A Review of the Public Health and Municipal Hospital Response to the Bronx County, New York Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak
Michael Skelly, Mohammad Abu-Hishmeh, Jaime Mogollon, Ibrahim El Husseini, Yekaterina Sitnitskaya, Nicholas Caputo, Riyad Basir, Talya Toledano, Menachem Gold, Mohamed Ramadan, Edgardo Guzman, Isaac Boyack and Karen Hennessey
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 22, 2020
The second largest outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in United States history began in July, 2015 in Bronx County, NY. It was initially described as a single outbreak affecting 138 patients with 16 deaths. Subsequently, additional cases were noted in the same area and time period, officially attributed to different exposures, making the final total 155 patients and 17 deaths before ending in September, 2015. The largest portion of cases was seen at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center with...
The Emergent Pandemic- A Review on Coronavirus SARSCov- 2: Virology, Pathogenesis and Outbreak
Dr. Karan R Shah, Dr. Dipika B Utekar, Dr. Shital S Nikam, Dr. Ajay R Bhoosreddy and Dr. Seema R Patil
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 26, 2020
The coronaviruses have been found to affect the human life and ecosystem since past few years now. First the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), then MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) and now the recent infection caused by yet another category of coronaviruses have proved to be fatal to human life. In December 2019, few cases of pneumonia of unknown cause were reported in the Hubei province of Wuhan City, China. Later after thorough investigations it was found that these patients wer...
The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Infectious Diseases
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 19, 2020
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in spring/summer air and water reach germicidal levels. It is proposed that variations in naturally occurring ROS are the primary cause of influenza seasonality. Recent NIH and DHS COVID-19 aerosol and droplet log kill measurements do not account for this natural germicidal effect leading to over estimations of halflife for the virus in real world conditions. A new formulation of the Wells Riley equation is proposed that includes ROS and viral load factors. It is pr...
Bromhexine Hydrochloride: Potential Approach to Prevent or Treat Early Stage Novel 2019 Coronavirus Disease
Dmitry Stepanov, DESA and Peter Lierz, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: June 20, 2020
An emerging international outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already become a problem for physicians and scientists globally. Although the majority of patients withstand the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) without vital threats, many people develop severe respiratory failure, leading to fatal consequences. A clinical trial from Wuhan, China has demonstrated that 86% of the patients who required invasive ventilation and 79% among those who needed a non-invasive ventilatory...
Burden of Hepatitis B Infection among High Risk Populations in Western Kenya
Mercy Jelagat Karoney, MBChB, MSc, MMed, Fatuma Faraj Some, MBChB, MBA MMed, Hellen Irusa Lukhaka Dip, Eric Wang'welo Dip, Laban Kipkemei Murgor BA and Adrian Gardner, MD, MPH
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 13, 2020
Hepatitis B infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B infection has been on the rise since 1990 with the highest prevalence reported in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care workers, intravenous drug users, commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSM) are high risk groups for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Due to similar routes of transmission, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals are also at high risk for Hepatitis B infec...
Adverse Effects of Prolonged Mask Use among Healthcare Professionals during COVID-19
Elisheva Rosner, MSN, RN-C
Article Type: Survey | First Published: June 01, 2020
In March 2020, New York City encountered its first official case of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This novel coronavirus, referred to as SARS-COV 2, originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Within a short amount of time, hundreds of thousands of cases were diagnosed around the world and the United States, causing the World Health Organization to announce it as an official infectious disease pandemic on January 30, 2020. COVID-19 is spread by respiratory droplets, and healthcare profes...
When Influenza A and COVID-19 Infections Co-exist: A Case Report
Ibrahim Haddad, MD, Mohammad Alomari, MD, Bara El Kurdi, MD, Vindhya Sriramoju, MD and Rupal Shah, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 29, 2020
A 55-year-old man, who presented to our emergency department complaining of pleuritic chest pain for two days before admission. At the time of evaluation, he endorsed the presence of minimal sore throat and dry cough in the absence of fever, shortness breath, recent travel, or contact with sick people. His vital signs were within normal limits and physical examination was positive for right-sided scattered wheezes but otherwise unremarkable. In the emergency department he had a chest X-ray which...
