International Journal of Rare Diseases and Disorders is an open access, peer reviewed journal focused to raise awareness of rare diseases among physicians, clinicians and other medical professionals. The journal majorly covers conditions in rare genetic diseases, skin conditions, heart conditions, blood disorders, cancers, pediatric conditions, infectious diseases, and soft tissues.

Journal selectively publishes articles those qualify the thorough peer review process and meet the international standards of scientific publishing. All published articles are made available online as soon they are published without accession barriers. The journal invites original, reviews, cases and other type of articles including but not limited to the areas of allergic and immunologic disorders, benign neoplasms, cancers, cardiac and vascular conditions, endocrine and metabolic disorders, gastroenterologic conditions, hematologic disorders, infectious diseases, musculoskeletal conditions, neurologic conditions, ophthalmologic conditions, pediatric diseases, rheumatologic disorders, skin and soft tissue conditions, etc.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Rare Diseases & Disorders

ISSN: 2643-4571

Editor-in-chief: Sylvia Lee-Huang

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Rare Dis Disord

ISO abbreviation: Int J Rare Dis Disord

Other titles: IJRDD

Category: Rare Diseases

DOI: 10.23937/2643-4571

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710057

Navigating Rarity: Extranodal Presentation of Castleman Disease

Kovuri Umadevi, Lavanya Motrapu, Mohd Imran Ali and Rajarikam Nagarjunachary

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2024/01/27

Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder, originally described by Dr. Benjamin Castleman, characterized predominantly by enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes with unknown etiology. While it commonly affects mediastinal lymph nodes, occurrences in neck lymph nodes are less frequent, and presentation in the extremities is exceptionally rare. This report presents a case of a 55-year-old female with a 15-year history of a solitary swelling in her right arm. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710056

Interventions in Mowat Wilson Syndrome: A Scoping Review

Dolik-Michno Monika, Johnels Linn, Starbrink Magnus, Wandin Helena and Svedberg Lena

Article Type: Scoping Review | First Published: 2023/09/16

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. The syndrome occurs in both sexes but is potentially more frequently diagnosed in males. The number of new cases is estimated to be 1 in 50,000-70,000 born children. MWS is characterised by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and a range of other features including epilepsy, and Hirschsprung disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710055

Collagenous Sprue, a Rare Intestinal Pathology with Dismal Outcome

Nan Fang Wang and Nam Gu Kang

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/07/20

Collagenous sprue, a rare and poorly understood disease of the small bowel is characterized by progressive weight loss, chronic diarrhoea and malabsorption. Due to its rarity, it is often misdiagnosed as celiac disease as it presents in similar manner. However, collagenous sprue unlike celiac disease is often refractory to gluten free diet and has poor prognosis. The key distinction between collagenous sprue and celiac disease lies in the biopsy of the small bowel where collagenous sprue shows p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710054

Morbidity Risk across the Lifespan for Adults with Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Daniel G Whitney, PhD, Erin E Neil Knierbein, DO and Alecia K Daunter, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/07/12

Recently approved treatments for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) may shift clinical care priorities to secondary complications associated with SMA-related aging. To date, there is little knowledge about the natural history of morbidities across the adult lifespan for SMA. The objective of this study was to identify the risk of various morbidities among adults with vs. without SMA prior to SMA-related treatment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710053

Impact of Raising Children with Rare Diseases on Parental Quality of Life and Family Functioning

Yoonjeong Lim, PhD

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 2023/06/25

Forty parents of children with Barth Syndrome (BTHS) or congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) and forty parents of age-matched unaffected children participated in this study. Both groups of parents completed questionnaires providing information on their child’s functional ability, family cohesion, parental quality of life, and family functioning....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710050

Buerger’s Disease (Thromboangiitis Obliterans) among Smokers: A Literature Review

Ichlasul Mahdi Fardhani

Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: 2023/04/28

Buerger's disease or thromboangiitis obliterans [TAO] is a progressive inflammatory disease that is non atherosclerotic and segmental. Small and medium arteries in the upper and lower extremities are most commonly affected. Despite the etiology and pathophysiology of TAO being still unclear, smoking plays a vital role in the emergence and development of the disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710049

