International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research is an open access peer-reviewed for latest findings and research in cancer. It invites submissions under the broad scope of topics relevant to clinical cancer research and publishes original research articles, short reports, mini reviews, and letters to the editor. The journal encourages to publish original, novel, and well-designed studies in clinical cancer research. It is especially interested in clinical trials evaluating new treatments, accompanied by research on pharmacology and molecular alterations or biomarkers that predict response or resistance to treatment. The main focus is to publish innovative clinical and translational cancer research studies that bridge the laboratory and the clinic.

It accelerates the pace of research, discovery and innovation in clinical cancer research. its publication scope covers all subfields of clinical cancer research. All submissions are peer reviewed and only those that meet high standards of scientific merit will be accepted for publication. This journal also involved into publishing news with time by time developments and advances clinical cancer research, which helps users to understand the severity and precaution measures to be taken.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2378-3419

Editor-in-chief: Sulma I Mohammed

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Cancer Clin Res

ISO abbreviation: Int J Cancer Clin Res

Other titles: IJCCR

Category: Cancer

DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410186

Risk Factors for Early Recurrence after Upfront Surgery for Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Yoriko Nomura, Tomoki Ryu, Kazuki Takeishi, Gen Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Wada and Yuko Takami

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2024/02/08

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most aggressive and challenging cancers, causing substantial mortality worldwide. Despite advancements in treatment modalities, the prognosis for patients with PDAC remains dismal, emphasizing the critical need for identifying factors influencing early recurrence and survival post-surgery. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors for early recurrence (within 1 year) in patients who underwent upfront surgery for resectable PDAC....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410185

Genomic Profiling of Breast Cancer: A Single Institution's Experience and Impact on Patient Outcomes

Ezzelkdin M. Ibrahim, Bushra A. Al-Quzi, Duaa A. Jabal, Ali M. Bayer, Ahmed Y. Shaheen, Zeinab A. Morsi, Majidah M. Ahmed, Mohammed H. Kulak and Ahmed A. Refae

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2024/02/02

Genomic profiling (GP) of breast cancer (BC) tumors is a promising approach to identifying genetic mutations that aid patient management. Herewith, we present a single institutional experience of performing GP to assess its impact on patient outcomes. Tumor tissues of 56 patients were tested using the FoundationOne® next-generation sequencing platform. Patients median age was 54 years; 51 patients had metastatic BC, while 5 had an early-stage disease. The most frequently identified genes were T...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410184

Intercalary Endoprosthetic Reconstruction for Long Bone Defects of the Lower Extremity

Jennifer A Bell, MD, Brandon S Gettleman BS, Alexander B Christ, MD, Caroline E Vonck, MD and Lawrence R Menendez, MD

Article Type: Retrospective Review | First Published: 2023/08/12

Modular intercalary endoprostheses is a potential reconstructive option infrequently studied for diaphyseal defects of long bone. The purpose of this study was to examine the 1) Method of failure rate of revision after reconstruction with modular intercalary endoprostheses based on the anatomic site and 2) Describe the functional status of the patient and use of assistive devices with ambulation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410183

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy vs. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Locally Advanced Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: Dosimetric Study

Mohamed W. Hegazy, PhD, Mohamed I. Soliman, Nesma S. Khalil, Aliaa Mahmoud, Shrook Amgad and Ebtisam R Qasem

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/08/11

Pancreatic carcinoma is considered one of the most complicated cancers in treatment. VMAT technique is a novel IMRT form. Pancreatic motion is an essential problem in its radiotherapy planning, VMAT can lessen this risk of motion by shortening the time of treatment therefore it can minimize radiotherapy toxicity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410182

Epidemiological Study of Penile Cancer in Northeast Brazil

Thais Cristina Loyola da Silva, Érika Gabrielle Pinheiro Ximenes, Ythalo Hugo da Silva Santos, Rodrigo Jerônimo Araújo, Eurides Araújo Bezerra de Macedo, Irami Araújo-Filho, Kleyton Santos de Medeiros and Tirzah Braz Petta

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/07/10

All patients were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma, mainly aged over 50 years, from the state's interior, brown, illiterate, or with incomplete primary education. At diagnosis, 68% of patients were classified as having tumors ≥ T2, and 30% had lymph node involvement. Distant metastases were detected in 2.1% of patients at diagnosis. Most patients received the diagnosis in the initial phase of the disease, but 20.2% were diagnosed in stage IV....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410181

Alterations of Serum Lipids Profiles in Patients with Head and Neck Cancers

Jenan Adnan Sulieman, Youssef Youssef and Mostafa Ibrahim

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/06/30

The present case-control study comprises of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed, 50 head and neck cancer cases between 2021-2022 in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Tishreen University Hospital, Lattakia, with 25 healthy controls. Fasting blood samples were collected and the lipid profile studied and compared between groups in terms of mean and standard deviation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410179

Punicic Acid Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Oluwafemi Gbayisomore, Hannah Klausner and Shelley A Phelan, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 08, 2023

One of the main components of Pomegranate Seed Oil is punicic acid, an omega-5 fatty acid that is capable of inhibiting breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation, although the mechanisms of action are not yet known. In order to further understand its potential anti-cancer properties, we investigated the effect of punicic acid on proliferation and cytotoxicity of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cells were treated with punicic acid for up to 72 hours, and cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410178

Expression Levels of GHRH-Receptor, pAkt and Hsp90 Predict 10-Year Overall Survival in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

Dávid Fodor, Eva Pozsgai, Andrew V. Schally, Zoltán László, Éva Gömöri, Éva Szabó, László Rumi, Dorottya Lőcsei, Árpád Boronkai and Szabolcs Bellyei

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2022

Rectal cancer constitutes nearly one-third of all colorectal cancer diagnoses and certain clinical and molecular markers have been studied as potential prognosticators of patient survival. The main objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between the expression intensities of certain proteins: Growth Hormone- Releasing Hormone Receptor (GHRH-R), Hsp90, Hsp16.2, p-Akt and SOUL in specimens of locally advanced rectal cancer patients and time to metastasis as well as 10-year Ove...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410177

