer 2: 239-246.
  113. Alireza Heidari (2017) Photoacoustic spectroscopy, photoemission spectroscopy and photothermal spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. BAOJ Cancer Res Ther 3: 045-052.
  114. Alireza Heidari (2017) J-spectroscopy, exchange spectroscopy (EXSY), nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. EMS Eng Sci J 1: 006-013.
  115. Alireza Heidari (2017) Neutron spin echo spectroscopy and spin noise spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Int J Biopharm Sci 1: 103-107.
  116. Alireza Heidari (2017) Vibrational decahertz (daHz), hectohertz (hHz), kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz), gigahertz (GHz), terahertz (THz), petahertz (PHz), exahertz (EHz), zettahertz (ZHz) and yottahertz (YHz) imaging and spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Madridge J Anal Sci Instrum 2: 41-46.
  117. Alireza Heidari (2018) Two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy, linear two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and non-linear two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time. J Mater Sci Nanotechnol 6: 101.
  118. Alireza Heidari (2018) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time. Int J Nanotechnol Nanomed 3: 1-6.
  119. Alireza Heidari (2018) Infrared photo dissociation spectroscopy and infrared correlation table spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time. Austin Pharmacol Pharm 3: 1011.
  120. Alireza Heidari (2017) Novel and transcendental prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies for investigation of interaction among human blood cancer cells, tissues, tumors and metastases with synchrotron radiation under anti-cancer nano drugs delivery efficacy using MATLAB modeling and simulation. Madridge J Nov Drug Res 1: 18-24.
  121. Alireza Heidari (2018) Comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Open Access J Trans Med Res 2: 00026-00032.
  122. Marcia Regina Risso Gobato, Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari (2018) Planting of jaboticaba trees for landscape repair of degraded area. Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning 3: 1-9.
  123. Alireza Heidari (2018) Fluorescence spectroscopy, phosphorescence spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time. SM J Clin Med Imaging 4: 1018.
  124. Alireza Heidari (2018) Nuclear inelastic scattering spectroscopy (NISS) and nuclear inelastic absorption spectroscopy (NIAS) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Int J Pharm Sci 2: 1-14.
  125. Alireza Heidari (2018) X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. J Oncol Res 2: 1-14.
  126. Alireza Heidari (2018) Correlation two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (2D-NMR) (COSY) imaging and spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. EMS Can Sci.
  127. Alireza Heidari (2018) Thermal spectroscopy, photothermal spectroscopy, thermal microspectroscopy, photothermal microspectroscopy, thermal macrospectroscopy and photothermal macrospectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. SM J Biometrics Biostat 3: 1024.
  128. Alireza Heidari (2018) A modern and comprehensive experimental biospectroscopic comparative study on human common cancers' cells, tissues and tumors before and after synchrotron radiation therapy. Open Acc J Oncol Med.
  129. Alireza Heidari (2018) Heteronuclear correlation experiments such as heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HMQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC) comparative study on malignant and benign human endocrinology and thyroid cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. J Endocrinol Thyroid Res.
  130. Alireza Heidari (2018) Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS), nuclear inelastic scattering spectroscopy (NISS), nuclear inelastic absorption spectroscopy (NIAS) and nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy (NRIXSS) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Int J Bioorg Chem Mol Biol 6: 1-5.
  131. Alireza Heidari (2018) A novel and modern experimental approach to vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy and video spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under white and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Glob J Endocrinol Metab.
  132. Alireza Heidari (2018) Pros and cons controversy on heteronuclear correlation experiments such as heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HMQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. EMS Pharma J 1: 002.
  133. Alireza Heidari (2018) A modern comparative and comprehensive experimental biospectroscopic study on different types of infrared spectroscopy of malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. J Analyt Molecul Tech 3: 8.
  134. Alireza Heidari (2018) Investigation of cancer types using synchrotron technology for proton beam therapy: An experimental biospectroscopic comparative study. EMSJ 2: 13-29.
