Journal of

Toxicology and Risk AssessmentISSN: 2572-4061

Early Online

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510032

Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Rounding in IRIS: Risk Assessment Ramifications

Lawrence V Tannenbaum

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 10, 2020

Commonly, reference doses and reference concentrations, toxicity factors supporting non-cancer assessments for the chemical exposures of humans, are rounded values. While the U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System rather evidently employs this rounding practice so as to arrive at toxicity values that are uniform and simple in appearance, the particulars of the rounding approach are only loosely discussed. The analysis provided here found that reference dose and reference concentration rou...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510029

Toxicity Evaluation of Cellulose Nanofibers (Cnfs) for Cosmetic Industry Application

Soo Min Kim, Eun Ji Gwak, Seung Hwan Jeong, Sang Mock Lee, Woo Jong Sim and Jin Sik Kim

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 16, 2019

The two main types of nanocelluloses are cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Both CNFs and CNCs are nanoscale cellulose fibers that have shown reinforcing effects in polymer nanocomposites. CNCs and CNFs are different in shape, size and composition. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) is produced by mechanical treatment with or without enzymatic or chemical pre-treatment. The material consists of long and thin fibers which form a three-dimensional network. It has high viscosity an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510028

Heath Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Shrimp Acetes Sp. and Cincalok Collected in 2007 from Pantai Klebang, Peninsular Malaysia

Chee Kong Yap, Wan Hee Cheng, Mohd Hafetz Ali, Rosimah Nulit, Shih Hao Tony Peng, Mohamad Saupi Ismail and Chee Seng Leow

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2019

Sampling in Pantai Klebang, Melaka was done on 12th January 2007. The samples collected were Acetes sp. and the cincalok. The Acetes sp. was bought from the fishermen, while the cincalok was bought from the roadside. All collected shrimp samples were kept frozen until dissection was carried out. The frozen samples were thawed at room temperature and later on, cleaned with double-distilled water (DDW). The shrimps selected from the analysis had body lengths between 2.00-2.50 cm. Since most litera...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510027

Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Fish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from Two Lagoons in Southwestern Nigeria

Bassey OB and Chukwu LO

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 10, 2019

Pollution by heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems has become the central focus of environmental research, due to the threat it poses to consumers of fishery sources. This study seeks to assess the levels of accumulation and potential human risk associated with heavy metals in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Ologe and Badagry lagoons Southwestern Nigeria. The metals (Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in fish samples were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), while the estimated daily i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510026

Role of Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Hepatic Toxicity Induced by Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Following Intratracheal Instillation in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

Siva K Nalabotu, Nandini DPK Manne, Madhukar B Kolli, Geeta Nandyala, Radha K Para, Kevin M Rice, Cynthia B Jones and Eric R Blough

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019

Inhaled cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been shown to be capable of translocation to the liver where they can cause dose dependent toxic effects. Herein, we investigate if the deposition of cerium in the liver is linked to increased oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis. Specific pathogen free male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled with either vehicle (saline) or CeO2 nanoparticles (7.0 mg/kg) and euthanized 1, 3, 14, 28, 56, or 90 days post exposure. Liver samples were evaluated for e...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510025

Histopathological and Biochemical Response of Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus to Environmental Stressors from Two PollutedLagoons, Southwest Nigeria

Bassey Okon Bassey

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 17, 2019

Stressful environmental conditions are ecological force in modulating adaptive responses of fish populations in aquatic ecosystems with a large number of biochemical and physiological effects associated with increased fluxes of oxyradicals. This study was aimed to examine the impacts of oxidative stress and histological changes in organs of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Ologe and Badagry lagoons. Biomarkers such as biochemical markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510024

Effects of Fumes Inhaled from Cooked Meat

Shivam Joshi, MD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 14, 2019

Since 2015, the World Health Organization has regarded the ingestion of processed meat as a definite carcinogen and red meat as a probable carcinogen, basing their recommendations on studies showing an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The findings have led many to limit their ingestion of red and processed meat. Over the past several decades, a growing body of literature has formed regarding the possible harmful, if not carcinogenic, effects of fumes emanating from cooked meat on humans. In ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510023

Current Metal Pollution Status and Ecological Risk Impacts on Ologe and Badagry Lagoons In Lagos, Nigeria

Bassey O Bassey, Chibuisi G Alimba and Obinna L Chukwu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 15, 2019

Contamination of aquatic environment is increasing and has been associated with indiscriminate discharge of solid wastes and effluents generated from industrial, domestic and agricultural activities. These wastes and effluents contain harmful substances, such as metals, which constitute a major problem on the quality of the Nigerian coastal water. This study evaluated the impacts of heavy metals on the water and sediment quality of Ologe and Badagry Lagoons, South-West Nigeria. The heavy metals ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510022

Evaluation of Lung Cell Toxicity of Surfactants for Inhalation Route

Lindenberg F, Sichel F, Lechevrel M , Respaud R and Saint-Lorant G

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: May 15, 2019

Few data are available for excipients administered by inhalation route. This study evaluated the in vitro potential toxicity of three surfactants (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80 and Poloxamer 188) by using an original air-liquid interface (ALI) method of exposure compared to liquid/liquid (L/L) model. Two cell toxicity tests were conducted on BEAS-2B cells, a human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell lines; measurement of Lactate Dehydrogenase activity and XTT cell proliferation assay. We fou...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510021

Public and Environmental Health Effects of Plastic Wastes Disposal: A Review

Okunola A Alabi, Kehinde I Ologbonjaye, Oluwaseun Awosolu and Olufiropo E Alalade

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 12, 2019

Since 1950 to 2018, about 6.3 billion tonnes of plastics have been produced worldwide, 9% and 12% of which have been recycled and incinerated, respectively. Human population increase and consistent demand for plastics and plastic products are responsible for continuous increase in the production of plastics, generation of plastic waste and its accompanied environmental pollution. We have reviewed in this paper, the most relevant literatures on the different types of plastics in production, the h...

Volume 5
Issue 1