Colorectal Cancer Screening: Ratios from Hemogram to the Rescue

Purva Trivedi, Mahesh Patel, Sanjay Dhotre and Hansa Goswami

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 20, 2022

Colorectal Cancers (CRC) are one of the top ten cancers to increase the burden on the health care system in India. Often patients experience symptoms after carcinoma has significantly progressed. Timely and accurate screening in the target population remains a challenge for clinicians....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410176

The Role of Adjuvant Metronomic Chemotherapy in Increasing Overall Response Rate in Patients with Breast Cancer

Bhushan Jain and Akhila Pakalapati

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 18, 2022

Treatment paradigms against cancer have continuously evolved over the years. Having said that, with its prevalence of more than 2 million cases each year, breast cancer represents an urgent global priority [1]. Breast carcinomas accounted for 11.6 % of cancer cases and were the cause of mortality in as many as 6.6 % of women in the world in 2018 [2]. Toxicity and chemoresistance are significant hurdles in conventional chemotherapy and to avoid these issues, a new approach to drug administration,...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410175

Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self- Examination Amongst Female Students of a Tertiary Institution in South-South Nigeria

Alabrah PW, Eguvbe AO, Agbo J and Allagoa DO

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 19, 2022

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths presently, representing about 23% of all cancer cases and approximately 18% percent of deaths are attributed to it in Nigeria. It is presently the most prevalent kind of cancer worldwide, with 2.26 million cases reported in 2020. Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is a way to watch for signs of breast cancer....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410174

Malignant Neural Sheath Tumors of the Head and Neck

Carlos Santiago Ruggeri, Gabriel Rondón Gonzalez, Ana Clara Ragoni and Inés Fagalde

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 19, 2022

Malignant neural sheath tumors located in the head and neck region are very rare. Surgical treatment if possible is the best option, trying to obtain wide resection margins free of tumor. To determine the incidence of malignant tumors of neural histology, in relation to nerve tumors originating in the head and neck and description of two clinical cases....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410173

Proposed Experimental Preparation and Administration of Dendritic Cell Vaccine for Treatment of Cancer (Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer)

Behzad Niakan

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: July 09, 2022

It is suggested that a cause of inefficacy in dendritic cell vaccine is dendritic cell dysfunction. It is proposed that dendritic cell dysfunction is possibly due to the immuneregulatory function of activated platelets in cancer patients. It is suggested that activated platelets in cancer patient suppress dendritic cell activity against a malignant growth. A low platelet count prior to the removal of dendritic cells would possibly yield less dysfunctional dendritic cells....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410172

Proposed Biology of the Spontaneous Remission of Merkel Cell Carcinoma after Biopsy

Behzad Niakan

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: July 08, 2022

The medical literature has many case reports of the spontaneous remission of Merkel cell carcinoma after biopsy. It is noteworthy that prior to the biopsy the Merkel Cell Carcinoma was growing rapidly. It is suggested that the biopsy has possibly resulted in the breakage of a vessel and blood loss within the malignant tissue....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410171

The Impact of Chemotherapy Schedule Modification on Survival Outcome among Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant or Neoadjuvant Treatment Modalities

Gobi Hariyanayagam Gunasekaran, Wan Mohd Akmal Bin Wan Sabri, Shargunan Selvanthan Gunasekaran, Sera Selvanthansundram Gunasekaran and Kavisha Selvarajoo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 08, 2022

Chemotherapy schedule has been reported to increase the risk of suboptimal outcomes among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with variying outcome between treatment modality. This study investigates the Overall Survival (OS) and Hazard of Death (HR) of breast cancer patients with chemotherapy schedule modification stratified against adjuvant (ACT) and neoadjuvant (NACT) treatment modalities....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410170

Oncology and Reproductive Outcomes Over Sixteen Years of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treated with Fertility Sparing Surgery

Muangloei Rungoutok, MD and Prapaporn Suprasert, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 30, 2022

Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors (MOGCT) are rare and frequently occur in the young reproductive age and the oncologic and reproductive outcome after Fertility-Sparing Surgery (FSS) this disease is still limited....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410169

Carcinosarcoma EX Pleomorphic Adenoma of Parotid: An Unusual Entity, A Report of Two Cases with Brief Review of Literature

Aparna Devi, MD, DM, Usha Amirtha, MD, Geeta V Patil Okaly, MD and Raghavendra HV, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 30, 2022

A 58-year-old male, underwent total parotidectomy for longstanding preauricular swelling. Histomorphology revealed a biphasic neoplasm composed of carcinoma with plasmacytoid morphology and osteosarcoma in the background of pleomorphic adenoma. Carcinoma component was confirmed to be myoepithelial carcinoma by immunohistochemistry. The patient presented with local recurrence two months later....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410166

Chemoprevention of 1,2 Dimethyl Hydrazine-Induced Colon Tumor in Albino Rat by Meloxicam and its Correlation with Immunoassay of Serum CEA

Saeed Mahmoud Saeed Mohamed, Afaf Mosaad Amin, Suzanne William Skander, Taha Ismail Mahmoud Hewala, Eithar Omer Mohamed Saleh, Aisha Mohammed Osman Salih, Sabah Ali Mugahed Al-Qadasi, Marwan Mustafa Badawi and Mahmoud Assem Hamed

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 28, 2022

Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is among the most common types of cancer in the world. Globally a steadily increasing proportion of elderly people in the world result in approximately 16 million new cases of cancer by the year 2021. Regarding treatment; Meloxicam was shown to prevent the initiation of chemical-induced tumors, and considered as anticancer agent by virtue of its anti-proliferative effect, capacity for cell cycle arrest, and pro-apoptotic effects, also acted as free radical scavenger, in p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410168

Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Inverted Papilloma

Carlos Santiago Ruggeri, Claudina Aguirre, Claudia Esper and Guillermo Sebastian Aragon

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 28, 2022

To determine the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in patients with IP of the paranasal sinuses andlocal control in patients treated for cancer associated with IP....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410167

