International Journal of

Virology and AIDSISSN: 2469-567X

Current Issue

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510067

Emerging and Re-Emerging Viral Diseases: The Case of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19)

Gedif Meseret Abebe

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2020

Infectious viral diseases are the never-ending challenge that can emerge or re-emerge in unpredictable regions and at unpredictable times. Human beings are facing an intractable problem in unexpected time and place due to these viral diseases. Human, ecological, and viral related factors are the contributing factors in the emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease. Travel, mass gathering, urbanization, fragile or deteriorated health systems, weak disease surveillance system, limited ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510066

Sapling and Handling of COVID-19 Patients in India

Nihar Gupta, Shweta Bahadure, Obaid Noman and Arvind Bhake

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 27, 2020

This is a review article on how we can sample the COVID-19 patients, what samples can be obtained, what are the procedures to collect those samples and the precautions some laboratory personnel need to take while processing the samples. This review article mainly focuses on the various methods used in India while sampling COVID-19 patients. For now, RT-PCR is the most reliable test for COVID-19 detection. Few rapid test kits were introduced by ICMR, but now have been withdrawn as they were showi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510065

A Review on Remdesivir: An Alternative Antiviral Drug to Fight against COVID-19

Nimesh Singh, Bharat Suthar, Abhay Mehta, Sandeep Shukla and Archna Pandey

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 20, 2020

Coronavirus contamination that was found in mid-2019 has just hampered the world’s motivation up until now. The quantity of irresistible cases has become worldwide to 35 lakhs thus the episode has been portrayed as a pandemic by the planet’s wellbeing association, yet there have not been any “particular medications” or antibodies accessible to date. Applicable reports have distinguished a novel coronavirus with 80% homology. So there are not many signs accessible when different nations a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510064

Vitamin D: A Review and Proposed Evidence for Treatment or Prevention in COVID-19

Nimesh Singh, Bharat Suthar, Abhay Mehta, Sandeep Shukla and Archna Pandey

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 20, 2020

WHO declared COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic. The ambitions of this paper are to assess if there is any affiliation between mean levels of diet D in various countries and cases respectively mortality because of COVID-19. Low vitamin D repute in winter allows viral epidemics. During iciness, those who do not take Vitamin D supplements are possibly to have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (25-hydroxyvitamin D) concentrations. Vitamin D can reduce the chance of viral epidemics and pandemics in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510061

Modified Non-Invasive Computational Methods of HIV Drug Combinations for Treatment of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19)

Tamer Ezzat Youssef and Youssef Tamer Moustafa

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 11, 2020

As of 18 March 2020, more than 191127 cases of confirmed COVID-19 have been documented globally with over 7807 deaths. The impact of COVID-19 on patients with HIV have common presentations like non-HIV patients include fever, dry cough, difficulty of breath. Parallel evidence indicates that the risk of disease increases with critically more than 66 years age, including chronic lung disease. It is very difficult to use drugs on the market. We apply drug design computer techniques to find the expe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510059

Molecular Detection of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 among Conjunctival Intraepithelial Neoplasia Patients in Khartoum State, Sudan

Hala H Ahmed, Aya A Almtry, Isra M Aidrous, Sara M Ali, Mohamed H Arbab and Ali M Badri

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2020

Many factors like exposure to UV radiation, climatic conditions, genetic predisposition, immunological state and, more recently, the presence of HPV have been implicated in the genesis of some lesions of the conjunctiva, especially the carcinoma. The study was carried out to detect Human Papilloma Viruses HPV type 16 in conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia patient in Khartoum state, Sudan during the period from March to July 2019. A total of 50 Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded Samples were co...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510058

Prevalence of Malaria and Some Opportunistic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Patients with CD4 Below 200 in Faith Alive Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Dawet A and Onaiyekan OE

Article Type: Research article | First Published: January 27, 2020

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) resulting to a progressive decline in the immune system of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) making them susceptible to a variety of opportunistic infections which eventually leads to death. This study aimed at determining the prevalence malaria and some opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients with CD4 count below 200 attending Faith Alive Hospital, Jos, Plateau State. The testing for oppo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510057

Pre-analytical Errors in the HIV Anti Retro Viral Therapy (ART) Laboratory of Teaching Referral Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abay Sisay Misganaw, Mulugeta Worku, Chala Bashea, Mamaru Nigus, Yisak Yoseph, and Habtamu Molla