  135. Alireza Heidari (2018) Saturated spectroscopy and unsaturated spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Imaging J Clin Medical Sci 5: 001-007.
  136. Heidari (2018) Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Int J Bioorg Chem Mol Biol 6: 1-6.
  137. Alireza Heidari (2018) Investigation of bladder cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, leukemia, liver, lung cancer, melanoma, non-hodgkin lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer using synchrotron technology for proton beam therapy: an experimental biospectroscopic comparative study. Ther Res Skin Dis.
  138. Alireza Heidari (2018) Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, micro-attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (Micro-ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and macro-attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (Macro-ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time. International Journal of Chemistry Papers 2: 1-12.
  139. Alireza Heidari (2018) Mössbauer spectroscopy, mössbauer emission spectroscopy and 57Fe mössbauer spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Acta Scientific Cancer Biology 2.3: 17-20.
  140. Alireza Heidari (2018) Comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time. Organic & Medicinal Chem IJ.
  141. Alireza Heidari (2018) Correlation spectroscopy, exclusive correlation spectroscopy and total correlation spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human aids-related cancers cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Int J Bioanal Biomed 2: 001-007.
  142. Alireza Heidari (2018) Biomedical instrumentation and applications of biospectroscopic methods and techniques in malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues studies under synchrotron radiation and anti-cancer nano drugs delivery. Am J Nanotechnol Nanomed 1: 001-009.
  143. Alireza Heidari (2018) Vivo 1H or proton NMR, 13C NMR, 15N NMR and 31P nmr spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Ann Biomet Biostat 1: 1001.
  144. Alireza Heidari (2018) Grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells, tissues and tumors under synchrotron radiation. Ann Cardiovasc Surg 1: 1006.
  145. Alireza Heidari (2018) Adsorption isotherms and kinetics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), amorphous boron nitride nanotubes (a-BNNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride nanotubes (h-BNNTs) for eliminating carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia, germ cell tumor and blastoma cancer cells and tissues. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 5: 201.
  146. Alireza Heidari (2018) Correlation spectroscopy (COSY), exclusive correlation spectroscopy (ECOSY), total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), incredible natural-abundance double-quantum transfer experiment (INADEQUATE), heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC), nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 2.5: 30-35.
  147. Alireza Heidari (2018) Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS), fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), grazing-incidence small-angle X-Ray scattering (GISAXS), grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering (GISANS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Oncol Res Rev 1: 1-10.
  148. Alireza Heidari (2018) Pump-probe spectroscopy and transient grating spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Adv Material Sci Engg 2: 1-7.
  149. Alireza Heidari (2018) Grazing-Incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Insights Pharmacol Pharm Sci 1: 1-8.
  150. Alireza Heidari (2018) Acoustic spectroscopy, acoustic resonance spectroscopy and auger spectroscopy comparative study on anti-cancer nano drugs delivery in malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Nanosci Technol 5: 1-9.
  151. Alireza Heidari (2018) Niobium, technetium, ruthenium, rhodium, hafnium, rhenium, osmium and iridium ions incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Nanomed Nanotechnol.
  152. Alireza Heidari (2018) Homonuclear correlation experiments such as homonuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC), homonuclear multiple-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HMQC) and homonuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Austin J Proteomics Bioinform & Genomics 5: 1024.
  153. Alireza Heidari (2018) Atomic force microscopy based infrared (AFM-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time. J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng 5: 138-144.
  154. Alireza Heidari (2018) Time-dependent vibrational spectral analysis of malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. J Cancer Oncol.
  155. Alireza Heidari (2018) Palauamine and olympiadane nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Arc Org Inorg Chem Sci.
  156. Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari (2018) Infrared spectrum and sites of action of sanguinarine by molecular mechanics and ab initio methods. International Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 2: 1-9.