Proposed Immunology of the Spontaneous Remission of Acute Myleiod Leukemia Treated with G-CSF

Behzad Niakan

Article Type: Hypotheses | First Published: April 29, 2022

It is suggested that the spontaneous remission of acute myeloid leukemia, particularly hypoplastic acute myeloid leukemia seen after G-CSF treatment is possibly due to G-CSF augmenting an acute inflammatory response. The acute inflammatory response is one occurring during a low count of activated platelets. Furthermore, it appears if a low platelet count (absence of hyper-coagulation or thrombocytosis) is present then G-CSF administration are more likely to induce a remission of acute myeloid le...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410165

Treatment of Cancer Patients in the Era of the Covid-19 Pandemic

Budi Tulaka, Harlinda Haroen, Linda Wilhelma Ancella Rotty, Pearla Fidei Cindy Lasut and Cecilia Hendratta

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 18, 2022

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by novel coronavirus and has reached pandemic state. Cancer patients have increase susceptibility to infection caused by the malignancy itself and anticancer systemic therapy. Based on individual patient assessment, the oncologist's decision regarding the need for immediate oncological intervention classifies patients into 'urgent' and 'non-urgent' conditions. Consideration of risk and benefit for active interventio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410164

Mucosal Reconstruction with Nasal Lateral Wall Flap after Rhinectomy: Two Case Reports

Claudia Esper Zamar, Elián García Pita, Ana Laura Cajelli and Carlos Santiago Ruggeri

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 17, 2021

Two patients who had squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal cavity with extension to the nasal septum and previous treatments with surgery and in another with surgery and radiotherapy were treated by rhinectomy. The reconstruction of the internal mucosal lining was done with mucoperiosteal flaps from the lateral nasal wall with anterior pedicle with the assistance of endoscopes. There are few descriptions in the literature of the use of this flap to reconstruct the inner lining after rhinectomy. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410163

Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy versus Conventional Radiotherapy of Early Testicular Seminoma Irradiation: Dosimetric Study

MW Hegazy and O Hassad

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 15, 2021

Testicular tumor is a rare tumor in men. Testicular seminoma is less aggressive than nonseminoma of germ cell tumors. Adjuvant nodal irradiation is an option of early stages I, IIA and IIB ≤ 3 cm pure seminoma disease. The aim of this study was to investigate which radiotherapy technique is better in nodal irradiation of early stage II pure seminoma, 3D-CRT or VMAT. This study was done on 5 patients with pure seminoma diagnosed at king Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saud...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410162

Vitamins and Provitamins Intake as New Insights to Prevent and/or to Treat breast Cancer: A Systemic Review

Laya A, Koubala BB, Pathak KP and Bueno V

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 10, 2021

Female Breast Cancer (BC) is the most diagnosed cancer across the world. The present systematic review aimed to update the new insights of vitamins and provitamins to prevent and/or to treat BC. Vitamins and provitamins are natural products that have been implicated to prevent and to treat BC. However, it is still scarce and non-consensual as reported in the literature. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies through PubMed, Medline, and AMBASE up to June 27, 2021 solely...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410161

Proposed Immunology of the Spontaneous Remission of Leukemia

Behzad Niakan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 29, 2021

Spontaneous remission of leukemia is more likely to occur after anti-biotic treatment of an infection, termination of pregnancy, blood transfusion and host versus graft reaction. All have in common a drop in platelet count followed by a rise in platelet count. Spontaneous remissions of leukemia may be preceded by a low platelet count, anemia or low hemoglobulin. Also, once spontaneous remission of leukemia occurs there may be a simultaneous rise in platelet count and hemoglobulin. The drop and r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410160

A Novel Transcriptional Score Predicting the Benefit of Anti- EGFR Antibodies for RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: An In Silico Study

Huan Huang, He Xiao, Qin Zhang, Jian Li, Yunfei Ye, Rong He and Xueqin Yang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 08, 2021

There is still an urgent need for precise biomarkers for predicting the clinical outcome of anti-EGFR antibody treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that transcriptome signatures might act as a more effective biomarker beyond RAS mutations and anatomic sites. This study was undertaken to develop a transcriptional score predictive of benefit of anti-EGFR antibodies for RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset GSE5851 was used to d...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410159

Total Maxillectomy in Children: A Report Two Cases

Agustina Lorea, Eduardo Figueroa, Juan Larrañaga and Carlos S Ruggeri

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 08, 2021

We describe the clinical cases of two pediatric patients who were treated with a total maxillectomy and chemo/ radiotherapy for suffering from malignant tumors of the maxilla. The reconstruction of the floor of the orbit was done with titanium micromesh and the defect in the maxilla and hard palate was reconstructed with free flaps. This allowed a quick swallowing rehabilitation and an excellent cosmetic result. Total maxillectomy is a surgical technique that involves the resection of all the bo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410158

Proposed Biology of the Spontaneous Remission of Cancer

Behzad Niakan

Article Type: Hypotheses | First Published: September 08, 2021

Two common factors were identified among the case reports of the prolonged spontaneous remission and regression of cancer. The prolonged spontaneous remissions of cancer may be preceded by a low blood oxygen delivery to the tumor and a short, steady or rapid malignant growth. The steady or rapid growth of primary tumor not the growth of new metastases. Case reports of the spontaneous disappearance of verified cancer without any medical intervention has baffled researcher. The disappearance of al...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410156

Atypical Presentation of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Ramon Eduardo Garcia-Cahuich, Felipe Rodríguez-Solis, Nancy E. García-Carrillo, Alondra Yereldi Naranjo-Cruz, Lorena Berenice Hernández-Hoil and María Valeria Jiménez-Báez

Article Type: Case Report and Systematic Review | First Published: August 30, 2021

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (BCTN) has been defined as the absence of Estrogenic Receptors (ER), Progesterone Receptors (EP), Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and it conforms 10 to 20% of all cases of breast cancer. A 42-years-old female, debuting with abdominal pain, a 44 pounds of weight loss on the last 2 months and abdominal mass presence. A single complex looking nodule found in the left breast, which underwent a biopsy with results of triple negative breast adenocarcinoma, she ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410157

