International Journal of Virology and AIDS is an open access peer reviewed journal that publishes, reviews, original research, news and views, articles, clinical reports, short communications, and letters to the editor and application studies across all fields of virology and publishes the very latest ground breaking research on AIDS. It deals with the various viruses involvement in humans followed by their replication to acquire immune deficiency syndrome, which became a major challenge for many scientist and doctors for treating deadly virus HIV. Main focus will be on various topics from classification of viruses, replication, host-phage interactions immunology, viral infections in humans to their treatment, advances in AIDS research and many more within the scope of subject.
The main objective of the journal is to act as a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. Through open access it expands shared knowledge across doctors; it provides the free, immediate, availability of the published work online. This journal also involved into publishing news with time by time developments and advances in research of various viral infections and their treatments, which helps users to understand the severity and precaution measures to be taken.
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Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510059
Hala H Ahmed, Aya A Almtry, Isra M Aidrous, Sara M Ali, Mohamed H Arbab and Ali M Badri
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2020
Many factors like exposure to UV radiation, climatic conditions, genetic predisposition, immunological state and, more recently, the presence of HPV have been implicated in the genesis of some lesions of the conjunctiva, especially the carcinoma. The study was carried out to detect Human Papilloma Viruses HPV type 16 in conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia patient in Khartoum state, Sudan during the period from March to July 2019. A total of 50 Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded Samples were co...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510058
Prevalence of Malaria and Some Opportunistic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Patients with CD4 Below 200 in Faith Alive Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
Dawet A and Onaiyekan OE
Article Type: Research article | First Published: January 27, 2020
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) resulting to a progressive decline in the immune system of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) making them susceptible to a variety of opportunistic infections which eventually leads to death. This study aimed at determining the prevalence malaria and some opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients with CD4 count below 200 attending Faith Alive Hospital, Jos, Plateau State. The testing for oppo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510057
Abay Sisay Misganaw, Mulugeta Worku, Chala Bashea, Mamaru Nigus, Yisak Yoseph, and Habtamu Molla
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: October 18, 2019
To assess the magnitude and associated factor of pre-analytical error in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy (ART) laboratory of a teaching referral hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used from May 1, 2018 to Jun 30, 2018 by using both quantitative and quantitative data collection approach. Data was entered, cleaned using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 21 for Microsoft Windows. Among the 427 spec...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510056
Agathe Dotia-Kone, Timothee Ouassa, Roseline Affi-Aboli, Arlette Emieme, Mathieu Kablan and Andre Inwoley
Article Type: Brie f Report | First Published: September 30, 2019
Health care professionals working in laboratories located in Africa are supposed to deal with many potentially infectious fluids in a context of high prevalence for infectious diseases and particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV). The goal of this study was to evaluate the seroprotect ion against HBV and possible contact with the virus before vaccination in the staff of a laboratory specialized in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Fifty out of 59 professionals were included in the study. Anti-HB...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510055
NIAMA Roch Fabien, MOUNDOSSO Thierry Stephane, PEMBE ISSAMOU MAYENGUE, BAYONNEKOMBO Edith Sophie, OSSIBI IBARA Roland Bienvenu, DIAFOUKA Merlin, MAHAMBOU NSONDE Dominique, LOUZOLO Igor, LOUKABOU Bongolo Nadia Claricelle, DZABATOU-BABEAUX Angelie Serge Patrick, MALOUMBI Marie Genevieve and PARRA Henri-Joseph
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 06, 2019
HIV and Hepatitis co-infection is common and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of this co-infection in patients receiving second-line antiretroviral therapy in Pointe-Noire and Brazzaville. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and July 2014 to collect demographic data and perform blood sampling from consenting patients who came for routine visits in sites that provide...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510054
Tuba Giray, MD, Suat Biçer, MD, Ahmet Saç, Yiğit Moğol, Öznur Küçük, Defne Çöl, Zerrin Yalvaç and Yeşim Gürol, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 27, 2019
