Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment is a global, open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes wide variety articles on all the aspects of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on people and the environment and assessing the risk involved. JTRA provides forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions globally. It acts as a platform for the authors to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community on toxicity assessment and prevention. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.

Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment provides research updates on Basic Toxicology, Public Health Toxicology, Environmental Toxicology, Computational Toxicology, Forensic Toxicology, Toxicology of Natural Products, Chemotherapy, Hepatoxic, Nephrotoxic and Neurotoxic Agents, Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, Toxicogenomics, Risk Assessment, Risk Management, Aquatic Toxicology, Automatism (Toxicology), Ecotoxicology, Entomotoxicology, Enzyme Inhibition, Forensic Toxicology, In vitro Toxicology, Indicative Limit Value, Medical Toxicology, Modes of Toxic Action, Overdose, Pollution, Toxicity, Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, Toxinology, etc. All formats of articles viz., original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment

ISSN: 2572-4061

Editor-in-chief: Lu Cai

NLM title abbreviation: J Toxicol Risk Assess

ICV: 85.97

ISO abbreviation: J Toxicol Risk Assess

Other titles: IJTRA

Category: Biological Science

DOI: 10.23937/2572-4061

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510053

Environmental Impacts and Health Risks of Open Landfills in West African Countries: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Robert FAOMOWE FOKO, El Hadj Malick KANE, Fatoumata BAH, Absa LAM, Cheikh DIOP, Mamadou FALL, Aminata TOURE and Mathilde CABRAL

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/04/30

In developing countries, despite the fact that most waste is composed mainly of materials of plant origin, the increasing industrialization of communities is increasingly involved in the generation of waste from industrial and agricultural activities and chemical remains. One of the consequences associated with the production of this waste is the emergence of open landfills as a disposal method, which has the effect of releasing several pollutants into the environment, including toxic metals. .....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510052

Large Left Ventricular Thrombus in a Patient with Methamphetamine Associated Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report

Jose Kristian Feliciano, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 06, 2023

The development of small or moderate size left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is a well-known complication in various cardiac conditions with the highest rate observed in acute anterior myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure (CHF) as a result of severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, but a huge LVT that almost protrudes to the aortic valve is an exceptionally rare phenomenon....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510051

Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies on the Trunk Bark Hydro- Ethanolic Extract of Stereospermum kunthianum Cham: In Wistar Rats

Dieynaba KONE, Abdou SARR, Fatoumata BAH, Serigne Ibra Mbacké DIENG, Aminata TOURÉ, Alioune Dior FALL, Mathilde CABRAL and Mamadou FALL

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2023

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the trunk bark hydro- ethanolic extract of Stereospermum Kunthianum Cham: in Wistar rats. For acute toxicity assessment, three 12-week-old female rats were administered by gavage a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of the trunk bark hydro-ethanolic extract of Stereospermum kunthianum. LD50 was estimated after 14 days of observation. Subacute toxicity was assessed at three dose levels: 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510050

Impact Surfactants on Aquatic Resources with References to Neurological Inhibition, Antioxidant Defenses, and Endocrine Disruption in Oreochromis niloticus induced with Alpha-Olefin Sulfonate

Ikpesu Thomas Ohwofasa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 03, 2022

Oreochromis niloticus were subjected to 30 days of α-Olefin Sulfonate sublethal toxicity test after which samples of brain, liver, and blood were collected for biochemicals evaluations. The brain under control treatment showed higher specific acetyl cholinesterase activity than the blood. Nonetheless, AChE activities in the brain and erythrocytes of O. niloticus exposed to sublethal concentration of α-OS revealed that the toxicant decreases the activities of the enzyme in both tissues, and the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510049

Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Toxic Metals and Metalloids Burdened Soil Due to Anthropogenic Influence

Omobolaji O Afolabi, Elekwachi Wali, Eze C Ihunda, Sunny O Asomaku, Olushola IT Yemi- Jonathan, Nnamdi C Ogbuehi, Lilian C Bosco-Abiahu, Maureen C Orji and Victoria O Emelu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 10, 2022