Proposed Biology of the Spontaneous Remission of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Behzad Niakan

Article Type: Clinical Case | First Published: August 30, 2021

Case Reports of the Spontaneous regression or remission of hepatocellular carcinoma was studied. Two common factors were noted among the prolonged spontaneous remission or regression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Low blood oxygen and a short and steady or rapid growth of hepatocellular carcinoma before the spontaneous remission or regression of hepatocellular carcinoma. It is suggested that the rapid growth of the hepatocellular carcinoma faced with low blood oxygen has possibly resulted in the h...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410155

COVID-19 Post-Vaccinal Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Lymph Node Metastases from Breast Neoplasia

Fabrice FOKOUE, I. Duran DERIJCKERE, Carlos ARTIGAS, Erwin WOFF, Géraldine GEBHART, Denis LARSIMONT and Patrick FLAMEN

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 21, 2021

Since the effective start of the large vaccination campaigns against the Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, case reports are rising concerning unilateral axillary lymphadenopathies highly uptaking FDG PET/CT scans. These lymphadenopathies can be a source of false positive for FDG PET/CT in a post-vaccination context. We report here the case of a 59-year-old womanfor whom a FDG PET/CT has been performed as part of the initial extension assessment of a recurrence of a left breast, 15 days...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410154

Correlation of PD-L1 Expression with Histological Patterns and Treatment Response in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Boulos Beshai, MD, Shabnam Rehman and Bo Xu, MD

Article Type: Cohort Study | First Published: July 21, 2021

Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are currently approved for treatment of advanced stage Non- Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients. We investigated the correlation between PD-L1 expression level in tumor cells by ImmunoHistochemical Method (IHC) to tumor histological growth patterns. Slides or scanned digital images of NSCLC cases tested for PD-L1 between December, 2016 to April, 2018 were blindly re-reviewed to confirm the PD-L1 expression and growth patterns. PD-L1 expression lev...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410153

Rhinosinusal Melanomas

Carlos S Ruggeri, Eduardo Figueroa, Agustina Lorea, Gabriel Rondón Gonzalez and Ana Carolina Riveros

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 30, 2021

Eight patients had melanomas, five located in the paranasal sinuses, two in the nasal cavity and one in nasal cavity and maxillary sinus. The incidence of melanomas in our population of patients with rhinosinusal malignant tumors was 11.11%. Three patients were treated with surgery and radiotherapy and three with surgery only. Two were treated with palliative criteria. In the six patients treated with curative intent, the local control and specific survival were 83.33%, and 66.66% respectively. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410152

Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Intake and Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Rural Uganda

Samson OKELLO, Emmanuel BYARUHANGA, Suzan Joan AKELLO, Emmanuel DWOMOH, Christopher Kenneth OPIO, Kathleen E. COREY, Ponsiano OCAMA, Jingshu GUO, Winnie R. MUYINDIKE, Robert J. TURESKY and David C. CHRISTIANI

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2021

Dietary exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) in cooked meats maybe responsible for the high burden of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in southwestern Uganda. We conducted a pilot case-control study among 31 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 54 age, gender, and residence matched healthy community controls sampled from the general population at the time of accrual of each case in southwestern Uganda. We collected data including smoking, alcohol consu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410151

Assessment of Pivka II as Tumour Marker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Anuj Parkash, Parul Singla and Ashok Kumar Ahirwar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 10, 2021

The most commonly used tumor marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). It has been routinely used for monitoring the prognosis of disease, but not for its detection. There is always a quest of new biomarkers for detection of HCC. The present study has been designed to determine the level of prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA II) in sera of patients suffering from HCC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the PIVKA II as a biomarker for HCC indepen...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410150

Prognostic Significance of Hormone Receptor (ER/PR) Status Inendometrial Carcinoma in Black Women: Implications with Lymph Node Metastasis

Manan Shah, Gabriela Oprea, Saba Shafi, Phani Keerthi Surapaneni, Sandeep Sasidharan, and Sanjay Jain

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 19, 2021

Loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/ PR) independently predicts lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Black females in comparison to their white counterparts are diagnosed at a later stage, with higher grade, poorer prognostic histology, and worse outcomes. We reviewed black females (n = 70) diagnosed with endometrial cancer at our institution from 2015-2018 including endometroid/ non-endometroid histology, FIGO stage I-IVA, grade 1-3 for ER/PR receptors and presence or absence o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410149

HER2/Neu Distribution in Female Breast Cancer in Libya: Correlation with Clinicopathological Features and Survival

Abdalla O Jebriel, Jens Huober and Fathi B Abdalla

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 18, 2021

HER2 protein over-expression is of great importance to guide hormone therapy. The present study aimed to determine the HER2 status of Libyan women with breast cancer and evaluate the correlation of HER2 expression with some clinicopathological features as well as overall survival (OS). Data on 245 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer who were registered at the Misurata Cancer Center (MCC) in Libya from January 2004 to December 2012 were retrospectively studied. Patients’ demographic and cli...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410148

Metastatic Tfe3-Overexpressing Renal Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

Paulo Victor Zattar Ribeiro, Leonora Zozula Blind Pope, Beatriz Granelli, Milena Luisa Schulze, Andréa Rodrigues Cardovil Pires and Mateus da Costa Hummelgen

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 19, 2021

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC which is delineated as a distinct entity in the 2004 World Health Organization renal tumor classification. To highlight a rare case, with few publications on the topic, in addition to providing scientific explanations about it. This is a case report of a 58-year-old white male with the diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC). The immunohistochemistry was performed and show...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410147

Triple Chemotherapy (DOX) in Patients with Advanced Gastro- Esophageal Adenocarcinoma - A Phase II Study

Tarpgaard LS, Jensen M, Schønnemann KR, Jensen HA, Yilmaz M and Pfeiffer P

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: March 19, 2021

Triple chemotherapy improves efficacy in patients with advanced gastro-esophageal (GE) cancer. In a phase I dose- finding trial including 23 patients we established a recommended dose of triple chemotherapy with docetaxel (D), oxaliplatin (O), and capecitabine (X) (DOX). We found promising activity and here we present efficacy data from the succeeding phase II trial. Patients and Methods: All patients had histologically confirmed GE adenocarcinoma. Therapy was docetaxel (51 mg/m2 as a 60 minutes...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410146