Some Rare Neurosurgical Pathologies in a Sub-Saharan Tertiary Hospital

Ohaegbulam SC, FRCSEd, FRCS, FWACS, FMCS, FICS, NNOM, Ndubuisi C and Okwunodulu Okwuoma

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 16, 2022

In sub-Saharan Africa, several neurosurgical diseases are rare in neurosurgical practice, in contrast to other climes. Poor diagnostic and health facilities are always blamed. More than six decades after the birth of neurosurgery in the region, those deficiencies and workforce have markedly improved in neurosciences. The aim of this study was to identify the uncommon cranial neurosurgical lesions and their frequency in the study centre....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710048

Development of an Innovative SQL-Based Approach to Identify Potential Patients with Neurotransmitter Disorders

Emily Fox, Vishal Mehta, Rajesh Madhu, Evangeline Wassmer, Ruchi Arora, Tony Cox, Dave Heaton, Julia Granerod and Mark Rance

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 16, 2022

The neurotransmitter disorders (NTDs) signs and symptoms range from early-onset severe neurological manifestations, often accompanied with developmental delay, to later-onset moderate movement disorders [1]. Timely diagnosis remains challenging. To develop the SQL algorithm we analysed pseudonymised patient records from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database, which covers all National Health Service inpatient admissions in England, between April 2010 and May 2020....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710047

Att. to Kabuki Syndrome (ORPHA: 2322)

Hermann Josef Mascher

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: July 24, 2022

Especially the metabolism around lysine seemed promising. I got from the parents of a Kabuki syndrome child a urine sample. The researcher who put me on this track was not able to deliver more urine samples within an appropriate time frame so our cooperation ended....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710046

Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease, A Case Report from Australia

Cecilia Gu and Sherman Gu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 04, 2022

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD), also known as Kikuchi’s disease or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis, is a rare and benign medical condition of unknown aetiology. It is often misdiagnosed as lymphoma or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), leading to inappropriate investigations and delayed treatment. It is thus important for clinicians to be cognizant of this condition when assessing patients with cervical lymphadenopathy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710045

Fahr's Syndrome Presenting with Dementia and Severe Hypocalcemia Decades after Total Thyroidectomy in A Woman Affected by Chronic Renal Failure and Psoriatic Arthritis: A Precipitating Role for Risankizumab?

Maurizio Giorelli, Tommaso Scarabino, Donato Iacobone and Pasquale Difazio

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 15, 2022

It may exist in an idiopathic form or it can be associated to calcium dysmetabolism due to parathormone (PTH) defect or signaling. Symptoms may span from parkinsonism to psychiatric syndromes, ataxia, convulsive seizures and dementia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710044

Very Rare Cause of Fixed Obstruction and Severe Asthma: A Case with Keutel Syndrome

Aysegul Canoglu1, Adem Dirican, MD, Sevket Ozkaya, MD and Ali Kutlu, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 15, 2022

Keutel syndrome is rare inherited disorder with mutations in the matrix G1a protein (MGP). Most of the patient is diagnosed in early childhood. They admitted to the hospital due to hearing loss, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, chronic cough....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710043

Predictors of Quality of Life of Children and Adolescents with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Juliana van de Sande Lee, MD, MSc, Genoir Simoni, MD, Ana Paula Vanz, MSc, Têmis Maria Félix MD, PhD, João Carlos Xikota, MD, PhD, Sílvia Modesto Nassar, TI, PhD, Maria Luiza Cimardi Rupp and Maria Marlene de Souza Pires, MD, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 22, 2022

Knowing the predictors of quality of life (QoL) of children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) can optimize their treatment. The present study evaluated a longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents in a reference center for OI. The results showed that we must target reducing fractures and pain and focus on rehabilitation. To evaluate the predictors of quality of life (QoL) of children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were taken from a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710042

Follicular Mucinosis in Childhood: A Rare, but Significant Diagnosis

Maria Luiza Cimardi Rupp, Marice El Achkar Mello, MD, Amanda Amaro Pereira, MD, Maria Marlene de Souza Pires, MD, PhD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 21, 2022