Although etiology of Kawasaki disease has not been precisely determined, it has been speculated that there was an association with a variety of bacterial and viral agents because of the seasonality of this disease. Some viruses including human adenovirus have been isolated from patients with Kawasaki Disease. Adenoviral infection may mimic Kawasaki disease clinically but it may also be detected in patients with Kawasaki disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510053
Massimo De Paschale, Cristina Ceriani, Teresa Cerulli, Debora Cagnin, Serena Cavallari, Joseph Ndayake, Dieudonne Zaongo, Kouma Diombo, Gianbattista Priuli, Paolo Vigano and Pierangelo Clerici
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 18, 2019
Occult infections (OBIs) due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) are identified by the presence of HBV DNA without surface antigen (HBsAg). The population prevalence of HBsAg is high in Benin, but there are no data concerning the presence of OBIs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of OBIs using samples taken from 220 pregnant Beninese women for the purposes of a previous study of the prevalence of HBV markers. Twenty-four women were HBsAg positive (group I); of the 196 HBsAg negative wom...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510052
Olayemi MATTHEW, Teclaire NDOMB, Joseph ONAKEWHOR, Bitrus MATAWAL, Esosa OSAGIE, Alashle ABIMIKU and Man CHARURAT
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 30, 2019
Substantial proportions of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection hence the magnitude of infection in the population suggests the expected course of HIV epidemic. We determined prevalence of genital herpes as a result of HSV-2 and its associated factors among pregnant women in Nigeria. A total of 2,362 sera of pregnant women aged 18-49 years attending two different antenatal clinics in two communities in Nigeria were analysed us...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510051
Graca Maria de Castro Viana, Helaine Dias Guimaraes, Saphyra Medeiros Salem, Augusto Viana Arouche Santos and Jamilly Gonçalves Zani
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 21, 2019
HTLV 2 is endemic among Amerindians and has been reported in intravenous drug abusers in the USA, Europe, and Asia. The most important indigenous communities in Brazil are distributed in the states of Amapá, Pará, Amazonas, Roraima, Rondônia and Maranhão. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HTLV-2 in the state of Maranhão. Ten patients attended at a referral hospital who presented confirmatory Western blot serology for HTLV-2 were analyzed. All seropositives were asymptomatic and...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510050
Benedict Osei-Tawiah, Theophilus B Kwofie, Mohamed Mutocheluh, Richard Ephaim, and Emmanuel Awusah Blay
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 18, 2019
In developing countries like Ghana, people with serious psychiatric disorders do not have equal access to health care as normal non-mentally challenged people do. Moreover, mental health care generally focuses on physical health screening, health education, and improving access to treatment in primary and secondary care to the detriment of sexual health needs including prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Studies have shown the risk of blood-borne virus infections such as HIV, hepatiti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510049
Joseph G Sinkovics
Article Type: SHORT COMMUNICATION | First Published: March 16, 2019
The first visualization (and photographic records) of what has become known much later as human "natural killer cells" (NK) was initiated in 1969 at the Section of Clinical Tumor Virology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston TX. A clinical hematopathologist suggested that those cells were monocyte-like (M); another viewed them as 'unusual lymphoblasts'. The cells in question were much larger than the already known cytotoxic T lymphocytes...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510048
Enitan Seyi Samson, Adekunbi Oluyemisi Ajike, Ihonge John Cletus and Olumide Abiodun
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 13, 2019
Respiratory tract infections with more than one organisms are common in immunosuppressed patients, especially those who are Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important and dangerous pulmonary bacterial pathogens with global impact. This present study assessed the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection and associated risk factors among HIV infected Adult Patients on Highly A...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510046
Chika Ejikeugwu, Peter Eze, Ifeanyichukwu Iroha, Charles Esimone, Michael Adikwu and Hirofumi AKARI
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2018
With over 2 million annual new infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, and more than 30 million HIV-1 infected people around the globe, the HIV-1 pandemic has continued to remain a front burner in the medical research community and an important public health debate. Till date, there is still no cure or vaccine for HIV-1 infection. Though current antiretroviral therapy (ART) is potent enough to reduce viral load of the infection to below detectable limits (< 50 copies/ml), antiretrovi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510045