Chemotherapy Safe Handling through Educating Nurses: A Pre-Experimental Study

Rakhi Mishra, MScN, Bhawana, MScN and Ajay Kushwaha, MScN

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 25, 2021

Chemotherapy is a proven prodigy for the treatment of carcinoma but it can possess certain deleterious effects on the healthcare professionals while on constant exposure. Being frontline workers, nursing officers continuously come in contact with these chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, it is of paramount importance that nurses working in oncology unit have adequate knowledge and skill regarding safe handling of chemotherapeutic drugs....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410145

Effect of Low Frequency Electrical Current on the Biophysical and Molecular Properties of Cancer Cells

Amit Sengupta, Sanjay Gupta, Asmita Sharda, Hemant S and Arvind Ingle

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 25, 2021

Different cells and tissues are known to exhibit varied electromagnetic, electrical and molecular properties. During the repair process, cancer cells as well as normal proliferating cells have higher transmembrane potential than healthy cells. Since the dielectric properties are frequency dependent, applying varying frequencies of current can alter the transmembrane ionic flux of any conductive cell. This, in turn, can generate heat via the joule effect. Thus, it might be possible to alter the t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410144

CXCR4 Antagonist AMD3100 (Plerixafor) Modulates Immune Responses in the Tumor Microenvironment

Ziyao Liu, Jingzhe Wang and Huabiao Chen

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: January 30, 2021

AMD3100 (Plerixafor), a specific antagonist of CXCR4, is the most potent small molecule non-peptide inhibitor to CXCR4/CXCL12 axis. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1) expressed in a variety of tumor cells play an important role in regulating tumor biological behavior. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the environment around a tumor, comprising blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix which are involved in tumor growth, i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410143

Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses Metastasis

Carlos S Ruggeri, Lautaro Acosta, Valentina Proietti and Candelaria Serrano

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 31, 2020

Metastasis in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are rare. The most common tumor that produces them is clear cell renal carcinoma. The objective of the study is to determine the incidence of metastases in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses among malignant rhinosinusal tumors in our patient poblation and survival after rhinosinusal metastasis treatment. The medical records of all patients who had malignant rhinosinusal tumors diagnosed and treated in the hospital Italiano of Buenos Aires ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410142

Regeneration Abilities of Vertebrates and Invertebrates and Relationship with Pharmacological Research: Hypothesis of Genetic Evolution Work and Microenvironment Inhibition Role

Luisetto M, Naseer Almukthar, Gamal Abdul Hamid, Ibrahim G, Behzad Nili Ahmadabadi, Ahmed Yesvi Rafa, Ghulam Rasool Mashori, Tuweh Prince GADAMA and Oleg Yurievich Latyshev

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2020

A better understanding of the forces controlling cell growth will be essential for considering wound healing as a fundamental evolutionary with possibility of scar formation and reparative regeneration and the developing effective therapies in regenerative medicine and also in cancer. Historically, the literature has linked to cancer and tissue regeneration- proposing regeneration as both the source of cancer and a method to inhibit tumorigenesis. Aim of this work is to verify similarity and dif...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410141

Circulating Mir-497-5p as a Potential Non-Invasive Molecular Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Mesothelioma

Majed Al Mourgi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2020

Pleural mesothelioma is aggressive, surgery is the principal treatment. Mesothelioma usually diagnosed in an advanced stage. The present study was conducted to study the circulating MiR-497-5p as a possible non-invasive molecular marker for the diagnosis of mesothelioma and its role in follow-up and prognosis. MiR-497-5p was evaluated in Mesothelioma tissues and the plasma of patients and the plasma of healthy controls. MiR-497-5p was assessed in the plasma of patients before and after surgical ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410139

Assessment of Serum Selenium and Zinc in Esophageal Cancer Patients

Mansoora Akhtar, MD, Nazir Ahmad Khan, MD, Syed Mudasir Jan, MD, Arshad Manzoor, MD, Nazir Ahmad Dar, MSc, M Maqbool Lone, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 29, 2020

Oesophageal cancer represents a major health problem, continues to have very poor prognosis despite advances in its management that include improved surgical technique, neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy as there seems to be little project for early detection and treatment, a better understanding of the risk factors may suggest opportunity for its primary prevention. A total of 200 cases of histology confirmed carcinoma oesophagus (study group) and 200 case of healthy individual (control group) we...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410140

Retrospective Lymphoma Study from Malaysia Private Hospital

Dayang Sharyati Datu Abdul Salam, Teoh Siew-Hoon, Peh Suat-Cheng and Cheah Shiau-Chuen

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 27, 2020

Lymphoma is a malignant disease of the immune system with the most rapidly increasing incidence in many countries. According to 2008 WHO classification, lymphoma can be classified according to: Hodgkin lymphoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma, B-cell or T-cell and the site from which the cell arises. This classification system is important because it affects treatment and prognosis. There are numerous subtypes of NHL which is a reflection of the complex growth and differentiation of the type of lymphocy...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410138

Solitary Brain Metastasis in Low-Risk Prostate Cancer - A Case Report

Sonha Nguyen, Sameer Shah, Neil Dudheker and Vishal Ranpura

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 04, 2020

Adenocarcinoma of prostate is the most common cancer affecting men in United States. The most common sites of prostate cancer metastasis are to bone and pelvic lymph nodes. Brain metastases are rare and reported in less than 1% of prostate cancer patients. Among the patients with brain metastasis, most of them had concurrent systemic disease involvement, such as: bone, lymph node, liver and/ or lung metastasis. We report a case of patient with low risk prostate cancer, stage IV B, with well cont...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410137

Women's Personal and Life-Style Characteristics as Related to Molecular Genetic Changes within Their Uterine Cancers