Follicular mucinosis (FM) is a rare cutaneous disease with unclear etiology; it was firstly described by Pinkus, et al. in 1957, who named it mucinous alopecia, referring to a characteristic process of the FM, which leads to alopecia. As this process was not seen on all developments of the disease, in 1959 Jablonska, et al. proposed to name it Follicular mucinosis. Follicular mucinosis is uncommon in children. Using the online searching databases Scielo and PubMed, during the past 10 years, only...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710041

The Rare Disease Advisory Council Expands its Reach into West Virginia Appalachia: A Call to Action

Nadia Falah, MD

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: April 21, 2022

Patients with rare diseases in rural Appalachia face an additional hurdle in getting care. West Virginia is the only state wholly within the Appalachian region, which is noted for having some of the nation's worst health disparities. The West Virginia Advisory Council on Rare Diseases was established in January 2020 as part of the Rare Disease Advisory Council (RDAC) Acts, with the goal of developing strategies and recommendations to reduce health inequalities among West Virginians with rare dis...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710040

Yellow Nail Syndrome: When Management Seems More Intriguing Than the Diagnosis

Konstantinos Porpodis, Ioanna Filippou, Ioanna Tsiouprou and Theodore Kontakiotis

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: April 08, 2022

Yellow nail syndrome is a rare condition of unknown etiology, which is defined by the triad of yellow, slowly growing thickened nails, lymphedema, and respiratory manifestations. In order to strengthen the literature on this topic, we report the case of a 64-year-old man with yellow nail syndrome and recurrent pleural effusion. The patient was referred to the Emergency Department because of dry cough and gradually worsening dyspnea over the previous two months. A diagnosis of yellow nail syndrom...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710039

Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas in Algeria: Results from a Multicenter Registry Study

Nadia Boudjera Belarbi, Mohamed Amine Bekadja, Mohanad Tayeb Abad, David Webb and Fatiha Grifi

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: March 24, 2022

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of aggressive malignancies derived from mature (postthymic) T lymphocytes. Currently, there are no published data describing the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Algerian patients with PTCL. To describe the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients included in an Algerian PTCL registry. Multicenter, non-interventional, cohort registry study of all patients with a diagnosis of PTCL attending four spec...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710038

The Urofacial (Ochoa) Syndrome

N Hazzab, S Mrhar, H Nassih, A Bourrahouat and I Aitsab

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 12, 2021

The urofacial (Ochoa) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by congenital obstructive uropathy and abnormal facial expression. We reported the case of a child aged six-years-old, the second child of consanguineous parents, the father reported that she has suffered from episodes of urinary tract infection, and enuresis. She was admitted in our department for an urinary tract infection. The clinical examination showed a characteristic, inverted, facial expression. The urea a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710037

Successful ICU Care in a MERRF Patient with Severe Covid-19

Scott Clanton II, Rajani Adiga, MS, Amy Christie, MD, FACS and Dennis Ashley, MD, FACS, FCCM

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2021

Mitochondrial myopathies are a spectrum of rare diseases caused by a genetic defect in ATP production at the level of the electron transport chain. The degree of disability is variable, but often patients are severely ill and highly susceptible to increased morbidity and mortality with infection. Covid-19 is known to be especially virulent in patients with significant comorbidities. In this case, a 27-year-old man with Myoclonus Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers (MERRF) presented in severe shock d...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710036

Reducing Global Health Inequalities in People with Prader- Willi Syndrome: The Role of the International Prader-Willi Syndrome Organization

Anthony Holland and Marguerite Hughes

Article Type: Opinion Piece | First Published: September 10, 2021

The International Prader-Willi Syndrome Organization (IPWSO) is a global charity first established in 1991 to support the needs of children and adults with the genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder, Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), together with their families and health and social care professionals working with them. PWS affects all races and both genders equally and is associated with a complex physical and behavioral phenotype that requires interdisciplinary lifelong health support,...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710035

Falls and Associated Factors among Adolescents and Young Adults with Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita

Jaclyn Megan Sions, PhD, DPT, PT, Maureen Donohoe, DPT, PT, Emma Haldane Beisheim, DPT, PT, Tracy Michele Shank, MS, OTR/L, CHT and Louise Reid Nichols, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 06, 2021

