HTLV 2 is endemic among Amerindians and has been reported in intravenous drug abusers in the USA, Europe, and Asia. The most important indigenous communities in Brazil are distributed in the states of Amapá, Pará, Amazonas, Roraima, Rondônia and Maranhão. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HTLV-2 in the state of Maranhão. Ten patients attended at a referral hospital who presented confirmatory Western blot serology for HTLV-2 were analyzed. All seropositives were asymptomatic and using B-complex vitamins; they are not indigenous and deny use of drugs. An endemic transmission of HTLV 2 occurs in the state of Maranhão, although there is no significant population study, but it implies the need to specify the route of transmission of this virus in our region, which justifies the need for molecular studies with subtype typing involved for a better epidemiological understanding.