Landfill area is one of developing countries’ most common anthropogenically contaminated sites. The pressure of urbanization has led to increased waste generation in major cities, commonly deposited in landfills; hence, heavy metals contaminations are closer to the human environment than ever. The study assessed the environmental risk of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Colbat (Co), Cranium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb) in an abandoned landfill system and ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510048

Haemoatopoietic Alterations Induced by Cotton Insecticide Thalis 112 EC (Emamectin Benzoate 48 g/L, Acetamiprid 64 g/L) in African Catfish Clarias gariepinus


Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 23, 2022

Thalis 112 EC is the trade name of a binary insecticide (Emamectin benzoate 48 g/L, Acetamiprid 64 g/L) used in cotton growing in Benin. These compounds can lead to extensive side effects on the inhabitants living in that exposed area. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to this pesticide on the immune status of Clarias gariepinus....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510047

Evaluation of Gonadotoxic Effects of Cadmium and Iron Administered Via Tainted Diet Singly and Combined in Female Rats

Ogunbiyi OJ and Obi FO

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 06, 2022

Most studies on cadmium toxicity focus on its singly effect neglecting the fact that it does not occur alone in the environment but coexist along with other metals. The current study was therefore designed to examine the possible influence of iron (Fe) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the gonad of female rats. Twenty adult female albino rats used in this study were divided into four groups of five rats each....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510046

Global Impacts of Legalization and Decriminalization of Marijuana and Cannabis

Karen Mollner, MPAS, MS, PA-C

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 25, 2022

The purpose of this article is to discuss global public health impacts of legalization and decriminalization of marijuana and cannabis regarding physical and mental health impacts as well as accident and death reports. Extensive review of the current medical literature was performed with a focus on papers discussing medical effects from marijuana use, public health impacts from legalization and decriminalization of marijuana and accident and deat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510045

In vitro and in vivo Evaluation of the Toxicity Roots of Leptadenia hastata (PER) Decne. Cytotoxicity on Caco2 and HepG2 Cells, Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity on Wistar Rats

Fatoumata Bah, Pascale Marie Aimée Dozolme, Mama Sy Diallo, Ramadhan Nyandwi, Mohamadou Lamine Daffé, Aminata Touré, Absa Lam, Mathilde Cabral, MatarSeck, Serge Maria Moukha and Mamadou Fall

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 10, 2022

Nowadays, the use of medicinal plants, for treatment of several pathologies, continues to gain grounds throughout the world. Leptadenia hastata, like other medicinal plants, is used as therapeutic agent for several pathological conditions including diabetes mellitus, diarrhoea, and prostatitis, among other, however, limited data on its toxicity are available....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510044

Meta-Analyses of Glyphosate and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Expert Panel Conclusions and Recommendations

Kirman CR, Cocco P, Eslick GD, Villeneuve PJ and Hays SM

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 31, 2022

An expert panel was assembled to support a review of a series of recent publications using a modified Delphi format. These publications were scored based on a consideration of confidence in their methods, results, conclusions, and applicability to risk-based decision making. Mean confidence scores for the papers reviewed ranged from 53 to 74 (maximum score = 100), and key strengths and concerns were identified. This review highlights the need for transparency in meta-analyses. Different conclusi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510043

Cytotoxic Effects of Ceteareth-20 and Paraffinium Liquidum In Vitro

Duygu Kirkik, PhD, Fatih Hacimustafaoglu, PhD and Derya Altunkanat, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2022

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ceteareth-20 and paraffinium liquidium on cell viability and cytotoxicity in human lymphocyte in vitro. We studied the cytotoxic and inhibitory effects of ceteareth-20 and paraffinium liquidum on cell proliferation using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and cell proliferation (WST-1) assay. The cytotoxicity was enhanced when cells were treated with 1%, 5%, 25% and 50% paraffinium liquidium dilutions (p < 0.05). Moreover, cell number signifi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510042

Biochemical Changes in Hematological and Liver Parameters in Albino Rats Exposed to Azo Dye Adulterated Palm Oil