Time to Major Adverse Reactions of Anti-Retroviral Drugs and its Predictors among Cohort of Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Hosanna Hospital, Hosanna, Ethiopia: Retrospective Cohort Study
Likawunt Samuel Asfaw and Fikre Enquselassie
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 08, 2018
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral reproduction and stop progression of the disease process. Antiretroviral drug adverse reactions negatively influence antiretroviral treatment outcome. Incidence, type and time antiretroviral drug adverse reactions occur is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate time to major antiretroviral drugs adverse reactions and its predictors among patients receiving ART in Hosanna, Ethiopia....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510044
Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: November 07, 2018
One of the main feature of Ebola virus is that Ribonucleic acid (RNA) plays more significant part instead Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) similarly as its hereditary material. When RNA is mirrored, many more mistakes are made than when DNA is mimicked. This activates viruses like the Ebola viruses a predominantly high mutation rate when distinguished to DNA based viruses like smallpox or chickenpox. In the study of Ebola outbreak, experts found that the virus evolves much faster than it used to be i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510043
Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta and Brian Williams
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 17, 2018
Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) first came to our attention thirty-seven years ago, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) which it causes is, without treatment, 100% fatal with devastating consequences for millions of people...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510042
Felix Filatov and Alexandr Shargunov
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 01, 2018
In 2015, we described short continuous fragments of human herpesvirus DNA, identical to the cellular ones, which we called microhomology (hits) because of their small size (≥ 20 nt). We noticed that generally the increase in the density (D) of these hits in human herpesviruses is inversely proportional to a decrease in the pathogenicity of these viruses. In this small work, we are considering the question of the existence of more objective features of HHV DNA (which can accompany the dynamics ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510041
Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta, Matt Wollmers, Mike Ruffner and Brian Williams
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 20, 2018
HIV remains a major global public health threat with one million HIV-related deaths, two million new infections and over 1 million HIV-associated TB cases each year. However, population-based studies suggest marked declines in incidence, prevalence and deaths in the countries in East and Southern Africa that have expanded antiretroviral treatment (ART) at the fastest rate in the world....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510040
Ethem Unal and Ahmet Topcu
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 01, 2018
Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Careful pretransplant screening, immunization, and posttransplant prophylactic antimicrobials may all reduce the risk for posttransplant infections. Chronic immunosuppression, required to maintain allograft function post-organ transplant, predisposes transplant patients to a variety of viral infections....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510039
Samuel Kwadwo Afari and Emmanuel Awusah Blay
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2018
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has led to prolonged survival of HIV-infected patients. However, the long-term use of HAART has the potential to cause haematological and biochemical abnormalities such as cytopenia, liver damage and renal injuries, which may be life threatening....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510038
Hailu Chare Koyra
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510038
Unlike other chronic diseases, people receiving anti-retroviral treatment should have very high levels of adherence (≥ 95%) to achieve durable suppression of viral load; avoid the emergence of drug resistance and clinical failure. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess level of adherence and predictors of poor adherence among adult ART patients at Dubbo St. Marry Hospital, Southern Ethiopia....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510037
Celine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Josiane Gouekem, Antoine Socpa, Blandine Nkenfou Kampa, Elvis Ndukong Ndzi, Alexandre Nkoum and Alexis Njolo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 28, 2017
HIV positive and HIV negative people were recruited in the capital city of Cameroon. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, pretested and validated, before and after the knowledge of HIV status. The information collected include: Age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, usage of condoms and frequency of sexual intercourses....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510036
Xue Wang , Jiangqin Zhao, Christelle Mbondji and Indira Hewlett
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 18, 2017