Peter Zauber, MD, Thad R Denehy, MD, Robert R Taylor, MD, Stephen Marotta, PhD3Marlene Sabbath Solitare, PhD and Patrick Hilden, MS

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020

The histopathology and molecular genetics of endometrial cancer have been extensively studied, and they continue to receive attention and new interpretations. However, few studies have evaluated patients’ personal and clinical characteristics, or family history, with respect to the tumors’ molecular changes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the personal and familial information of patients with respect to several molecular genetic findings of their endometrial cancers....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410136

Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cervical Cancer at Two District Health Centres in the West Region of Cameroon

Tagne Simo Richard, Christian Kamnang Tchakounte, Leonie Marthe Ghomsi Sidje, Jacqueline Ferrand, Armel Herve Nwabo Kamdje, Paul F Seke Etet and Phelix Bruno Telefo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 25, 2020

Cervical cancer is a public health concern for women in Sub-Saharan Africa, where 34 over 100,000 are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 23 over 100,000 die yearly. We evaluated the knowledge and practices of the female population towards the prevention of cervical cancer in the city of Bafoussam, West Cameroon, considering that poor awareness about the disease and its prevention drives its progression in Africa....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410135

Haemoheological Studies in Cancer - Future Scope

Amit Sengupta, MBBS, MD, PhD

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: April 23, 2020

Hyper-viscosity of blood was documented in cancer. A marginal fall in the blood viscosity was noted during treatment. In some patients, a significant fall in the viscosity, hematocrit and plasma protein level was observed. We noted no post-treatment survival benefit in them. The fall in viscosity was possibly linked to lowering of immunological factors, anti-inflammatory response, reduction in cancer cell density and also serum proteins and hematocrit. We need to conduct well designed studies in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410134

Extracutaneous Melanoma: About Five Observations and Review of the Literature

Khadija Elboukhari, Kaoutar Achehboune, Sara Elloudi, Hanane Baybay, Nawal Hammas, Leila Chbani and Fatima Zahra Mernissi

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: April 16, 2020

Extracutaneous melanoma is not a frequent situation, making a difficulty for the diagnosis. It is characterized by a poorer prognosis and rapid metastasis. The research for a primitive cutaneous melanoma is obligatory before retaining this entity. The dermatologist role is to eliminate a cutaneous primitive melanoma by the clinic and dermoscopic examination. We report five cases of non-cutaneous melanoma: Three mucosal melanoma, one choridian, and the fifth one is a parotid melanoma, and we will...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410133

Effect of a Training Workshop on Oncology Clinicians’ Psychosocial Care Delivery Self-Efficacy and Perceived Barrier in Nigeria

Chioma Asuzu and Elizabeth Akin-Odanye

Article Type: Original article | First Published: March 26, 2020

Psychosocial care is an important part of a multidisciplinary approach to cancer management to mitigate the experience of distress often reported among those affected by cancer. Not many specialists are available in Nigeria to detect and address psychosocial distress in cancer patients. This study was designed to assess the effect and the sustainability of the effect of a training workshop on the psychosocial care delivery self-efficacy and perceived barrier among oncology clinicians in Nigeria....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410132

A Novel Combined Methodology for Isolation and Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells based on Flow Cytometry and Cellular Filtration Technologies

Nikolaos G Grigoriadis, Konstantinos A Kyritsis, Melpomeni G Akrivou, Lefki-Pavlina N Giassafaki and Ioannis S Vizirianakis

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 08, 2020

Cancer cell presents a dynamic nature that evolves over time in its microenvironment through a complicating molecular and cellular interaction network. Despite the progress already achieved in the imaging technologies and the molecular tools used for tumor cell diagnosis and treatment approaches, metastasis still remains a major hindering factor that limits clinical outcomes. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) present the potential in providing critical information to understand the metastasis proce...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410131

Palmoplantar Erythrodysesthesia Associated with Capecitabine, Epidemiological Mapping and Risk Factors in Morocco

Tarik Hanafi, Hicham Titou, Hasna Kerrouch, Rachid Frikh, Naoufal Hjira and Mohammed Boui

Article Type: Brief Reports | First Published: January 27, 2020

A prospective cohort of a descriptive and analytical study, including sixty-one cases of Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia in patients treated with capecitabine. The objective of this study is to determine an epidemiological mapping of Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia in cancer patients on capecitabine treatment and to identify possible risk factors. The incidence of PPE was 64%. The median age of the patients who developed PPE was 54 years. 70% of the cohort was female, breast neoplasia represente...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410130

Hyperpigmentation Associated with Anti-Tumor Chemotherapy: A Series of 54 Cases, Demo-Topographic Aspects and Interest of the Dermatological Intervention

Tarik Hanafi, Hicham Titou, Hasna Kerrouch, Rachid Frikh, Naoufal Hjira and Mohammed Boui

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: January 27, 2020

Three-year prospective study, from April 2016 to May 2019, including patients followed in oncology for malignant neoplasia, who developed hyperpigmentation following the start of antitumor chemotherapy for digestive, mammary and hematologic neoplasms, including the following molecules: 5 Fluorouracil, Tegafur, Cyclophosphamides, and Doxorubicin, in an isolated or combined mode. The study enrolled 54 patients, with an average age of 48 years and extremes ranging from 22 years to 67 years, with a ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410129

Candidate Genetic Polymorphisms and Haplotypes Associated with Endometrial Cancer Risk (United States)

Jane A McElroy, Robin L Kruse, J David Robertson, Helen Yampara-Iquise, Elizabeth C Bryda and Jeremy F Taylor

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 30, 2019

Exploration of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that alter the expression or function of a gene may enable the development of diagnostics for endometrial cancer susceptibility. We evaluated eleven candidate SNPs that have previously been reported in the literature or that are associated with cadmium sequestering (i.e., metallothionein) for their effects on endometrial cancer risk. We also predicted haplotypes for SNPs within genes on chromosomes 6, 14 and X and tested haplotype effects for...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410128

Research of Prognostic Role of MSI in Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Cases That Received Postoperative Radiotherapy