Kola-Ajibade Ibukun R, Jegede Rotimi J and Olusola Augustine O

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 26, 2021

In West Africa, the manufacturing and processing of palm oil are done on a small, medium, and large scale, it is therefore almost impossible to detect fraud in the system. A major disadvantage associated with the use of adulterants in palm oil is that the adulterants have not undergone adequate research and the degree of health hazards they can pose to humans when consumed. This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of azo dye adulterated palm oil on hematological and liver parameters...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510041

Effects of Azo Dye Adulterated Palm Oil on the Expression of Inflammatory, Functional, Antioxidant Markers and Body Weights in Albino Rats

Kola-Ajibade Ibukun R, Atere Grace and Olusola Augustine O

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 25, 2021

Food is important to life and the continuous exposure to food throughout an individual’s lifetime renders diet the most important environmental factor challenging the biological system. Only few studies exist for evaluations of the toxicological effects of adulterated palm oil on biochemical parameters. This study was undertaken to evaluate the expression of the activity of inflammatory enzymes (TNF-α, MCP-1), antioxidant enzymes (GPx-1, CAT) and functional markers (EPO, ALB, CRIM) in liver, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510040

Evaluation of Effect of Ethanol Extraction of Graptophyllum pictum on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Model through Toxicity Assay Assessment

Azrina Zainal Abidin, Subashini Visepomaran, Santhra Segaran Balan and Hasnah Bahari

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 17, 2021

Graptophyllum pictum is a medicinal plant that helps to cure different forms of disease due to the availability of beneficial phytochemicals such as flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the toxicity effect of G. pictum extract on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) at different concentrations. G. pictum was extracted using the ethanol method. A toxicity test was done by exposing the Danio rerio embryo to the G. pictum extraction at di...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510039

Toxic Metal Profiles, Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Human Health Risk Assessment of Some Locally Produced Beverages in Nigeria

Odangowei I Ogidi, Uchechi E Enenebeaku, Ebifanimi Okara and Stephanie A Elumelu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2021

Toxic metal contamination is a major problem of our environment and they are also one of the major contaminating agents of our food supply. The knowledge of metals in foods is essential for calculating the dietary intakes of essential metals and evaluation of human exposure to toxic elements. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic metal profiles, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risk of some locally produced beverages in Nigeria. Seven (7) samples of locally produced beverag...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510038

Science Advisory Panels: Results of a Survey of Panel Participants

SM Hays, RA Becker, DM Nelson and CR Kirman

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 10, 2021

Science panel deliberations serve as an important step in policy and regulatory decision making, ideally providing independent validation that the decisions under consideration are based on sound scientific evidence and interpretation. To be useful, the findings from a science panel should be trusted by all parties involved (e.g., regulatory decision makers, participating scientists, general public, regulated industries). A survey was conducted of scientists who had participated in science advis...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510037

Serum Glucose, Bilirubin, Liver Enzymes, Renal Parameters, Protein Profile and Some Electrolytes in Adult Male Domestic Rabbits Intoxicated with Chlorpyrifos

Maged M Yassin, Tareq O Adas and Mohammed M Yasin

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 05, 2021

Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum chlorinated organophosphate pesticide with a multipurpose use worldwide. However, its use and/or misuse could put a real threat on non-targets including humans and domestic animals. To assess the toxic effect of chlorpyrifos on serum glucose, bilirubin, liver enzymes, renal parameters, protein profile, and some electrolytes in adult male domestic rabbits. The oral LD50 of chlorpyrifos was determined, and then a daily dose of 1/10 LD50 was given orally to rabbits ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510036

Recent Advances on Renal Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles-A Review

Suresh VS Rana

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 22, 2021

Kidney is considered as the secondary target organ of nanoparticle (NP) toxicity. Since it is the primary organ of excretion, NPs are expected to adversely affect the renal system. Therefore, a comprehensive review of recent knowledge on renal toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) was made. Mechanistic paradigms of their toxicity have also been discussed. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that carbon nanotubes (CNT) caused cytotoxicity, glomerular degeneration and proximal tubular nec...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510035

