Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment is a global, open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes wide variety articles on all the aspects of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on people and the environment and assessing the risk involved. JTRA provides forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions globally. It acts as a platform for the authors to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community on toxicity assessment and prevention. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.
Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment provides research updates on Basic Toxicology, Public Health Toxicology, Environmental Toxicology, Computational Toxicology, Forensic Toxicology, Toxicology of Natural Products, Chemotherapy, Hepatoxic, Nephrotoxic and Neurotoxic Agents, Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, Toxicogenomics, Risk Assessment, Risk Management, Aquatic Toxicology, Automatism (Toxicology), Ecotoxicology, Entomotoxicology, Enzyme Inhibition, Forensic Toxicology, In vitro Toxicology, Indicative Limit Value, Medical Toxicology, Modes of Toxic Action, Overdose, Pollution, Toxicity, Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, Toxinology, etc. All formats of articles viz., original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510039
Odangowei I Ogidi, Uchechi E Enenebeaku, Ebifanimi Okara and Stephanie A Elumelu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2021
Toxic metal contamination is a major problem of our environment and they are also one of the major contaminating agents of our food supply. The knowledge of metals in foods is essential for calculating the dietary intakes of essential metals and evaluation of human exposure to toxic elements. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic metal profiles, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risk of some locally produced beverages in Nigeria. Seven (7) samples of locally produced beverag...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510038
SM Hays, RA Becker, DM Nelson and CR Kirman
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 10, 2021
Science panel deliberations serve as an important step in policy and regulatory decision making, ideally providing independent validation that the decisions under consideration are based on sound scientific evidence and interpretation. To be useful, the findings from a science panel should be trusted by all parties involved (e.g., regulatory decision makers, participating scientists, general public, regulated industries). A survey was conducted of scientists who had participated in science advis...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510037
Maged M Yassin, Tareq O Adas and Mohammed M Yasin
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 05, 2021
Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum chlorinated organophosphate pesticide with a multipurpose use worldwide. However, its use and/or misuse could put a real threat on non-targets including humans and domestic animals. To assess the toxic effect of chlorpyrifos on serum glucose, bilirubin, liver enzymes, renal parameters, protein profile, and some electrolytes in adult male domestic rabbits. The oral LD50 of chlorpyrifos was determined, and then a daily dose of 1/10 LD50 was given orally to rabbits ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510036
Suresh VS Rana
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 22, 2021
Kidney is considered as the secondary target organ of nanoparticle (NP) toxicity. Since it is the primary organ of excretion, NPs are expected to adversely affect the renal system. Therefore, a comprehensive review of recent knowledge on renal toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) was made. Mechanistic paradigms of their toxicity have also been discussed. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that carbon nanotubes (CNT) caused cytotoxicity, glomerular degeneration and proximal tubular nec...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510035
S V S Rana
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 17, 2020
Liver is the major detoxifying centre of the body. It removes xenobiotics and their metabolites through metabolism or biliary excretion. Hepatocytes constitute 80% of total liver mass and play a major role in storage, synthesis, metabolism and redistribution of essential molecules. Liver has been known to accumulate > 90% of nanomatrerials translocated from other organs. Bioconcentration of nanoparticles may lead to impairment of structure and function of hepatic cells. Therefore, it is critical...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510034
Anirban Biswas, Saroni Biswas and Arijit Bhowmik
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 22, 2020
COVID-19 pandemic became a death troll and cause of unbearable psychological pressure for all and the pandemic situation has been considered as a national disaster in India. Present study identified the mental health status of the medical professionals in different hospitals handling COVID-19 patients. We collected psychological data of medical professional using online questionnaire and identified their psychological status following three tools namely, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Depre...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510033
Olagunju TE, Olagunju AO, Akawu IH and Ugokwe CU
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 29, 2020
Non-sanitary landfill poses enormous threats to lives. In this study, heavy metals in groundwater and soil of residential areas around Awotan landfill, Ibadan, Southwest-Nigeria were quantified and associated environmental and health risks were assessed within 1-150 m and 151-300 m radii. A total of 20 samples of groundwater and soil each were analysed for Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe and Zn using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Pb was above the WHO permissible limit in groundwater while Cd was ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510032
Lawrence V Tannenbaum
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 10, 2020
Commonly, reference doses and reference concentrations, toxicity factors supporting non-cancer assessments for the chemical exposures of humans, are rounded values. While the U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System rather evidently employs this rounding practice so as to arrive at toxicity values that are uniform and simple in appearance, the particulars of the rounding approach are only loosely discussed. The analysis provided here found that reference dose and reference concentration rou...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510031