  157. Alireza Heidari (2018) Gamma linolenic methyl ester, 5-heptadeca-5,8,11-trienyl 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, sulphoquinovosyl diacyl glycerol, ruscogenin, nocturnoside b, protodioscine b, parquisoside-b, leiocarposide, narangenin, 7-methoxy hespertin, lupeol, rosemariquinone, rosmanol and rosemadiol nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modifi ed electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Int J Pharma Anal Acta 2: 007-014.
  158. Alireza Heidari (2018) Angelic acid, diabolic acids, draculin and miraculin nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Med & Analy Chem Int J.
  159. Alireza Heidari (2018) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, micro-attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (Micro-ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, macro-attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (Macro-ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy, linear two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, non-linear two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy based infrared (AFM-IR) spectroscopy, infrared photodissociation spectroscopy, infrared correlation table spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS), nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy, thermal infrared spectroscopy and photothermal infrared spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time. Glob Imaging Insights 3: 1-14.
  160. Alireza Heidari (2018) Tetrakis [3,5-bis (Trifluoromethyl) Phenyl] borate (BARF)-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (EPPSI) nano molecules. Medical Research and Clinical Case Reports 2.1: 112-125.
  161. Alireza Heidari (2018) Heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells, tissues and tumors under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Chronicle of Medicine and Surgery 2.3: 151-163.
  162. Alireza Heidari (2018) Sydnone, m√ľnchnone, montréalone, mogone, montelukast, quebecol and palau'amine-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (EPPSI) nano molecules. Sur Cas Stud Op Acc J.
  163. Alireza Heidari (2018) Fornacite, orotic acid, rhamnetin, sodium ethyl xanthate (SEX) and spermine (Spermidine or Polyamine) nanomolecules incorporation into the nanopolymeric matrix (NPM). International Journal of Biochemistry and Biomolecules 4: 1-19.
  164. Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato (2018) Putrescine, cadaverine, spermine and spermidine-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (EPPSI) nano molecules. Parana Journal of Science and Education (PJSE) 4: 1-14.
  165. Alireza Heidari (2018) Cadaverine (1,5-Pentanediamine or Pentamethylenediamine), diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD or DEADCAT) and putrescine (Tetramethylenediamine) nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Hiv and Sexual Health Open Access Open Journal 1: 4-11.
  166. Alireza Heidari (2018) Improving the performance of nano-endofullerenes in polyaniline nanostructure-based biosensors by covering californium colloidal nanoparticles with multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Advances in Nanomaterials 3: 1-28.
  167. Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari (2018) Molecular mechanics and quantum chemical study on sites of action of sanguinarine using vibrational spectroscopy based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Malaysian Journal of Chemistry 20: 1-23.
  168. Alireza Heidari (2018) Vibrational biospectroscopic studies on anti-cancer nanopharmaceuticals (Part I). Malaysian Journal of Chemistry 20: 33-73.
  169. Alireza Heidari (2018) Vibrational biospectroscopic studies on anti-cancer nanopharmaceuticals (Part II). Malaysian Journal of Chemistry 20: 74-117.
  170. Alireza Heidari (2018) Uranocene (U(C8H8)2) and bis(Cyclooctatetraene)iron (Fe(C8H8)2 or Fe(COT)2)-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (EPPSI) nano molecules. Chemistry Reports 1: 1-16.
  171. Alireza Heidari (2018) Biomedical systematic and emerging technological study on human malignant and benign cancer cells and tissues biospectroscopic analysis under synchrotron radiation. Glob Imaging Insights 3: 7.
  172. Alireza Heidari (2018) Deep-level transient spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Res Dev Material Sci 7: 1-7.
  173. Alireza Heidari (2018) C70-carboxyfullerenes nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Glob Imaging Insights 3: 1-7.
  174. Alireza Heidari (2018) The effect of temperature on cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles produced by synchrotron radiation in the human cancer cells, tissues and tumors. International Journal of Advanced Chemistry 6: 140-156.
  175. Alireza Heidari (2018) A clinical and molecular pathology investigation of correlation spectroscopy (COSY), exclusive correlation spectroscopy (ECOSY), total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells, tissues and tumors under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations using cyclotron versus synchrotron, synchrocyclotron and the large hadron collider (LHC) for delivery of proton and helium ion (charged particle) beams for oncology radiotherapy. European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology 5: 414-426.