Latent infection is a major barrier for cure of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 is capable of establishing latency when its host cells undergo apoptosis and initiate replication in response to this effect. HIV infection results in increased p53 expression that enhances replication in primary infection....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510035
Beuy Joob and Viroj Wiwanitkit
Article Type: Letter | First Published: October 25, 2017
The concurrences between HIV infection and Zika virus infection are already reported [1-3]. The first case report was from Brazil. There is no significant important clinical observation on the concurrence. The problem in the HIV pregnant woman is also already reported....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510034
Chiu-Yin Yeh, Hsi-Hsing Yang and Wen-Liang Yu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 20, 2017
Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that might require immunosuppressive therapy. We report on a 72-year-old woman of PAN with influenza B infection, who developed dual cytomegalovirus and Aspergillus pneumonia in the later course....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510033
Wen Chi Hsu and Wen Liang Yu
Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: September 08, 2017
Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is a life-threatening condition and the common cause of death is due to obstruction of main pulmonary vessels by the embolus, resulting in pulmonary hypertension followed by right-sided heart failure....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510032
Santos AO, Botelho-Souza LF, Lopes DS, Rodrigues GT, Queiroz JAS, Matos NB, Salcedo JMV and Vieira DS
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2017
Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) are classified according to the compromised anatomical site. The etiology can be associated with viruses, bacteria and fungi. The etiological agents that are responsible for the highest incidence in children, around 50 to 90% of occurrences, are viruses....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510031
Ezgi Ozkur , Mehmet Salih Gurel, Sevil Savas, Ayse Esra Koku Aksu and Sumeyre Seda Ertekin
Article Type: LETTER TO EDITOR | First Published: August 19, 2017
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is a malignant disease that originates from the vascular endothelium and has a very variable clinical course. KS is a vascular endothelial malignancy and the neoplastic cells are closely related to lymphatic endothelial cells. Although HHV-8 is found in the vast majority of all types of KS, there is no agreement on the exact mechanism of HHV-8 in KS....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510030
Tomas Mellberg, Jon Krabbe, Maria J Buzon, Ulrika Noborg, Magnus Lindh, Staffan Nilsson, Bo Svennerholm and Magnus Gisslen
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: July 01, 2017
Correct measurements of residual viremia and reservoir size are crucial in HIV-1 eradication trials and there is a need for sensitive and automated assays. The increasing worldwide diversity of HIV-1 subtypes stresses the importance of subtype independent assays....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510029
Jia B Kangbai, Isata Victoria Mandoh and Peter Bai James
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 17, 2017
More than 350 million people are infected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) globally. The main aim of any chronic hepatitis B therapy is to prevent liver cirrhosis and its sequelae, including Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510028
Rong Xu, Yong-hong Zhang and Xu Yang
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2016
A 50-year-old female with Sheehan's syndrome was treated for chronic hepatitis C using pegylated interferon-α2b and ribavirin. The patient's HCV-RNA status was negative by the fourth week and remained undetectable until the completion of treatment without signs that Sheehan's syndrome had been exaggerated. This case demonstrates that pegylated interferon-α2b and ribavirin does not necessarily exacerbate Sheehan's syndrome....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510027
Ahmed A Abd-Rabou
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 27, 2016
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has few recorded outputs regarding the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infections associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). When we went through the HIV/AIDS in MENA, we found a hole in the scientific publications. Attention towards this issue progressed recently though, with few pre-clinical studies conducted. In the current review, we collected comprehensive data of HIV epidemiology in MENA and discussed the main ch...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510026
Mulamba Diese, Susie Villeneuve, Emile Numbi, Freddy Salumu, Guy Clarysse, Hilo Ilunga, Franck Fwamba, Theodore Assani and Abel Mukengeshayi Ntambue
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 30, 2016
The 'Test & Treat' approach, also called option B+, using combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has been very effective in controlled clinical trials in resource-limited settings. We report on our experiences with implementing this approach at primary healthcare settings in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The objective of this study was to evaluate 'Test & Treat' approach for PMTCT interventions implemented betwee...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510025