Falls research among individuals with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), a group of congenital conditions characterized by joint contractures in two or more body regions, is sparse. The primary objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of single, multiple, and injurious falls among adolescents and adults with AMC and identify factors associated with multiple and injurious falls. Individuals, aged 10-50 years, with a diagnosis of AMC completed questionnaires obtaining demogr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710034

Incentives for Pharmaceutical Companies to Develop Treatments for Rare Diseases: A Review of the Literature

Syed Abedi, Jessica Chen, Sarala Joshi, Shefali Singh, Mustafa Sultan and Sifan Zheng

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 04, 2021

Numerous patients suffering from orphan diseases still lack a treatment. Pharmaceutical companies play a crucial role in the advancement of orphan drug development. This systematic literature review aims to identify and categorise current incentivising factors for pharmaceutical companies to develop orphan drugs. EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were systematically searched for terms related to orphan drug development incentives for pharmaceutical companies. Research findings were qualitatively eval...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710033

A Case of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in Kenya

Aura Mwende, Athul Kooliyath, Pauline Samia, Kavulani Mutiso, Ravjit Sagoo, Patricia Okiro, Stanley Mugambi and Angela Migowa

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 03, 2021

Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare and disabling disorder that affects 1 in 2 million individuals worldwide. It is caused by mutations in bone morphogenetic protein which leads to extra-skeletal ossification of soft tissues in a characteristic cranio-caudal pattern. Hallux valgus, episodic flares and progressive functional disability are characteristic features. The cause of death is often cardio-respiratory failure following thoracic insufficiency. A two year 5-mon...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710032

Mainstream Health Care for Adults with Intellectual Disability due to Rare Causes

Robyn A Wallace, BSc(Hons), DipEd, MSc, MBBS, FRACP, PhD, CF, FAFRM, Dip Pall Clin Care, G Dip Neuroscience, MD

Article Type: Brief Communication | First Published: July 29, 2021

At least half of adults with intellectual disability are estimated to have diagnosed or undiagnosed chromosomal or DNA mutations as the cause of their intellectual disability, which, by definition, are rare. Mostly however, associated physical health problems are not rare. An unintended consequence of focus on the rareness of the cause of the intellectual disability, no matter how useful that is to understanding the syndrome, is that it deflects attention away from the relatively common physical...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710031

Comparison of Surrogate Parameters between CF-Patients in Frankfurt and Moscow (1990-2015)

Jean-Pascal Varescon, Christina Smaczny, Olaf Eickmeier, Gulja Babadjanova, Yulia Philippova, Stanislav Krasovskiy, Elena Amelina and Thomas Otto Friedrich Wagner

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 24, 2021

Previous studies have demonstrated that CF prognosis is dependent of three major parameters: FEV1, BMI and need of intravenous antibiotic therapy. The CF centres of Frankfurt, Germany, and Moscow, Russia, care for cystic fibrosis patients. We decided to investigate and compare both centers from 1990 to 2015. No comparable study has been published so far. German patient data was collected from the national cystic fibrosis database “Muko.web”. Missing values were extracted from the Hospital In...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710030

A Qualitative Methodology to Support the Evaluation of Novel Treatments for Hyperphagia in People with Prader-Willi Syndrome

Mindy Leffler, MEd, Sonya J Elder, PhD, Siri Bolding, PhD, Megan Hefner, MS, Jennifer L Miller, MD Parisa Salehi, MD, Anthony J Holland, MD, Anish Bhatnagar, MD, Kristen Yen, MS, Patricia C Hirano, MPH and Kristina Davis, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 30, 2021

Assessing change in symptoms affecting people with Prader Willi Syndrome (PWS), a rare disease, is complicated by the influence of different levels of food security procedures and the impact of immediate circumstances on symptom presentation and severity. We report on the use of qualitative interviews to collect information on behavioral change and on the impact of factors specific to individual participants with PWS in a clinical trial. Soleno Therapeutics’ Phase 3 program consists of a doubl...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710029

Defining a Growing and Maturing Skeleton and its Relevance in Diseases that Affect Skeletal Growth, Such as X-Linked Hypophosphataemia (XLH)