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: October 18, 2019

To assess the magnitude and associated factor of pre-analytical error in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy (ART) laboratory of a teaching referral hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used from May 1, 2018 to Jun 30, 2018 by using both quantitative and quantitative data collection approach. Data was entered, cleaned using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 21 for Microsoft Windows. Among the 427 spec...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510046

Understanding the Facts and Minding the Gap of (HIV-1/HIV-2) Primate Research and Infectious Disease Laboratories in Africa

Chika Ejikeugwu, Peter Eze, Ifeanyichukwu Iroha, Charles Esimone, Michael Adikwu and Hirofumi AKARI

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2018

With over 2 million annual new infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, and more than 30 million HIV-1 infected people around the globe, the HIV-1 pandemic has continued to remain a front burner in the medical research community and an important public health debate. Till date, there is still no cure or vaccine for HIV-1 infection. Though current antiretroviral therapy (ART) is potent enough to reduce viral load of the infection to below detectable limits (< 50 copies/ml), antiretrovi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510045

Time to Major Adverse Reactions of Anti-Retroviral Drugs and its Predictors among Cohort of Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Hosanna Hospital, Hosanna, Ethiopia: Retrospective Cohort Study

Likawunt Samuel Asfaw and Fikre Enquselassie

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 08, 2018

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral reproduction and stop progression of the disease process. Antiretroviral drug adverse reactions negatively influence antiretroviral treatment outcome. Incidence, type and time antiretroviral drug adverse reactions occur is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate time to major antiretroviral drugs adverse reactions and its predictors among patients receiving ART in Hosanna, Ethiopia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510044

Infectious Characteristics of Ebola Virus

Manu Mitra

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: November 07, 2018

One of the main feature of Ebola virus is that Ribonucleic acid (RNA) plays more significant part instead Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) similarly as its hereditary material. When RNA is mirrored, many more mistakes are made than when DNA is mimicked. This activates viruses like the Ebola viruses a predominantly high mutation rate when distinguished to DNA based viruses like smallpox or chickenpox. In the study of Ebola outbreak, experts found that the virus evolves much faster than it used to be i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510043

90-90-90, Epidemic Control and Ending AIDS: Global Situation and Recommendations

Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta and Brian Williams

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 17, 2018

Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) first came to our attention thirty-seven years ago, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) which it causes is, without treatment, 100% fatal with devastating consequences for millions of people...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510042

Microhomology of Viral/Host DNAs and Macrostructure of Herpesviral Genome

Felix Filatov and Alexandr Shargunov

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 01, 2018

In 2015, we described short continuous fragments of human herpesvirus DNA, identical to the cellular ones, which we called microhomology (hits) because of their small size (≥ 20 nt). We noticed that generally the increase in the density (D) of these hits in human herpesviruses is inversely proportional to a decrease in the pathogenicity of these viruses. In this small work, we are considering the question of the existence of more objective features of HHV DNA (which can accompany the dynamics ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510041

Modeling the HIV Epidemic: Why the 95-95-95 Target and ART Effectiveness Parameters Matter

Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta, Matt Wollmers, Mike Ruffner and Brian Williams

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 20, 2018

HIV remains a major global public health threat with one million HIV-related deaths, two million new infections and over 1 million HIV-associated TB cases each year. However, population-based studies suggest marked declines in incidence, prevalence and deaths in the countries in East and Southern Africa that have expanded antiretroviral treatment (ART) at the fastest rate in the world....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510040

Viral Infections after Kidney Transplantation: An Updated Review

Ethem Unal and Ahmet Topcu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 01, 2018

Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Careful pretransplant screening, immunization, and posttransplant prophylactic antimicrobials may all reduce the risk for posttransplant infections. Chronic immunosuppression, required to maintain allograft function post-organ transplant, predisposes transplant patients to a variety of viral infections....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510039

Prevalence of Haematological and Serum Biochemical Abnormalities in HIV Infected Patients in Ghana, Before and after Antiretroviral Therapy

Samuel Kwadwo Afari and Emmanuel Awusah Blay

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2018

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has led to prolonged survival of HIV-infected patients. However, the long-term use of HAART has the potential to cause haematological and biochemical abnormalities such as cytopenia, liver damage and renal injuries, which may be life threatening....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510038

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among Adult Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Ethiopia

Hailu Chare Koyra

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510038

Unlike other chronic diseases, people receiving anti-retroviral treatment should have very high levels of adherence (≥ 95%) to achieve durable suppression of viral load; avoid the emergence of drug resistance and clinical failure. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess level of adherence and predictors of poor adherence among adult ART patients at Dubbo St. Marry Hospital, Southern Ethiopia....

Volume 5
Issue 1