A Comprehensive Assessment of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Engineered Nanoparticles- A Review

S V S Rana

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 17, 2020

Liver is the major detoxifying centre of the body. It removes xenobiotics and their metabolites through metabolism or biliary excretion. Hepatocytes constitute 80% of total liver mass and play a major role in storage, synthesis, metabolism and redistribution of essential molecules. Liver has been known to accumulate > 90% of nanomatrerials translocated from other organs. Bioconcentration of nanoparticles may lead to impairment of structure and function of hepatic cells. Therefore, it is critical...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510034

Psychological Impact of Medical Professionals Handling COVID-19 Patients in Hospitals

Anirban Biswas, Saroni Biswas and Arijit Bhowmik

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 22, 2020

COVID-19 pandemic became a death troll and cause of unbearable psychological pressure for all and the pandemic situation has been considered as a national disaster in India. Present study identified the mental health status of the medical professionals in different hospitals handling COVID-19 patients. We collected psychological data of medical professional using online questionnaire and identified their psychological status following three tools namely, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Depre...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510033

Quantification and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Groundwater and Soil of Residential Areas around Awotan Landfill, Ibadan, Southwest-Nigeria

Olagunju TE, Olagunju AO, Akawu IH and Ugokwe CU

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 29, 2020

Non-sanitary landfill poses enormous threats to lives. In this study, heavy metals in groundwater and soil of residential areas around Awotan landfill, Ibadan, Southwest-Nigeria were quantified and associated environmental and health risks were assessed within 1-150 m and 151-300 m radii. A total of 20 samples of groundwater and soil each were analysed for Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe and Zn using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Pb was above the WHO permissible limit in groundwater while Cd was ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510032

Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Rounding in IRIS: Risk Assessment Ramifications

Lawrence V Tannenbaum

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 10, 2020

Commonly, reference doses and reference concentrations, toxicity factors supporting non-cancer assessments for the chemical exposures of humans, are rounded values. While the U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System rather evidently employs this rounding practice so as to arrive at toxicity values that are uniform and simple in appearance, the particulars of the rounding approach are only loosely discussed. The analysis provided here found that reference dose and reference concentration rou...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510031

Epidemiology and Diffusion of Some Relevant Virus: Latitude, Air Pollutants and Humidity Role, Hypothesis of Work: Covid-19 Effect on the Air Pollution in Some World Region: What Implications?

Luisetto M, Ahmed Yesvi Rafa, Khaled Edbey, Ghulam Rasool Mashori, Farhan Ahmad and Oleg Yurevich Latyshev

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 09, 2020

Related some recent example of human virus diffusion and epidemiology is interesting to observe some facts related latitude, climate, air pollutants and other. In this work only few images are used to submit and hypothesis of work to better understand some process. Is interesting to observe that WUHAN is a region characterized by a specific air pollutants status and near two big river in a determinate latitude. Obviously, the human transmission and the relationship with animal transmission can n...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510030

Blood Lead, Urinary Lead and Urinary δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Levels among Children Living in Kinshasa, D R Congo: A Pilot Biomonitoring Study

Mputu MLC, Ndelo JP, Ndelo MP, Marini RD, Lusakibanza MM, Dubois N, Rozet E, Le Brun P, Cimanga KR and Charlier C

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2019

Lead exists naturally in the earth’s crust and it is widely used as a heavy metal. It is an environment toxicant that may deleteriously affect nervous, hematopoietic, skeletal, renal, endocrine and reproductive systems. So, exposure to lead in the environment continues to be a serious public health problem for all ages. Children are particularly susceptible to lead poisoning. They absorb more lead from their environment and their developing central nervous systems are vulnerable to the toxic. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510029

Toxicity Evaluation of Cellulose Nanofibers (Cnfs) for Cosmetic Industry Application

Soo Min Kim, Eun Ji Gwak, Seung Hwan Jeong, Sang Mock Lee, Woo Jong Sim and Jin Sik Kim