  176. Alireza Heidari (2018) Nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. J Oncol Res 1: 1-20.
  177. Alireza Heidari (2018) Use of molecular enzymes in the treatment of chronic disorders. Canc Oncol Open Access J 1: 12-15.
  178. Alireza Heidari (2018) Vibrational biospectroscopic study and chemical structure analysis of unsaturated polyamides nanoparticles as anti-cancer polymeric nanomedicines using synchrotron radiation. International Journal of Advanced Chemistry 6: 167-189.
  179. Alireza Heidari (2018) Adamantane, irene, naftazone and pyridine-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (PEPPSI) nano molecules. Madridge J Nov Drug Res 2: 61-67.
  180. Alireza Heidari (2018) Heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Madridge J Nov Drug Res 2: 68-74.
  181. Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato (2018) A novel approach to reduce toxicities and to improve bioavailabilities of DNA/RNA of human cancer cells-containing cocaine (Coke), lysergide (Lysergic Acid Diethyl Amide or LSD), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) [(-)- trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol], theobromine (Xantheose), caffeine, aspartame (APM) (NutraSweet) and Zidovudine (ZDV) [Azidothymidine (AZT)] as anti-cancer nano drugs by coassembly of dual anti-cancer nano drugs to inhibit DNA/RNA of human cancer cells drug resistance. Parana Journal of Science and Education 4: 1-17.
  182. Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato (2018) Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues with the passage of time under synchrotron radiation. Parana Journal of Science and Education 4: 18-33.
  183. Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari, Abhijit Mitra (2018) The creation of C13H20BeLi2SeSi. The proposal of a bio-inorganic molecule, using AB initio methods for the genesis of a nano membrane. Arc Org Inorg Chem Sci.
  184. Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari, Abhijit Mitra (2018) Using the quantum chemistry for genesis of a nano biomembrane with a combination of the elements Be, Li, Se, Si, C and H. ResearchGate.
  185. Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari (2018) Using the quantum chemistry for genesis of a nano biomembrane with a combination of the elements Be, Li, Se, Si, C and H. J Nanomed Res 7: 241-252.
  186. Alireza Heidari (2018) Bastadins and bastaranes-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (EPPSI) nano molecules. Glob Imaging Insights 3: 1-7.
  187. Alireza Heidari (2018) Fucitol, pterodactyladiene, DEAD or DEADCAT (DiEthyl AzoDiCArboxylaTe), skatole, the nanoputians, thebacon, pikachurin, tie fighter, spermidine and mirasorvone nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Glob Imaging Insights 3: 1-8.
  188. Elahe Dadvar, Alireza Heidari (2018) A Review on separation techniques of graphene oxide (GO)/Base on hybrid polymer membranes for eradication of dyes and oil compounds: Recent progress in Graphene Oxide (GO)/Base on polymer membranes-related nanotechnologies. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 5: 228.
  189. Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato (2018) First-time simulation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) (Deoxyuridylic Acid or Deoxyuridylate) and vomitoxin (Deoxynivalenol (DON)) ((3α,7α)-3,7,15-trihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-En-8-One)-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (EPPSI) nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Parana Journal of Science and Education 4: 46-67.
  190. Alireza Heidari (2018) Buckminsterfullerene (Fullerene), bullvalene, dickite and josiphos ligands nano molecules incorporation into the nano polymeric matrix (NPM) by immersion of the nano polymeric modified electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human hematology and thromboembolic diseases prevention, diagnosis and treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations. Glob Imaging Insights 3: 1-7.
  191. Alireza Heidari (2018) Fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) comparative study on malignant and benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation. Glob Imaging Insights 3: 1-7.

Citation

Heidari A (2018) Enhancing the Raman Scattering for Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors Using Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles. J Toxicol Risk Assess 4:012. doi.org/10.23937/2572-4061.1510012