Luisetto M, Ahmed Yesvi Rafa, Khaled Edbey, Ghulam Rasool Mashori, Farhan Ahmad and Oleg Yurevich Latyshev
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 09, 2020
Related some recent example of human virus diffusion and epidemiology is interesting to observe some facts related latitude, climate, air pollutants and other. In this work only few images are used to submit and hypothesis of work to better understand some process. Is interesting to observe that WUHAN is a region characterized by a specific air pollutants status and near two big river in a determinate latitude. Obviously, the human transmission and the relationship with animal transmission can n...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510030
Mputu MLC, Ndelo JP, Ndelo MP, Marini RD, Lusakibanza MM, Dubois N, Rozet E, Le Brun P, Cimanga KR and Charlier C
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2019
Lead exists naturally in the earth’s crust and it is widely used as a heavy metal. It is an environment toxicant that may deleteriously affect nervous, hematopoietic, skeletal, renal, endocrine and reproductive systems. So, exposure to lead in the environment continues to be a serious public health problem for all ages. Children are particularly susceptible to lead poisoning. They absorb more lead from their environment and their developing central nervous systems are vulnerable to the toxic. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510029
Soo Min Kim, Eun Ji Gwak, Seung Hwan Jeong, Sang Mock Lee, Woo Jong Sim and Jin Sik Kim
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 16, 2019
The two main types of nanocelluloses are cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Both CNFs and CNCs are nanoscale cellulose fibers that have shown reinforcing effects in polymer nanocomposites. CNCs and CNFs are different in shape, size and composition. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) is produced by mechanical treatment with or without enzymatic or chemical pre-treatment. The material consists of long and thin fibers which form a three-dimensional network. It has high viscosity an...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510028
Chee Kong Yap, Wan Hee Cheng, Mohd Hafetz Ali, Rosimah Nulit, Shih Hao Tony Peng, Mohamad Saupi Ismail and Chee Seng Leow
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2019
Sampling in Pantai Klebang, Melaka was done on 12th January 2007. The samples collected were Acetes sp. and the cincalok. The Acetes sp. was bought from the fishermen, while the cincalok was bought from the roadside. All collected shrimp samples were kept frozen until dissection was carried out. The frozen samples were thawed at room temperature and later on, cleaned with double-distilled water (DDW). The shrimps selected from the analysis had body lengths between 2.00-2.50 cm. Since most litera...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510027
Bassey OB and Chukwu LO
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 10, 2019
Pollution by heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems has become the central focus of environmental research, due to the threat it poses to consumers of fishery sources. This study seeks to assess the levels of accumulation and potential human risk associated with heavy metals in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Ologe and Badagry lagoons Southwestern Nigeria. The metals (Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in fish samples were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), while the estimated daily i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510026
Siva K Nalabotu, Nandini DPK Manne, Madhukar B Kolli, Geeta Nandyala, Radha K Para, Kevin M Rice, Cynthia B Jones and Eric R Blough
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019
Inhaled cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been shown to be capable of translocation to the liver where they can cause dose dependent toxic effects. Herein, we investigate if the deposition of cerium in the liver is linked to increased oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis. Specific pathogen free male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled with either vehicle (saline) or CeO2 nanoparticles (7.0 mg/kg) and euthanized 1, 3, 14, 28, 56, or 90 days post exposure. Liver samples were evaluated for e...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510025
Bassey Okon Bassey
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 17, 2019
Stressful environmental conditions are ecological force in modulating adaptive responses of fish populations in aquatic ecosystems with a large number of biochemical and physiological effects associated with increased fluxes of oxyradicals. This study was aimed to examine the impacts of oxidative stress and histological changes in organs of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Ologe and Badagry lagoons. Biomarkers such as biochemical markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510024
Shivam Joshi, MD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 14, 2019
Since 2015, the World Health Organization has regarded the ingestion of processed meat as a definite carcinogen and red meat as a probable carcinogen, basing their recommendations on studies showing an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The findings have led many to limit their ingestion of red and processed meat. Over the past several decades, a growing body of literature has formed regarding the possible harmful, if not carcinogenic, effects of fumes emanating from cooked meat on humans. In ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510023
Bassey O Bassey, Chibuisi G Alimba and Obinna L Chukwu
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 15, 2019
Contamination of aquatic environment is increasing and has been associated with indiscriminate discharge of solid wastes and effluents generated from industrial, domestic and agricultural activities. These wastes and effluents contain harmful substances, such as metals, which constitute a major problem on the quality of the Nigerian coastal water. This study evaluated the impacts of heavy metals on the water and sediment quality of Ologe and Badagry Lagoons, South-West Nigeria. The heavy metals ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510022
Lindenberg F, Sichel F, Lechevrel M , Respaud R and Saint-Lorant G
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: May 15, 2019
Few data are available for excipients administered by inhalation route. This study evaluated the in vitro potential toxicity of three surfactants (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80 and Poloxamer 188) by using an original air-liquid interface (ALI) method of exposure compared to liquid/liquid (L/L) model. Two cell toxicity tests were conducted on BEAS-2B cells, a human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell lines; measurement of Lactate Dehydrogenase activity and XTT cell proliferation assay. We fou...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510021