Carlos Tornero, Marina Llopis, Julian Diaz and Mariangeles Martinez
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 25, 2016
The determination of lymphocyte populations (LPs) traditionally has been included in the routine follow-up of HIV-infected patients as an indicator of the degree of immune suppression and of the need to start treatment, select the type of therapy, or prescribe preventive measures against opportunistic infections. However, the variability of the technique produces variations in patients with undetectable viremias that have no clinical consequences but which nevertheless generate uncertainty among...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510024
Gwendoline Q Kandawasvika, Felicity Z Gumbo and Patience Kuona
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 14, 2016
With the success of chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of perinatal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), an increasing number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children will have in utero and post-partum exposure to antiretroviral drugs and survive beyond infancy. The long term effect of antiretroviral drug exposure is however not fully understood. A few studies from developing countries have reported on growth, morbidity, mortality, nutrition, immunological profiles, neuro...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510023
Solomon Hailemariam, Girma Tenkolu, Henok Tadese and Prabhanjan Kumar Vata
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2016
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients though it is not sufficient alone to achieve better HIV related clinical outcomes. There are many other modifiable factors that might have an impact on survival of HIV-infected patients. So far, few studies with small sample size have tried to assess the survival experience of HIV positive patients who are on treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the determinants ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510022
Assane Diouf, Amandine Cournil, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay and Louise Fortes-Deguenonvo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2016
A total of 403 HIV infected patients (10 HIV-D infected and 393 HIV-1s infected) who initiated ART in Senegal between 1998 and 2002 were included in a prospective cohort and followed until June 2010. Initial ART regimens combined two nucleoside-reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) plus either one non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or one protease inhibitor (PI). Clinical and biological assessments were performed at ART initiation and every semester thereafter....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510021
Dobrossy L, Oroszi B, Kovacs A and Budai A
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 30, 2016
The overall purpose of a comprehensive cervical cancer prevention programme is to coordinate HPV vaccination (primary prevention) and cervical screening (secondary prevention). Harmonization of the HPV vaccination and population screening is expected to reduce the burden of cervical cancer by reducing human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and detecting cervical pre-cancer lesions and invasive cancer earlier, providing timely treatment. In 2015, 80% of 7th class schoolgirls between 12-13 years o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510020
S Caitlin Conyngham, Cassie R Warren and Helen C Koenig
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: March 31, 2016
The 2012 United States Food and Drug Administration approval of Tenofovir/Emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has added a highly effective, safe biomedical option to the HIV prevention toolbox. In the United States, young black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV risk over the course of their lifetime. Nearly 1 in 10 black MSM under age 25 is infected with HIV every year, and there are more new HIV infections a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510019
Pollo-Flores P, BicudoA, Cruz-FilhoR and Soares DV
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016
Human immunodeficiency virus infection has posed a challenge for mankind and now this disease is more of a challenge for quality of life than for virus related mortality. This review aims to study two prevalent diseases that may affect this population by decreasing their quality of life. Bone fractures are much more common in the HIV-positive population and have many etiopathogenesis implicated. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is also common in HIV-positive patients and may even lead to cirrho...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510018
Wesley D. Kufel, Cory M. Hale, Eric F. Sidman, Cesar E. Orellana and Christopher D. Miller
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016
Macrocytosis has been associated with several disease states, vitamin deficiencies, and medications, with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) being a less commonly identified cause. NRTIs are frequently utilized as the two-drug backbone for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Amongst the NRTI drug class, zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) are the most widely reported cause of macrocytosis. Fortunately, AZT and d4T have become less commonly used therapies, as ne...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510017