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 16, 2019

The two main types of nanocelluloses are cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Both CNFs and CNCs are nanoscale cellulose fibers that have shown reinforcing effects in polymer nanocomposites. CNCs and CNFs are different in shape, size and composition. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) is produced by mechanical treatment with or without enzymatic or chemical pre-treatment. The material consists of long and thin fibers which form a three-dimensional network. It has high viscosity an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510028

Heath Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Shrimp Acetes Sp. and Cincalok Collected in 2007 from Pantai Klebang, Peninsular Malaysia

Chee Kong Yap, Wan Hee Cheng, Mohd Hafetz Ali, Rosimah Nulit, Shih Hao Tony Peng, Mohamad Saupi Ismail and Chee Seng Leow

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2019

Sampling in Pantai Klebang, Melaka was done on 12th January 2007. The samples collected were Acetes sp. and the cincalok. The Acetes sp. was bought from the fishermen, while the cincalok was bought from the roadside. All collected shrimp samples were kept frozen until dissection was carried out. The frozen samples were thawed at room temperature and later on, cleaned with double-distilled water (DDW). The shrimps selected from the analysis had body lengths between 2.00-2.50 cm. Since most litera...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510027

Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Fish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from Two Lagoons in Southwestern Nigeria

Bassey OB and Chukwu LO

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 10, 2019

Pollution by heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems has become the central focus of environmental research, due to the threat it poses to consumers of fishery sources. This study seeks to assess the levels of accumulation and potential human risk associated with heavy metals in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Ologe and Badagry lagoons Southwestern Nigeria. The metals (Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in fish samples were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), while the estimated daily i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510026

Role of Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Hepatic Toxicity Induced by Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Following Intratracheal Instillation in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

Siva K Nalabotu, Nandini DPK Manne, Madhukar B Kolli, Geeta Nandyala, Radha K Para, Kevin M Rice, Cynthia B Jones and Eric R Blough

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019

Inhaled cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been shown to be capable of translocation to the liver where they can cause dose dependent toxic effects. Herein, we investigate if the deposition of cerium in the liver is linked to increased oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis. Specific pathogen free male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled with either vehicle (saline) or CeO2 nanoparticles (7.0 mg/kg) and euthanized 1, 3, 14, 28, 56, or 90 days post exposure. Liver samples were evaluated for e...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510025

Histopathological and Biochemical Response of Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus to Environmental Stressors from Two PollutedLagoons, Southwest Nigeria

Bassey Okon Bassey

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 17, 2019

Stressful environmental conditions are ecological force in modulating adaptive responses of fish populations in aquatic ecosystems with a large number of biochemical and physiological effects associated with increased fluxes of oxyradicals. This study was aimed to examine the impacts of oxidative stress and histological changes in organs of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Ologe and Badagry lagoons. Biomarkers such as biochemical markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510024

Effects of Fumes Inhaled from Cooked Meat

Shivam Joshi, MD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 14, 2019

Since 2015, the World Health Organization has regarded the ingestion of processed meat as a definite carcinogen and red meat as a probable carcinogen, basing their recommendations on studies showing an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The findings have led many to limit their ingestion of red and processed meat. Over the past several decades, a growing body of literature has formed regarding the possible harmful, if not carcinogenic, effects of fumes emanating from cooked meat on humans. In ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510023

Current Metal Pollution Status and Ecological Risk Impacts on Ologe and Badagry Lagoons In Lagos, Nigeria

Bassey O Bassey, Chibuisi G Alimba and Obinna L Chukwu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 15, 2019

Contamination of aquatic environment is increasing and has been associated with indiscriminate discharge of solid wastes and effluents generated from industrial, domestic and agricultural activities. These wastes and effluents contain harmful substances, such as metals, which constitute a major problem on the quality of the Nigerian coastal water. This study evaluated the impacts of heavy metals on the water and sediment quality of Ologe and Badagry Lagoons, South-West Nigeria. The heavy metals ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510022