Signe Beck-Nielsen, Nella Augusta Greggio and Lars Hagenӓs

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 17, 2021

The human skeleton is composed of bone, a living tissue that undergoes constant development throughout life. It is well established that changes in bone metabolism during the developmental stages of growth, modelling and remodelling determine long-lasting physiological parameters, such as final height achieved, peak bone mass, bone quality and bone health. A complex interplay of environmental, genetic, nutritional, physiological and behavioural factors plays a role in these processes. These modi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710028

A Biochemical Analysis beyond the Muscle Contraction and its Relation with Isaac Syndrome

Valdemir Aquino de Freitas Neto

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2020

Isaac Syndrome is an autoimmune disease related to the involuntary contraction of skeletal muscles. The author, thus, is going to connect it with the process of muscle contraction through a biochemical study, analysing the pathway from a nervous impulse to the open of voltage-gated Potassium channels and the releasing of Ca2+ on myofibrils. This paper intends to introduce this rare disease and to induce further researches in order to find a cure. The muscle contraction process starts on the Na+/...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710027

A Novel Case of Maffucci Syndrome and a Likely High-Grade Lymphoma

Fleming S, Player P, Ladani S, Miall F, Goldney J and Levy MJ

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 16, 2020

A 54-year-old male with a history of Maffucci syndrome and Marginal Zone Lymphoma, presented with a 4-week history of headache, right-sidedptosis and diplopia. Whole-body imaging revealed a mass in the pituitary fossa that was likely lymphomatous. Despite diagnostic uncertainty, the mass was treated as transformation of Marginal Zone Lymphoma to a high-grade lymphoma. This report analyses how and why the multi-disciplinary team treated the patient without a biopsy. The case highlights a possible...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710025

Distal Arthrogryposis Type Six and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, in a Girl: First Pediatric Case

Houda Nassih, R El Qadiry, A Bourrahouat, and I Ait Sab

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 12, 2020

Arthrogryposis type six is one of the distal arthrogryposes. It associates arthrogryposis of the hands and sensorineural deafness. Male-to-male transmission was observed. No gene has been identified to date. We report a unique case of a girl presenting with congenital arthrogryposis-like hand anomaly, sensorineural deafness, and acute onset of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Arthrogryposis-like hand and deafness syndrome or distal arthrogryposis type 6 (DA6) is characterized by an arthrogryp...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710026

A Rare Case of an Ascending Aorta and Aortic Arch Aneurysm with an Aberrant Right Common Carotid Artery and a Proximal Descending Aortic Ectasia

Mikhail M Olalo, MD and Syril Bren P Guillermo, MD, FPCP, FPCC

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 12, 2020

Ascending aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic and are usually discovered as an incidental finding on chest imaging. However, larger aneurysms can present with symptoms resulting from compression of surrounding structures including the trachea, bronchi, and the esophagus which can result in hoarseness, cough chest pain or back pain. The presence of an aortic arch anomaly, specifically an aberrant right common carotid artery, in a background of an aortic arch aneurysm is extremely rare with a worldw...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710024

Carotid Paragangliomas Related to Form Involving Multiple Systems (Syndromes and Diseases): A Systematic Literature Review

Francisco S Lozano-Sánchez MD, PhD, Angel Muñoz MD, PhD, José A de las Heras MD, PhD, Rogelio González-Sarmiento, MD, PhD and M Begoña García-Cenador MD, PhD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 12, 2020

Carotid paragangliomas are infrequent tumours, generally single, non-functional and benign. Nevertheless, the biology of these tumours occasionally means they are bilateral, multicentric, functional and malignant. Such infrequency and the different ways they manifest themselves pose a diagnostic/ therapeutic challenge that is reflected in the final outcomes. According to the Shamblin classification, 75% of carotid paragangliomas are either Type I (tumour smaller than 4 cm, weakly attached to the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710022

Case Report: Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome Associated with a Chest Mass in a Pediatric Patient

William Im, Marla Sacks, Laura Goodman and Andrei Radulescu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 02, 2020

Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome is a rare disease with an incidence rate of about one in one million per year worldwide. It is caused by granulomatous, nonspecific inflammation of the cavernous sinus, which results in severe headaches, eye pain, and ophthalmoplegia. This is the case of a previously healthy 10-year-old male with a family history significant for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Squamous cell carcinoma who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with an intense recurring headache and ophthalmo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710021