A Multicountry Level Comparison of BCG Vaccination Policy and COVID-19 Cases and Mortality
Moses Katbi, Oluwatosin Adeoye, Adefisayo Adedoyin, Adeoye Adegboye, Iyiola Faturiyele, Maryam Bello, Rose Khatri and Michele Russel
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 06, 2020
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in immeasurable disruptions in countries activities. Since the first reported case in December 2019, an estimated 140,000 people have died, with a case fatality rate of about 3%. The increasing rate of new cases and the evolving epidemiology of the COVID-19 virus means that the global health community is grappling to understand the current situation. The aim of this paper is to determine if the Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine used to protect aga...
Epidemiological Trends, Characteristics, and Distribution of COVID-19: Lessons from SARS and MERS Outbreaks and Way Forward
Amen Bawazir, Nagarajkumar Yenugadhati, PhD, Omar B Da’ar and Hoda Jradi
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 22, 2020
Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses became an emerging worldwide health concern. Previously Coronaviruses caused mild infections in immunocompromised people and were not considered to be highly pathogenic in humans until they circulated in the Guangdong province of China in 2002 and 2003 during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak. A decade following the aforementioned SARS outbreak, we witnessed the emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV...
Shiga Toxin 2 Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Complicated By Clostridium Septicum Bacteremia in a 4-Year-Old
Peter Paul Lim, MD, Christina Rae Nguyen, MD, Daniel Rhoads, MD and Arlene Dent, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 21, 2020
Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a potent toxin produced by shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that is commonly linked to development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). An extremely rare complication of shiga toxin associated (STEC) hemolytic uremic syndrome is concomitant infection with Clostridium septicum. The majority of pediatric patients with HUS complicated by C. septicum infection had complications including CNS involvement, severe renal insult often requiring hemodialysis, and myonecrosis war...
Transmission and Control Efforts of COVID-19
Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Sadaf Younis, Henry Chan, Nafees Haider, Abu Fahad Abbasi, Oladapo Ayodele, Stephanie Prakash and Aleksandra Marinkovic
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020
COVID-19, a pandemic, is an expanding global threat that has nearly affected all the countries in the world. As the pandemic advances without any medical intervention in place, a global lockdown has been issued along with quarantine orders and social distancing restrictions to prevent further transmission. We discussed the transmission and control effort of COVID-19 based on available information since the disease outbreak. COVID-19 can be symptomatic or asymptomatic, spreading from person-to-pe...
Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VV-ECMO) Used in the Management of Lemierre's Syndrome
Marcus Taylor, MRCS, Denish Apparau, MRCS and Kandadai Rammohan, FRCS-CTh
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 14, 2020
A 21-year-old female presented with non-specific symptoms of cough and sore throat. She rapidly became profoundly unwell, requiring intubation and ventilation. Clinical and radiological appearances were felt to be in keeping with Lemierre’s Syndrome (LS). The diagnosis of LS was confirmed when pleural fluid samples were found to contain Prevotella veroralis and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Due to worsening respiratory function the patient was commenced on veno- venous extracorporeal membrane oxy...
Dynamics of COVID-19: Modelling and Analysis
Umair Ali Wani, Aadil Bakshi and Moazam Ali Wani
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 23, 2020
This paper features the SEIR model that can accurately calculate and predict the size of COVID-19 pandemic. Other than classical parameters, the model takes into account lockdown imposed by the government, age composition of the population, testing rate, inflow of patients (immigrants) and availability of tertiary health care facilities measured in terms of number of ICUs. The research takes an overview of then severely affected Italy and less affected India and studies the impact of parameters ...