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 03, 2016
In 1985 the KGB and East Berlin's professor of Biology started the AIDS disinformation campaign by accusing the United States of America of having constructed and spread the AIDS agent in the course of biological weapons research. Now, 30 years later, a German authority, The Federal Commissioner for the Records of former East Germany's State Security Service, the "Stasi", is spreading disinformation regarding the alleged substantial involvement of Stasi officers in the campaign....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510015
Daniel Benharroch, Ory Rouvio, Aharon Palmon and Bracha Rager
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 03, 2016
Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) shows many similarities with the human virus (HCMV). This is a ubiquitous DNA virus from the betaherpesvirus group. A self-limiting acute phase of viral infection and a persistent latent phase normally characterize the pathogenesis of MCMV infection in the immunocompetent host. The MCMV widespread distribution occurs via the blood and its mononuclear cells. In the more common congenital viral infection, the HCMV causes birth defects, including mal-development of the...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510014
Ewan P Plant, Laura Couzens, Samuel Mindaye, Elizabeth M Coyle, Surender Khurana, Hang Xie, Hana Golding, Maryna C Eichelberger and Zhiping Ye
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 22, 2015
The hemagglutination assay is a commonly used method to titer influenza virus. It relies on the interaction between virus particles and red blood cells being sufficient to prevent the settling of the blood cells. During additional assessment of human influenza virus stocks titrated by the hemagglutination assay we noted that virus grown in cell culture had a greater number of virus particles than analogous virus grown in eggs. Virus grown in both egg and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells are used ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510013
Fu-Shi Quan, Young Jae Lee, Richard W Compans and Sang-Moo Kang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 23, 2015
Development of broadly effective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 compounds is a high priority since the number of individuals having HIV infections continues to grow worldwide and vaccines are not available yet. From herbal extracts commonly used in humans, Salviae miltiorrhiza (Salviae), Cinnamomi Ramulus (Cinnamomi), Astragali Radix (Astragali), Asari Radix et Rhizome (Asari), Panax Ginseng (Korean red ginseng), we screened candidate herbal medicines and investigated their antiviral ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510012
Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Meri Bordignon Nogueira, Rafaela Miravalhes, Thiago Mestre, Francisco Jaime Barbosa, Marise Zonta, Gabriel Santos Schafer, Indaiara Felisbino, Suzana Carstensen, Ana Cristina Medeiros, Indianara Rotta, Mirian Pelegrino Beltrame, Sonia Mara Raboni and Luine Rosele Vidal
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 22, 2015
Chronic diseases cause different impact to different people. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV I/II) diagnosis on the frequency of mood disorders. Of six HTLV I/II infected patients, including one asymptomatic, four reported depression at the moment of HTLV diagnosis. The findings reveal that it is crucial to inform patients of the HTLV diagnosis only after conducting confirmatory tests, as indicated by majority of diagnosis protocols. Usually cou...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510011
Sandra C Cote, Stamatoula Pasvanis and Nancy Dumais
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 04, 2015
Transmission and pathogenesis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) are interconnected during all stages of the disease with cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocytes are constantly exposed or are targets of HIV-1 and their migratory behaviors are implicated in the dissemination of the infection throughout the host. Monocytes arising from quiescent and infected cells of the myeloid precursor lineage in bone marrow have been demonstrated as a source of residual HIV DNA....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510010
Carlos Campayo, Antonio Mas and Rosario Sabariegos
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 28, 2015
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is responsible for liver chronic infections that in a high percentage of cases lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, treatment consisted on a combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. However, since 2012 a new wave in treatment options appears with the new family of drugs targeting viral components, the so-called direct-acting antivirals. Now we have a battery of drugs directed against viral protease (NS3/4A), polymerase (NS5B), and viral ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510009
Gerardo Rivera Silva and Hector R Martinez Menchaca
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: June 25, 2015