Okunola A Alabi, Kehinde I Ologbonjaye, Oluwaseun Awosolu and Olufiropo E Alalade
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 12, 2019
Since 1950 to 2018, about 6.3 billion tonnes of plastics have been produced worldwide, 9% and 12% of which have been recycled and incinerated, respectively. Human population increase and consistent demand for plastics and plastic products are responsible for continuous increase in the production of plastics, generation of plastic waste and its accompanied environmental pollution. We have reviewed in this paper, the most relevant literatures on the different types of plastics in production, the h...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510020
Yanping Xue, Ning Chen, Tao Jiang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 22, 2019
The systemic toxic effects of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were evaluated in a 4-wk study in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were administered DINP intravenously at dosages of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg every other day for 4 wk. The control and the positive control group were administered vehicle (egg yolk phosphatides plus glycerol solutions) and 500 mg/kg di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), respectively. Clinical signs were observed immediately after administration and consumption of food, a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510019
Vivian SW Chan Fung
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: March 06, 2019
Pharmaceuticals are the most common medical intervention. Ensuring workers and members of the public get the most benefits from advances in modern medicine is a critical component of improving the health care system. Pharmaceuticals bring healing to patients but increased risk of illness have been reported among workers manufacturing, handling and administering pharmaceutical products with inadequate attention to personal safety. Their potential for both helping and harming human health can be p...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510018
Mengling Yang, Dan Zhang, Lu Xu, Shamshad Khan, Fan Chen and Hao Jiang
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: March 04, 2019
This study features a survey of the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, Se) in surface soils (0-30 cm), carried out in edge of Sichuan Basin (Pingdi, Puan, Xingwen, Gulin). The contamination of heavy metals in soil was assessed with single-factor pollution index method and Nemerow comprehensive pollution index method. The results showed that Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co were main risk factors of soil heavy metal pollution. In Gulin, the concentrations of Cd, Mn and Se were higher t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510017
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019
Bisphenol A (BPA) is being considered by the European Union as a substance of very high concern, occurring worldwide due to its wide application in many plastic products, building materials, coatings and epoxy resins. The toxicity of BPA in groundwater invertebrates is insufficiently understood. Both acute (24 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity was compared in Daphnia magna and ecologically important crustaceans in surface water (Gammarus fossarum, Eucyclops serrulatus) and groundwater (Niphargopsis...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510016
Giuseppina Gini, Thomas Ferrari, Anna Lombardo, Antonio Cassano and Emilio Benfenati
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 14, 2019
In this paper we discuss the problem of predicting the fish toxicity property of chemical compounds, and show how this can be approached using a computational intelligence method. There are two views on assessing toxicities: One says that such properties can be derived from the whole molecular structure, the other that some specific functional substructures, called Structural Alerts (SA), are able to explain the toxicity. In this work, a new Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) approach is prop...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510015
Kenneth Bedu-Addo, Martha Ofori-Kuragu and Kwaku Boaky Apau
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 31, 2018
Heavy metals and metalloids, some of which are extremely beneficial for the survival of humans, flora and fauna can have devastating effects on same and the environment. Bioaccumulation and bio-magnification two methods via which metals and metalloids are assimilated into food chains as well as dermal and ingestion exposure to heavy metals and metalloids are believed by many residents in the Obuasi Municipality as leading public health threats to peasant farmers, their spouses and children. Risk...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510014
Isaac W Ofosu, Samuel Akomea-Frempong, Emmanuel De-Graft J Owusu-Ansah and Godfred Darko
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 26, 2018
Many health-conscious consumers are increasingly making deliberate choices for plant-based diets because probably they think they were safer. Majority of these consumers who dwell in cities therefore demand leafy vegetables for their daily consumption. The demand has created the opportunity for many urban dwellers to join the business of vegetable cultivation using every space available. Urbanization is associated with industrialization, and with it comes the attendant anthropogenic hazards. Sub...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510013
Farag M Malhat, Naglaa M Loutfy, Sara M Greish and Mohamed Tawfic Ahmed
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 26, 2018
All pesticides are potentially toxic to all sorts of life and some are even classified as probable human carcinogens, neutrotoxics and endocrine system disruptors. The toxicity level of a pesticide depends on the lethal dose (LD) of the chemical, the length of exposure, and the route of entry or absorption by the body. There are many different pesticides in use today with very different modes of action and levels of toxicity. To protect the public, WHO has developed a hazard classification syste...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510012
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2018