A Rare Case of Raised Alkaline Phosphatase - Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia

Dhanuja Senn and Mehdi Mirzazadeh

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 02, 2020

Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon, bone development abnormality characterized by the replacement of normal cancellous bone by fibrous tissue and immature woven bone. Classified according to the number of affected bones, fibrous dysplasia can affect any bones of the skeletal system, with long bones the most commonly documented site of involvement. Typically, diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological findings. However, due to its broad clinical spectrum, it remains a therapeutic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710020

Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors in Patients with Hemophagocytic Syndrome

César Antonio Egües Dubuc, MD, Jaime Calvo-Alen, MD, PhD, Lizbeth Patricia Cabrera-Miranda, MD, Andrea De Diego Sola, MD, José Ramon Furundarena Salsamendi, MD, Nerea Alcorta Lorenzo, MD, Jesús Alejandro Valero Jaimes, MD, Luis María López Dominguez, MD, Jorge Jesús Cancio Fanlo, MD, Olga Maiz Alonso, MD, Esther Uriarte Isacelaya, MD and Joaquín María Belzunegui Otano, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 09, 2020

The mortality rate of Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS) is 26.5%-74.8%. Malignant neoplasms, hyperferritinemia, thrombocytopenia, older age, hypertriglyceridemia, and prolonged prothrombin are considered to be adverse prognostic factors. This study describes the underlying features of patients survivors and non-survivors with HPS from one hospital between 2005-2019. This is a retrospective study. We included patient with HPS diagnosis based on the HLH-2004 criteria, or who presented hemophagocytic c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710019

COVID -19 Pandemic and Level of Responses in Bangladesh

Md Kariul Islam, MSS, MPH, Md Shukur Ali, PhD, SAM Ziaur Rahman Akanda, MSc, Shahnaz Rahman, BA, AHM Kamruzzaman, MBA, DBA, Sharif Abdul Kader Pavel, MPH and Jannatul Baki, MBA

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 24, 2020

Bangladesh is a South East Asian natural beautiful middle income country. Its economy is flourishing rapidly. In the last decade immense development has been noticed in every sphere of life including women empowerment. However, incidence of COVID-19 Pandemic has influenced every sector of Bangladesh badly. The area of Bangladesh is about 1,47,570s km and about 160 million people live here with peace and amity. Naturally, the density of population of this country is very high in comparing to some...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710017

A Solution for the Treatment of a Neglected Subset of Rare Diseases

Grant E Fisher

Article Type: Position Statement | First Published: May 07, 2020

Individual HRDs are made up of small patient populations, thus the high individual prices will amount to a relatively small total cost to insurers and the healthcare system overall. Treatments for HRDs will, in almost all cases, represent the first and only available treatments. As the collective price will not be problematic and with treatments being the first available, insurers will have an incentive to cover the prices necessary to develop and commercialize these therapies....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710018

Non-biopsy Diagnosis of Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis Presented with Cardiomyopathy and Peripheral Neuropathy in a Chinese Man in Hong Kong

Mei Han Ho, MBBS, MRes (Med), MRCP, Pui Lun Yip, MB, ChB, FHKAM (Med), Cheuk Bong Ho, MBBS, MRCP, Felix Chi Kin Wong, MBBS, MHKC (Path), Sammy Pak Lam Chen, FRCPA, FHKAM (Pathology) and Chi Yuen Wong, FHKCP, FHKAM (Med)

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 16, 2020

Amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by deposition of misfolded amyloid protein, which commonly affects myocardium, nerves, kidneys and various organs. The clinical presentation is highly variable. We herein describe, to our knowledge, the first case of a Chinese man with hereditary transthyretin related cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR) with Ala117Ser mutation in Hong Kong who presented with peripheral neuropathy and congestive heart failure. Echocardiography showed left ventricular hypertrophy...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710016

Rare Diseases in Mediaeval Europe

Dooms M

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 28, 2020

Monastic rules made an end to infanticide and child neglect in the Middle-Ages by caring for children with (rare) disorders: Disabled and impaired citizens became part of daily life. Historic, paleo-pathological, iconographic and genetic research revealed several cases of acromegaly, achondroplasia, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, Dupuytren’s contraction, goiter, Marfan syndrome, Paget’s disease and phenylketonuria. These observations want to illustrate that d...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710014