The prevalence of oral lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in developed countries is equivalent to 72%, meanwhile in developing countries it equates to 60%. For this reason health professionals should identify and treat the numerous oral manifestations in HIV-infected children. There are several oral lesions that could be present in HIV-infected children....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510008
Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen and Andre Boonstra
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 27, 2015
Liver disease is the leading cause of death not related to AIDS in patients infected with human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) experience a more rapid progression liver to fibrosis and develop hepatocellular carcinoma at a younger age than those infected with either virus alone. The mechanisms promoting this accelerated progression to fibrosis are not totally understood. Moreover, it is unclear whether both viruses exert fibrosis progressi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510007
Hood SF, Thompson EM, Akaronu NO, Miller MM and Fogle JE
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 03, 2015
Dendritic cells (DCs) have been utilized to enhance CD8+ T cell responses to pathogen-associated peptides for enhancement of vaccine efficacy. CD8+ T cells play a central role in the elimination of viruses during acute viral infection and control of viremia during chronic viral infection. For lentiviral infections such as HIV and FIV, dendritic cell vaccines may be useful for augmenting CD8+ T cell function....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510006
Christopher J. Menzie and Shu-Feng Zhou
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 30, 2015
Understanding how viruses work and interact with the host is of the upmost importance. For example, the Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510005
Christina S Hirsch, Shigou Liu, Joy Baseke, John Lusiba Kafuluma, Mary Nserko, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza and Zahra Toossi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 10, 2015
Background: Regulatory T-cells (T-reg) are expanded during active tuberculosis (TB) regardless of HIV-1-infection, particularly at sites of M. tuberculosis infection. In HIV-1 disease, T-reg are targeted by HIV-1 infection. However, whether they contribute to promotion of HIV-1 infection at sites of HIV/TB is unknown. Methods: Pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC) from HIV/TB patients with pleural TB were characterized by immunostaining and FACS analysis for surface markers CD4, CD127, CCR5, CX...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510004
Antonio Diaz-Sanchez, Pilar Miralles, Ana Matilla, Teresa Aldamiz-Echevarria, OscarNunez Ana Carrero, Beatriz Merino, Cristina Diez, Rafael Banares, Gerardo Clemente and Juan Berenguer
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 26, 2014
We analyzed 53 HIV-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed at our institution from 1998 to 2012. All patients were coinfected with hepatitis virus (77% HCV; 12% HBV; 11% HCV+HBV), and 95% had liver cirrhosis. HCC was diagnosed under surveillance in 41% of patients. Potentially curative therapy was given to 32% of patients and palliative therapy to 30% patients. Median survival was 2 months in those diagnosed from 1998 to 2005, and 11 months in those diagnosed from 2006 to...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510003
AO Owuor, GN Lule, CF Otieno, EO Omonge, MC Maritim and P Memiah
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 28, 2014
Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with ART modification among HIV patients on 1st line therapy attending a large Teaching Hospital in Kenya. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional clinical record review. All patients who commenced ART from January 2005 to June 2011 and had at least 1 follow-up visit were evaluated. Baseline data, including socio demographic and clinical variables was collected using a standard chart abstraction tool. Results: Out of 1,022 patien...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510002
Akpotuzor Josephine O, Ekarika Evelyn A and Akwiwu Euphoria C
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2014
This study was conducted to assess the relevance of serum C- reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), relative plasma viscosity (RPV) and fibrinogen level in the management of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) disease. One hundred (100) PTB patients attending the TB clinic of Dr Lawrence Henshaw Memorial Specialist Hospital Calabar, and 70 age and sex-matched apparently healthy subjects between 15-65 years of age were selected and enrolled. Standard techniques were used for the a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510001
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: July 19, 2014
Viral RNA genomes have evolved functional motifs, which act at different stages of their life cycle. These unique structural domains, their interactions and association with host proteins and ligands, together orchestrate the multifunctionality of viral RNA genomes. Often, long-range RNA-RNA interactions bring regulatory elements into proximity, changing our view of a functional viral RNA genome from a linear molecule to one whose three-dimensional structure is an important contributor during th...
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