In the current paper, the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) effect induced by Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles is used to observe Raman spectrum of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors. The diagnosis and treatment of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors in sample is investigated through Nanomaterial Surface Energy Transfer (NSET) process from human cancer cells, tissues and tumors to the surface of nanoparticles, and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) process, as effective fa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510011
Lawrence V Tannenbaum, David M Bullis, Nicholas R Deuel, L Mike Conner, Michael J Chamberlain and Karl V Miller
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2018
Ecological risk assessments (ERAs) for contaminated terrestrial sites regularly include mammals as receptors-of-concern whose home ranges dwarf the sites by tens of times. As a consequence, opportunities to sustain chemical exposures of concern are greatly limited. In having notably miniscule densities as well, wide-ranging mammals are poorly selected species to evaluate because true populations are effectively non-existent at sites. Collectively, the case can be made that wide-ranging mammals a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510010
Nurfatini Busairi and Amir Syahir
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 09, 2018
Heavy metals emission, in particular, mercury is ever increasing due to global urbanization and industrialization. Due to increasing number of health problems related to heavy metals contamination, monitoring it becomes a crucial task for authorities and environmentalists. Therefore, the development of a nanobiosensing technique that can detect mercury ions as low as 1 ppb for its limit of quantification is necessary to provide sufficient information to ensure a sustainable and healthy environme...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510009
A Rama Narsimha Reddy and L Srividya
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 16, 2018
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles against human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK cells). The toxic effects of nanoparticles were analyzed after 24 hours of incubation with different cell lines using trypan blue dye exclusion method....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510008
Alabi A Okunola, Esan E Babatunde, Olorunfunmi J Temitope and Oludare O Evelyn
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 25, 2017
Food industries are among the major contributors to industrial wastes. Their wastewaters can pose a threat if untreated and indiscriminately disposed into the environment. In this study, we investigated the potential genetic and reproductive toxicity of Cocoa processing industry wastewater, by using the mouse Micronucleus (MN) and sperm morphology assays....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510007
Sebastien Champion and Vincent Spagnoli
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: August 01, 2017
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) assesses the need and guides tracheal intubation in trauma patients. GCS provides a practical method for assessment of impairment of conscious level in response to defined stimuli. GCS is the sum of 3 sub-scores for eye opening (1 to 4), verbal (1 to 5), and best motor (1 to 6) response to stimulations....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510006
Zijian Li and Aaron A Jennings
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 24, 2017
Human could exposure to pesticides via various exposure pathways. Worldwide jurisdictions are making efforts to manage human health risk by regulating pesticide standards in residential soil, drinking water, and agricultural commodity....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510005
Bettina Hiemer, Alisa Bernert, Frederic LP Gabriel, Michael Wakileh and Heike Weber
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 19, 2017
Apoptosis is defined as controlled programmed cell death that occurs as physiological process in the development and morphogenesis of multi-cellular organisms, but is also implicated in various diseases, including acute pancreatitis. Apoptosis can be induced by a wide range of stimuli....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510004
Rocca F D, Pignatiello F, Casacanditella G, Tucci M and Favretto D
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 25, 2016
We report on a case of a young man arrived to the emergency department (ED) of the local hospital in a sleepy, confused state, and exhibiting anterograde amnesia. He reported to have been robbed. Toxicological analysis performed in his blood sample with a general unknown screening procedure including mass spectrometry detection revealed the presence of zolpidem....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510003
Recio-Vega R, Gurrola-Mendez A, Valdez-Abrego C and Rivera-Guillen Mario
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2015
Lead is a widespread toxicant with well-established detrimental health effects. Environmental exposure to lead occurs through different means such as industrial and combustion sources, lead paint, folk remedies, glazed pottery, and sometimes by drinking water. Some groups are disproportionately exposed to lead, including those who live close to industrial facilities or with low socio economic status and workers in small or mobile workplaces such as radiator repair shops and construction sites......
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510002
Mazzotta M, Mazzotta AD, d'Ettorre G, Cazzato RG, Simone C and Fernandez M
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2015
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with possible carcinogenicity, according to European directives. Studies helped to clarify the contributions to the total dose resulting from environmental and occupational exposure, by tobacco smoke, by diet and skin absorption. Recently, it was shown that levels of 1-Hydroxypyrene U (1-OHPu) may be predictive of individual dose, environmental and employment exposure, proportionately even though indirectly expressing the concentr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510001
Carla Falugi, Chiara Gambardella, Tommaso Bonfiglio, Zoltan Rakonczay, Federico Biggi, Sara Novelli and Mariangela Masini
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 26, 2015
Even though the adverse effects on environment and organism health have been long and thoroughly studied, the problem represented by the continuous use of neurotoxic pesticides, in particular organophosphates (OPs, organic salts of the pyro phosphoric acid), is still open. These are considered as emerging pollutants, as their massive employment is relatively recent, dating after the ban of persistent organic pesticides. OPs are not persistent for a long time, as their half-life varies according ...
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