Case Series Synopsis: Gaucher Disease Type 1 Patients Treated with Eliglustat over 6 Years

Cristina Fraga, Sonia Medeiros, Sara Serpa and David Silva

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: January 08, 2020

Gaucher disease (GD) type 1 is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with bone disease, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Here we present a case series from 5 (3 females and 2 males) Portuguese individuals from a single institution with GD type 1 who were treated with substrate-reduction therapy (eliglustat, 84 mg once or twice daily) for 6-years. Four cases were switched from IV imiglucerase (28 U/kg q2 week [n = 1]) or 45 U/kg q2 week [n = 3]) and one was enzyme-replacement th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710013

Disseminated Cryptococcosis in a Deceptively Immunocompetent Adolescent

Vivek Sood, Raja Ramachandran, Rakesh Kumar Pilania, Arun Prabhakar, Neeraj Inamdar, Navin Pattanashetti, Vibhu Joshi, Madhubala Sharma, Amit Rawat, HS Kohli and KL Gupta

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 28, 2019

Cryptococcosis particularly if disseminated or extrapulmonary, in an otherwise immune-competent individual, especially if young, requires thorough evaluation for underlying primary immunodeficiency including Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). In this context, we describe an adolescent diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis involving skin, lymph nodes, spleen and hepato-biliary involvement with reduced IL-12β1 receptor expression suggesting underlying MSMD. Following i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710012

Fulminant Progressive Brainstem Encephalitis as Initial Manifestation of NeuroBechet's Disease

Tierra Rodriguez AM, MD, Fernandez Diaz A, M2, Perez Ruiz D, MD and Lopez Prada B, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 07, 2019

Bechet's disease is a multisystemic process that can mimic many other diseases. Neurological features can be its first-onset symptoms. Brainstem is usually affected, so that a wide differential diagnosis is mandatory. We report the case of a patient who developed a fulminant and rapidly progressive brainstem encephalitis owing to NeuroBechet's disease. Bechet's disease (BD) is a hard-to-diagnose entity. Neurological features can sometimes be the first manifestation of the disease. Its symptoms c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710011

Dietary Intake and Hedonic Preferences for Sodium in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults with Barth Syndrome

Stacey Reynolds PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, M Emily Tucker MS, OTR/L, W Todd Cade, PT, PhD, Nicol Clayton and Shelly J Lane PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 28, 2019

Individuals with Barth syndrome (BTHS) present with decreased activity tolerance and high fatigability. Recent evidence suggests that differences in metabolic function in BTHS negatively impact the production of aerobic energy for activity and maintenance of muscle mass. Recommendations on a metabolically beneficial diet are complicated by selective eating behaviors often seen in individuals with BTHS. While known to be selective eaters with a preference for salty foods, there is limited evidenc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710009

Adult-Onset Epilepsy in Klinefelter Syndrome? Cognitive and Neurophysiological Evaluation of a 56-Year-Old Man

Yvonne Holler Adriana Sciarrone, Aljoscha Thomschewski and Nathalie Gerner

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 06, 2019

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common sex chromosome abnormalities and several cases are documented where children with KS present with epilepsy. Also, cognitive function deficits are common, despite high-functioning cases might occur. However, most reported cases are children or young adults. This case suggests that high-functioning patients with KS may present with epilepsy-typical activity, that could be indicative for late-onset epilepsy. Diagnostic means of routine EEG can be ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4571/1710008

Baseline Knowledge of Rare Diseases in India - A Survey

Agrawal RK, Amaresh Rao M, Brian M, Chowdary GKB, Gayatri K, Krishnaji Rao M, Sambasiva Rao P, Namineni S, Srinivasa Rao N, Sikri BR, Syed S, Gawron S, Agarwal DR, Lakshmi K and Ramaiah Muthyala