Evaluation of Lung Cell Toxicity of Surfactants for Inhalation Route

Lindenberg F, Sichel F, Lechevrel M , Respaud R and Saint-Lorant G

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: May 15, 2019

Few data are available for excipients administered by inhalation route. This study evaluated the in vitro potential toxicity of three surfactants (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80 and Poloxamer 188) by using an original air-liquid interface (ALI) method of exposure compared to liquid/liquid (L/L) model. Two cell toxicity tests were conducted on BEAS-2B cells, a human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell lines; measurement of Lactate Dehydrogenase activity and XTT cell proliferation assay. We fou...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510021

Public and Environmental Health Effects of Plastic Wastes Disposal: A Review

Okunola A Alabi, Kehinde I Ologbonjaye, Oluwaseun Awosolu and Olufiropo E Alalade

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 12, 2019

Since 1950 to 2018, about 6.3 billion tonnes of plastics have been produced worldwide, 9% and 12% of which have been recycled and incinerated, respectively. Human population increase and consistent demand for plastics and plastic products are responsible for continuous increase in the production of plastics, generation of plastic waste and its accompanied environmental pollution. We have reviewed in this paper, the most relevant literatures on the different types of plastics in production, the h...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510020

Repeated Intravenous Dose Toxicity of Di-Isononyl Phthalate in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

Yanping Xue, Ning Chen, Tao Jiang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 22, 2019

The systemic toxic effects of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were evaluated in a 4-wk study in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were administered DINP intravenously at dosages of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg every other day for 4 wk. The control and the positive control group were administered vehicle (egg yolk phosphatides plus glycerol solutions) and 500 mg/kg di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), respectively. Clinical signs were observed immediately after administration and consumption of food, a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510019

Risk Assessment and Communication in Pharmaceuticals: Recognizing the Differences in Occupational Health and Medication Safety

Vivian SW Chan Fung

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: March 06, 2019

Pharmaceuticals are the most common medical intervention. Ensuring workers and members of the public get the most benefits from advances in modern medicine is a critical component of improving the health care system. Pharmaceuticals bring healing to patients but increased risk of illness have been reported among workers manufacturing, handling and administering pharmaceutical products with inadequate attention to personal safety. Their potential for both helping and harming human health can be p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510018

Heavy Metals Contents and Risk Assessment of Farmland on the Edge of Sichuan Basin

Mengling Yang, Dan Zhang, Lu Xu, Shamshad Khan, Fan Chen and Hao Jiang

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: March 04, 2019

This study features a survey of the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, Se) in surface soils (0-30 cm), carried out in edge of Sichuan Basin (Pingdi, Puan, Xingwen, Gulin). The contamination of heavy metals in soil was assessed with single-factor pollution index method and Nemerow comprehensive pollution index method. The results showed that Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co were main risk factors of soil heavy metal pollution. In Gulin, the concentrations of Cd, Mn and Se were higher t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510017

Plastic Additive Bisphenol A: Toxicity in Surface- and Groundwater Crustaceans

Gerhardt A

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019

Bisphenol A (BPA) is being considered by the European Union as a substance of very high concern, occurring worldwide due to its wide application in many plastic products, building materials, coatings and epoxy resins. The toxicity of BPA in groundwater invertebrates is insufficiently understood. Both acute (24 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity was compared in Daphnia magna and ecologically important crustaceans in surface water (Gammarus fossarum, Eucyclops serrulatus) and groundwater (Niphargopsis...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510016

A New QSAR Model for Acute Fish Toxicity based on Mined Structural Alerts

Giuseppina Gini, Thomas Ferrari, Anna Lombardo, Antonio Cassano and Emilio Benfenati

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 14, 2019

In this paper we discuss the problem of predicting the fish toxicity property of chemical compounds, and show how this can be approached using a computational intelligence method. There are two views on assessing toxicities: One says that such properties can be derived from the whole molecular structure, the other that some specific functional substructures, called Structural Alerts (SA), are able to explain the toxicity. In this work, a new Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) approach is prop...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510015

Incessant Risk Alarms Associated with Farming and Consuming Crops Cultivated in Host Communities of Gold Mining Operations in Ghana: Truth, Exaggeration, Ignorance or Mischief

