Join Us | Latest Articles | Contact

Journal Home

Editorial Board


Submit to this journal

Current issue

International Journal of Virology and AIDS

DOI: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510009

Oral Health Care to HIV-Infected Children

Gerardo Rivera Silva1* and Hector R Martinez Menchaca2

1Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, University of Monterrey, Mexico
2Department of Orthodontics, Pediatric Dentistry and Special Care, School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, USA

*Corresponding author: Gerardo Rivera Silva, Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, University of Monterrey, Av. Ignacio Morones Prieto 4500 Pte, 66238, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico, Tel: 01 52 81 82151446, E-mail:
Int J Virol AIDS, IJVA-2-009, (Volume 2, Issue 1), Commentary; ISSN: 2469-567X
Received: May 15, 2015 | Accepted: June 22, 2015 | Published: June 25, 2015
Citation: Silva GR, Menchaca HRM (2015) Oral Health Care to HIV-Infected Children. Int J Virol AIDS 2:009. 10.23937/2469-567X/1510009
Copyright: © 2015 Silva GR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The existence of one or more oral lesions is among the first manifestations in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Moreover, oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia are predictors of AIDS evolution and are related with CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count <200 cells/ l [1].

The prevalence of oral lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in developed countries is equivalent to 72%, meanwhile in developing countries it equates to 60%. For this reason health professionals should identify and treat the numerous oral manifestations in HIV-infected children. There are several oral lesions that could be present in HIV-infected children [2] (Table 1). However, the prevalence of oral lesions is considerably lower in children on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) as compared to their equivalents not on HAART [3].

In regards to caries problems in children with HIV, the problem increases as the CD4 counts decreases; however, in HIV-infected children taking HAART, the rate of decay is less associated with patients not receiving HAART [4]. Furthermore, clinicians must know the side effects on their oral health of drug taken; the CD3+ + CD4+ T-lymphocyte amount and proportion; and to solicit supplementary laboratory examinations including hepatitis, herpes, varicella zoster and papillomavirus with the purpose to offer secure management for HIV-infected children [5].

In general dental practice, children with AIDS disease in stage 2, to stage 3 or 4 (Table 1) according to the American Academy of Pediatrics Dentistry and World Health Organization classification (CD4 amounts), patients with absolute neutrophil count below 1,500/mm3 and/or with deranged liver functions tests will need antibiotic prophylaxis. Another important aspect is that patients with low platelet quantities (10,000-30,000/μL) require a platelet transfusion prior to surgical procedures [5].

click here
Table 1: Oral manifestations in HIV-infected children and CD4 amounts in relation to the gravity of immunosuppression View Table 1

Oral problems have an undesirable influence on the nutritional health status of HIV-infected children by decreasing food intake as a consequence of pain during ingestion as these patients have one or more oral manifestations. Malnutrition predisposes to periodontal disease, candidiasis and xerostomia.

To provide safe care for HIV-infected children, clinicians must know essential recommendations for treatment planning and prevention (Table 2). Managing for these HIV-infected children requires close synchronization between the dentist, the pediatrician, the nutritionist and the childīs parents or tutors. Preserving satisfactory oral health through prevention associated with suitable treatment makes it feasible to maintain general health in these children.

click here
Table 2: General recommendations for treatment planning and prevention View Table 2

  1. Margiotta V, Campisi G, Mancuso S, Accurso V, Abbadessa V (1999) HIV infection: oral lesions, CD4+ cell count and viral load in an Italian study population. J Oral Pathol Med 28: 173-177.

  2. Rwenyonyi CM, Kutesa A, Muwazi L, Okullo I, Kasangaki A, et al. (2011) Oral Manifestations in HIV/AIDS-Infected Children. Eur J Dent 5: 291-298.

  3. Manikandan S, Suresh Kumar V, Ramesh K (2013) Oral manifestations of HIV infected children undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Pierre Fauchard Acad; 27: 49-52.

  4. Hicks MJ, Flaitz CM, Carter AB, Cron SG, Rossmann SN (2000) Dental caries in HIV-infected children: a longitudinal study. Pediatr Dent; 22: 359-364.

  5. Fine DH, Tofsky N, Nelson EM, Schoen D, Barasch A (2003) Clinical implications of the oral manifestations of HIV infection in children. Dent Clin North Am 47: 159-174, xi-xii.

Go to top
International Journal of Anesthetics and Anesthesiology (ISSN: 2377-4630)
International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders   (ISSN: 2469-5696)
International Journal of Brain Disorders and Treatment (ISSN: 2469-5866)
International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2378-3419)
International Journal of Clinical Cardiology (ISSN: 2469-5696)
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment (ISSN: 2469-584X)
Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports (ISSN: 2378-3656)
Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy (ISSN: 2469-5750)
International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2377-3634)
Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention (ISSN: 2469-5793)
Journal of Genetics and Genome Research (ISSN: 2378-3648)
Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology (ISSN: 2469-5858)
International Journal of Immunology and Immunotherapy (ISSN: 2378-3672)
International Journal of Medical Nano Research (ISSN: 2378-3664)
International Journal of Neurology and Neurotherapy (ISSN: 2378-3001)
International Archives of Nursing and Health Care (ISSN: 2469-5823)
International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2378-346X)
International Journal of Oral and Dental Health (ISSN: 2469-5734)
International Journal of Pathology and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2469-5807)
International Journal of Pediatric Research (ISSN: 2469-5769)
International Journal of Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine (ISSN: 2378-3516)
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases and Treatment (ISSN: 2469-5726)
International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine (ISSN: 2469-5718)
International Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy (ISSN: 2469-570X)
International Journal of Surgery Research and Practice (ISSN: 2378-3397)
Trauma Cases and Reviews (ISSN: 2469-5777)
International Archives of Urology and Complications (ISSN: 2469-5742)
International Journal of Virology and AIDS (ISSN: 2469-567X)
More Journals

Contact Us

ClinMed International Library | Science Resource Online LLC
3511 Silverside Road, Suite 105, Wilmington, DE 19810, USA


Get Email alerts
Creative Commons License
Open Access
by ClinMed International Library is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License based on a work at
Copyright © 2017 ClinMed International Library. All Rights Reserved.