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 29, 2019

Recently, rare diseases have received worldwide attention. The developing countries have fallen seriously behind in regards to awareness, drug development, diagnosis, and social services. India, which has one-third of world rare diseases population, has neither accepted definition for RD nor an accurate assessment of the problem. Due to the exorbitant cost of orphan drugs, difficulties in diagnosis and treatments, the Indian government is often in a dilemma as to how to effectively, and efficien...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijrdd-2017/1710007

Cladribine in the Treatment of Systemic Mastocytosis, a Review of the Literature

Marlies EHM and Van Hoef, MD, Phd, MBA

Article Type: REVIEW ARTICLE | First Published: March 07, 2019

Mastocystosis is a rare disease for which treatment with cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine) was first reported in 2001. Cladribine has meanwhile been administered in over hundred reported cases and is available for intravenous and subcutaneous administration. Cladribine has mainly been used in systemic mastocytosis and in larger series responses were obtained in over 50% of cases in which treatment with H1/H2 blockers, interferon or tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not induce a response. Literatu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijrdd-2017/1710006

Is Phoenicia the Origin of the N1303K CFTR Mutation?

Raed Farhat, Marie Claude Pasquet, Sandra Corbani, Andre Megarbane, Alain Kitzis and Veronique Ladeveze

Article Type: Commentray | First Published: January 26, 2019

The history of Lebanon, characterized by flows of different ethnic groups, has enabled the introduction of new genes and a wide variety of genetic diseases. The early development of medical services in Lebanon has facilitated the detection of many inherent disorders. CF figures among the 184 reported genetic diseases of the Lebanese population. Even though no epidemiological studies were performed to determine the CF incidence in Lebanon, multiple factors advocate that it could be relatively hig...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijrdd-2017/1710005

Evaluation and Valuation of the Price of Expensive Medicinal Products: Application of the Discounted Cash Flow to Orphan Drugs

Mark Nuijten, Hans Joerg Fugel and Jan Vis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 19, 2018

The current policy for price negotiations on high prices of orphan drugs in Europe is neither a transparent nor a structural solution for reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs. In a previous paper, we proposed the Discounted Cash Flow model as an alternative assessment methodology for the price of innovative drugs including the investor's perspective. The objective of this current paper was to apply this concept to orphan drugs in The Netherlands, where pharmaceutical companies were recently ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijrdd-2017/1710004

Retinal Overload Individualized during Hurler-Scheie Disease: Case Study Observations

Amine Hamma

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 11, 2018

Hurler-Scheie disease is an intermediate form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. It is a rare metabolic disease that is transmitted in an autosomal recessive mode and causes overload of mucopolysaccharides in all organs including the eye....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijrdd-2017/1710003

Concurrent Breast Cancer and Thymoma in an Immune Reconstituted HIV Positive Patient

SJ Winceslaus, Venkateshwaran Sivaraj, Julia Hall and Ramsay Singer

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 21, 2018

The expectation that the introduction of modern cART against HIV, leading to viral suppression and functional cure, would also herald complete immunological recovery has not materialised. In reality, even with the most effective cART, complete immunological recovery is seldom achieved, especially, if initiated at later stages of the disease. Thus, patients who do not achieve full immunological recovery remain at increased risk of cancers, chronic immune activation, inflammation and impaired coag...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijrdd-2017/1710002

First Case of Gyrate Atrophy with Hyperornithinemia in Cuba Diagnosed by Ornithine Levels and Ophthalmological Evaluation

Contreras Roura Jiovanna, Robaina Zoe, Camayd Viera Ivette, Gonzalez-Gomez JC, Perez Garcia E, Martinez-Rey Laritza and Padron Aurelio David

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 29, 2018

Gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid and retina (GACR) is an extremely rare inherited retinal dystrophy. The disease is an autosomic recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the ornithine aminotransferase gene (OAT), which is localized on chromosome 10q26....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijrdd-2017/1710001

Hereditary Ichthyosis and Achieving the Oral Mucosa, Retrospective Study of 33 Cases

Pr Omar Boudghene Stambouli and Dib Lachachi Amina

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: October 19, 2017

This is the most frequent and is transmitted on an autosomal dominant mode. It appears from the first months of life and is manifested by flaky scales on the faces of extension of the limbs and convexities in general. The face and the large folds are respected....


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021


International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021