Kenneth Bedu-Addo, Martha Ofori-Kuragu and Kwaku Boaky Apau

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 31, 2018

Heavy metals and metalloids, some of which are extremely beneficial for the survival of humans, flora and fauna can have devastating effects on same and the environment. Bioaccumulation and bio-magnification two methods via which metals and metalloids are assimilated into food chains as well as dermal and ingestion exposure to heavy metals and metalloids are believed by many residents in the Obuasi Municipality as leading public health threats to peasant farmers, their spouses and children. Risk...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510014

Exposure and Risk Assessment of Selected Chemical Hazards in Cabbage and Lettuce

Isaac W Ofosu, Samuel Akomea-Frempong, Emmanuel De-Graft J Owusu-Ansah and Godfred Darko

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 26, 2018

Many health-conscious consumers are increasingly making deliberate choices for plant-based diets because probably they think they were safer. Majority of these consumers who dwell in cities therefore demand leafy vegetables for their daily consumption. The demand has created the opportunity for many urban dwellers to join the business of vegetable cultivation using every space available. Urbanization is associated with industrialization, and with it comes the attendant anthropogenic hazards. Sub...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510013

A Review of Environmental Contamination by Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Egypt

Farag M Malhat, Naglaa M Loutfy, Sara M Greish and Mohamed Tawfic Ahmed

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 26, 2018

All pesticides are potentially toxic to all sorts of life and some are even classified as probable human carcinogens, neutrotoxics and endocrine system disruptors. The toxicity level of a pesticide depends on the lethal dose (LD) of the chemical, the length of exposure, and the route of entry or absorption by the body. There are many different pesticides in use today with very different modes of action and levels of toxicity. To protect the public, WHO has developed a hazard classification syste...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510012

Enhancing the Raman Scattering for Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Cancer Cells, Tissues and Tumors using Cadmium Oxide (Cdo) Nanoparticles

Alireza Heidari

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2018

In the current paper, the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) effect induced by Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles is used to observe Raman spectrum of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors. The diagnosis and treatment of human cancer cells, tissues and tumors in sample is investigated through Nanomaterial Surface Energy Transfer (NSET) process from human cancer cells, tissues and tumors to the surface of nanoparticles, and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) process, as effective fa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510011

Demonstrated Spatial Irrelevance of Gray Fox at Contaminated Sites: Are Ecological Risk Assessments for Mammals Necessary?

Lawrence V Tannenbaum, David M Bullis, Nicholas R Deuel, L Mike Conner, Michael J Chamberlain and Karl V Miller

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2018

Ecological risk assessments (ERAs) for contaminated terrestrial sites regularly include mammals as receptors-of-concern whose home ranges dwarf the sites by tens of times. As a consequence, opportunities to sustain chemical exposures of concern are greatly limited. In having notably miniscule densities as well, wide-ranging mammals are poorly selected species to evaluate because true populations are effectively non-existent at sites. Collectively, the case can be made that wide-ranging mammals a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510010

Recent Advances in Mercury Detection; Towards Enabling a Sensitive and Rapid Point-of-Check Measurement

Nurfatini Busairi and Amir Syahir

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 09, 2018

Heavy metals emission, in particular, mercury is ever increasing due to global urbanization and industrialization. Due to increasing number of health problems related to heavy metals contamination, monitoring it becomes a crucial task for authorities and environmentalists. Therefore, the development of a nanobiosensing technique that can detect mercury ions as low as 1 ppb for its limit of quantification is necessary to provide sufficient information to ensure a sustainable and healthy environme...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510009

Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Zinc Oxide (Zno) Nanoparticles Using Human Cell Lines

A Rama Narsimha Reddy and L Srividya

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 16, 2018

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles against human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK cells). The toxic effects of nanoparticles were analyzed after 24 hours of incubation with different cell lines using trypan blue dye exclusion method....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510008

Assessment of Environmental Contamination by Wastewater from a Cocoa Processing Industry Using Genetic and Reproductive Biomarkers

Alabi A Okunola, Esan E Babatunde, Olorunfunmi J Temitope and Oludare O Evelyn

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 25, 2017

Food industries are among the major contributors to industrial wastes. Their wastewaters can pose a threat if untreated and indiscriminately disposed into the environment. In this study, we investigated the potential genetic and reproductive toxicity of Cocoa processing industry wastewater, by using the mouse Micronucleus (MN) and sperm morphology assays....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510007

