Strongyloides stercoralis is the helminth which causes strongyloidiasis, a neglected disease, with a global prevalence estimated at 60 million people infected, principally in tropical regions. The parasite’s proliferation occurs mainly in immunosuppressed hosts, in particular, patients carrying Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), which is responsible for the infection of cells of the immune system. As a result, we aimed to identify and discuss clinical and pathological aspects of infection by S. stercoralis in patients carrying HTLV-1. This is an exploratory study, of the literature review type. The search was undertaken in the PubMed, Scielo, Web of Science, Science Direct and Biblioteca Virtual emSaúde (BVS) databases in August 2016. The criteria for the inclusion of articles were: Language, published in the last 20 years, and to be relevant to the guiding question. After reading of the titles, 60 articles were excluded, and after reading of the abstracts, a further 70. Of the 56 articles remaining, 16 were excluded after reading the article in full. After analysis of the material, only 40 studies met the criteria established. The studies showed that this type of coinfection is found in the same specific population groups which are vulnerable to the diseases, as well as immunomodulation of the Th2 pattern, promoted by the presence of S. stercoralis and the difficulties related to the diagnosis of Strongyloidiasis. It is concluded that it is necessary to screen for HTLV-1in cases of infection by S. stercoralis, so as to initiate fast and efficient treatment against this coinfection.