Accuracy of Admission Glasgow Coma Scale to Predict Aspiration Pneumonia in Poisoned Patients

Sebastien Champion and Vincent Spagnoli

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: August 01, 2017

Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) assesses the need and guides tracheal intubation in trauma patients. GCS provides a practical method for assessment of impairment of conscious level in response to defined stimuli. GCS is the sum of 3 sub-scores for eye opening (1 to 4), verbal (1 to 5), and best motor (1 to 6) response to stimulations....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510006

Is There any Relationship between Worldwide Pesticide Standard Values in Residential Soil, Drinking Water, and Agricultural Commodity Exposures?

Zijian Li and Aaron A Jennings

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 24, 2017

Human could exposure to pesticides via various exposure pathways. Worldwide jurisdictions are making efforts to manage human health risk by regulating pesticide standards in residential soil, drinking water, and agricultural commodity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510005

Suppression of Calpain-2 by Small Interfering RNA Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Pancreatic Acinar Cells AR42J

Bettina Hiemer, Alisa Bernert, Frederic LP Gabriel, Michael Wakileh and Heike Weber

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 19, 2017

Apoptosis is defined as controlled programmed cell death that occurs as physiological process in the development and morphogenesis of multi-cellular organisms, but is also implicated in various diseases, including acute pancreatitis. Apoptosis can be induced by a wide range of stimuli....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510004

Drug-facilitated Crime: A Diagnosis to Remember in the Emergency Department

Rocca F D, Pignatiello F, Casacanditella G, Tucci M and Favretto D

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 25, 2016

We report on a case of a young man arrived to the emergency department (ED) of the local hospital in a sleepy, confused state, and exhibiting anterograde amnesia. He reported to have been robbed. Toxicological analysis performed in his blood sample with a general unknown screening procedure including mass spectrometry detection revealed the presence of zolpidem....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510003

Long-Term Effects on Renal Function in Children and Adolescents Due to Environmental Exposure to Lead-Results from an 11-Year Prospective Cohort Study

Recio-Vega R, Gurrola-Mendez A, Valdez-Abrego C and Rivera-Guillen Mario

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2015

Lead is a widespread toxicant with well-established detrimental health effects. Environmental exposure to lead occurs through different means such as industrial and combustion sources, lead paint, folk remedies, glazed pottery, and sometimes by drinking water. Some groups are disproportionately exposed to lead, including those who live close to industrial facilities or with low socio economic status and workers in small or mobile workplaces such as radiator repair shops and construction sites......

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510002

Hydroxypyrene Excretion as Indicator of Cancer Risk in Street Sweepers and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs) Exposure

Mazzotta M, Mazzotta AD, d'Ettorre G, Cazzato RG, Simone C and Fernandez M

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2015

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with possible carcinogenicity, according to European directives. Studies helped to clarify the contributions to the total dose resulting from environmental and occupational exposure, by tobacco smoke, by diet and skin absorption. Recently, it was shown that levels of 1-Hydroxypyrene U (1-OHPu) may be predictive of individual dose, environmental and employment exposure, proportionately even though indirectly expressing the concentr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4061.1510001

Micronuclei Induction and Neurotoxic Effect in C6 Glioma Cells Exposed to Low Concentrations of Diazinon, an Organophosphorus Compound

Carla Falugi, Chiara Gambardella, Tommaso Bonfiglio, Zoltan Rakonczay, Federico Biggi, Sara Novelli and Mariangela Masini

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 26, 2015

Even though the adverse effects on environment and organism health have been long and thoroughly studied, the problem represented by the continuous use of neurotoxic pesticides, in particular organophosphates (OPs, organic salts of the pyro phosphoric acid), is still open. These are considered as emerging pollutants, as their massive employment is relatively recent, dating after the ban of persistent organic pesticides. OPs are not persistent for a long time, as their half-life varies according ...


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021


International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021