Kadriye Sahinturk, MD, Candan Demiroz Abakay, MD, Serdar Sahinturk, MD, PhD, Sebnem Ozemri Sag, Fatma Atalay, Fatma E Can, Meral Kurt, MD, and Sibel Kahraman Cetintas, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 11, 2019

One hundred twenty four endometrium cancer patients who were referred for postoperative external radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy during the period between January 2002 and December 2012 at Uludag University Radiation Oncology Department. Out of three all patients received radiotherapy. Since 11 had mixed type pathology, 9 had unspecified paraffine blocks and 2 had unsuccessful MSI analysis, study was performed with 99 patients and all re-staged according to FIGO 2009 staging system. Tumor tiss...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410127

Spontaneous Regression of Hepatic Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma in HIV and HCV Positive Patient: A Novel Case Study

Albert Alhatem, Saiaditya Badeti, Chen Liu, Dongfang Liu and Donghong Cai

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 23, 2019

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) rarely occurs in the liver. Spontaneous regression of this tumor is extremely rare. We are reporting the first case of hepatic DLBCL, and we are reviewing the English literature for cases of spontaneous regression of DLBCL and cancer in general. A 60-year-old gentleman with a history of HIV and HCV infections presented with an incidental liver mass. He was diagnosed with DLBCL germinal cell type with high grade features based on the results of pathological/c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410126

Cancer Patterns in Odisha - An Important Mining State in India

Sharmila Chatterjee, MBBS, MPH, CPH, Paul H Levine, MD, Surendra Nath Senapati, MD, Dipti Rani Samanta, MD and Pinaki Panigrahi, MD, PhD

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: October 14, 2019

Odisha, a populous state and a major mining belt in India has high levels of environmental carcinogens. There is no population-based cancer registry in Odisha, thus giving no opportunity to develop systematic studies on important regional carcinogens. This paper highlights current patterns of cancer as seen at Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Centre (AHRCC), and provides the first opportunity to determine the most important research questions that could drive cancer control programs in Odisha. Tw...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410125

The Role of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer

Beata Smolarz, Dariusz Samulak, Marianna Makowska, Hanna Romanowicz, Zbigniew Kojs, Luiza Wojcik and Magdalena M Michalska

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 28, 2019

Long-term infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical cancer and its precursor - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The presence of HPV infection can be presumed in more than 99% of cases of cervical cancer worldwide. The introduction of DNA testing for the presence of HPV has increased the effectiveness of screening programs for the detection of this cancer. This article contains the latest reports on the structure, function and role of HPV in the development of ce...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410124

TCM Combined Chemoradiotherapy in the Treatment of LimitedStage Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Status and Perspectives

Shulin He, Rui Liu, Qiujun Guo, Huamin Wei, Yanjiu Bao, Xinyao Xu, Shuntai Chen, Honggang Zheng and Baojin Hu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 21, 2019

About 13% of lung cancer cases are of the small cell subtype, but this variant is highly aggressive, and approximately 40% of patients with small cell lung cancer will have limited-stage disease, which is potentially curable with the combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The standard therapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer is concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the 5-year survival rate observed in clinical trials is approximately 25%. For patients who obtain a near complete o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410123

The Resected Tumour Volume of the Specimen as a Marker of the Quality of the Transurethral Resection in T1 Urinary Bladder Cancer

Staffan Jahnson and Hans Olsson

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 18, 2019

This prospectively performed population-based study included all patients in the Southeast Healthcare Region in Sweden with T1 UBC registered in the period 1992-2001, inclusive. RV, RTV and important clinic-pathological variables were studied. All patients had T1 tumours including detrusor muscle at the histopathological examination. Median values for RV and RTV were cut-off points for dichotomisation and 3 cm was the cut-off point for tumour size measured at TUR. Recurrence and progression were...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410122

Expression of P53 and Prognosis in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)

Amlani Lahin, Bellile Emily, Spector Matthew, Smith Joshua, Brenner Chad, Rozek Laura, Nguyen Ariane, Zarins Katie, Thomas Daffyd, McHugh Jonathan, Taylor Jeremy and Wolf T Gregory

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 09, 2019

Mutation of TP53 is the most common genetic abnormality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and results in an accumulation and expression of p53 protein in tumor cells. Disruptive TP53 mutations are consistently associated with poor prognosis but correlations of p53 expression with mutation or prognosis have been variable and the usefulness of p53 as a target for immunotherapy is unknown. Favorable prognosis is associated with the accumulation of T lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor mi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410121

Early Aggressive Management of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistulas following Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD): A Five-Year Single Institution Experience

Rohan Thakkar, FRCS, David Bourne, Msc, Stacey Vass, Bsc, Aditya Kanwar, FRCS, Theodore Tsirilis, FRCS, John S Hammond, PhD, Colin Wilson, PhD, Gourab Sen, MD, Steven White, MD, Jeremy French, MD, Richard Charnley, DM and Derek Manas, FRCS

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 07, 2019

We retrospectively analysed the data that underwent PD between 2013-2017. We reviewed for all patients who experienced Grade B POPF. Data included details of total parenteral nutrition received, dose of octreotide infusion administered, serial drain amylase levels, effluent volume and anthropometry. Outcome measures were weight changes associated with treatment, the number of lines used per patient, the length of treatment, treatment associated complications and 90-day mortality rates....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410120

Performance of Three Prognostic Models in Critically Ill Patients with Cancer: A Prospective Study

Frank D Martos-Benitez, PhD, MD, Hilev Larrondo-Muguercia, MD, David Leon-Perez, MD, Juan C Rivero-Lopez, MD, Versis Orama-Requejo, MD and Jorge L Martinez-Alfonso, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 17, 2019

Predicting mortality is one of the greatest challenges for critical care physicians. Severity scoring systems integrate clinical data to estimate the probability of death, which can be used to facilitate resource utilization or continuing quality improvement and to stratify patients for clinical research. Prospective validation in different populations of critically ill patients improves the applicability of the model to these settings. Furthermore, the performance of a prognostic score must be ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410119

Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Imaging) in Target Volume Definition for Radiosurgery of Acoustic Neuromas

Omer Sager, Ferrat Dincoglan, Selcuk Demiral, Hakan Gamsiz, Bora Uysal, Bahar Dirican and Murat Beyzadeoglu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 20, 2019

Acoustic neuromas, also known as vestibular schwannomas are benign and slow-growing tumors arising from neural crest-derived Schwann cells. Treatment of acoustic neuromas targets to achieve local control while preserving hearing without comprimising cranial nerve functionality. In this context, radiosurgery in the form of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) offer viable therapeutic options for effective management. Multimodality imaging has gained utm...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410118

Frailty as a Prognosis Factor in Cancer for the Elderly

Miguel Angel Acosta-Benito, Rosa Ana Garcia-Pliego, Jaime Barrio-Cortes and Veronica Rodriguez-FernAndez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 20, 2019

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome related to adverse health outcomes in the elderly, due to a decrease systems' functional reserve. Cancer is a common pathology in the elderly, and we need tools for identifying the response to treatment and prognosis of elderly cancer patients. This short revision aims to assess the significance of the detection of frailty in the elderly patient with a tumor as a possible prognostic factor in terms of mortality, and the impact of the 2013 Frailty Consensus in the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410117

Current Recommendations of Radioactive Seed ~ (125)I Implantation in Lung Brachytherapy: Moving Forward in Medical Care

Wang Yuchan, Yuan Gengbiao, Lee Changyi, Ran Lifeng and Yang Wei

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 20, 2019

Isotopes of radioactive iodine have a persistent lethal effect on the uncontrolled proliferation of tumor cells with a definite curative effect on tumors. It has been proved, up to 87.2% of 3-year's survival rate that could be achieved by radioactive seeds. Iodine-125 radioactive seeds have a long half life and low energy with excellent stable outcomes. Various effective isotopes with advanced techniques are used to place radioactive sources directly into a tumor, tumor bed in treating lung canc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410116

Breast Cancer Survivors: Is Routine 'Mammographic Only' follow up Imaging Enough or is it Time for Personalised follow up?

Gaurav Jyoti Bansal, Thomas Telford and Kevin Pinto

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 20, 2019

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, accounting for approximately 15% of all cancers. Over 85% of these people survive beyond 5 years after diagnosis, due to continual progressions in early detection and treatment quality. Despite advances in detection and treatment, 20-30% of patients develop local relapse or distant metastasis. Molecular subtyping of breast cancers based on receptor expression has been introduced in clinical practice and has developed into an important tool in pre...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410115

Breast Fibromatosis: Case Report, Case Series, and Mini Review

Alicia Huff Vinyard, DO, Rachel Berger, MS-IV, TolgaOzmen, MD and Eli Avisar, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 15, 2019

Fibromatosis of the breast is a rare, benign tumor, lacking metastatic potential, but can be aggressive and create issues with loco-regional control if not adequately treated. In the literature, fibromatosis of the breast is often discussed only in case reports and small case series. The consensus on treatment remains wide local excision, however, other therapies have been described. In discussion of an interesting case presentation of what we have defined as secondary breast fibromatosis, we re...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410114

A Single Institution Study Experience of Secondary Breast Angiosarcoma after Breast Conserving Treatment: Multidisciplinary Management

Angela Strazzanti, MD, Claudio Trovato, MD, Santi Gangi, MD, Dario Marletta, MD, Roberto Milazzotto, MD and Corrado Spatola, MD

Article Type: Multidisciplinary | First Published: May 08, 2019

The aim of this study, focusing on a small number of cases, is to deal with the angiosarcoma of the breast, representing less than 1% of all soft tissue breast tumors, and finally share our experience. As a consequence of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) that is the standard treatment nowadays, a new type of angiosarcoma has been highlighted: Radiation-Induced Angiosarcoma (RIAS). Here is reported a retrospective analysis of RIAS patients' characteristic features, together with an account of the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410113

Treatment of Nephroblastoma in Developing Countries - Experience from a Single Center in Vietnam with NWTS 5 and SIOP 2001 Protocols

Hau Duc Tran and Ba X Hoang

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: April 29, 2019

We analyzed outcomes, advantages and disadvantages in application of SIOP 2001 and NWTS 5 protocols in our hospital. Patients with nephroblastoma admitted to National Children's Hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, had been treated according to the NWTS 5 protocol from 2000-2005, and from 2008-2013 according to the SIOP 2001 protocol. 33 patients, stages I-III treated with NWTS 5 had estimated 5 year EFS 90.1% and OS 96.7% (mean follow up time 30.4 months); 58 patients, stages I-V, treated with SIOP 2001...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410112

Common Factors among Some of the Reported Cases of the Spontaneous Remission and Regression of Cancer after Acute Infections

Behzad Niakan, Pharm D

Article Type: Hypotheses | First Published: April 25, 2019

An immunological mechanism has been suggested for the case reports of the spontaneous remission of cancer after an acute infection. The basic suggestion made is that a few acute inflammatory responses are occurring at about the same time in these cancer patients. Furthermore, it is suggested that a few acute inflammatory responses occurring at about the same time may negate the inhibitory effect of systemic inflammation on innate immunity. It is suggested that the activation of innate immunity c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410111

Importance of Time to Chemotherapy Initiation in Small Cell Lung Cancer

Gregory J Kubicek, Rachel Koehler, Matthew J Rossi, Christian Squillante, Alexander Hageboutros, Melvin Pratter, Stephen Akers and Polina Khrizman

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 20, 2019

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy with a short median survival time. Because of the rapid growth rate there may be an advantage to emergently beginning chemotherapy as soon as SCLC diagnosis is made. All SCLC patients evaluated at Cooper University Hospital from January 2011 to September 2014 were reviewed. Multiple clinical factors were analyzed including timing between diagnosis and start of chemotherapy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410110

The Use of Carboranes in Cancer Drug Development

Emilia O Zargham, Christian A Mason and Mark W Lee Jr

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 18, 2019

Over the past decade, there has been a rising interest in the use of carboranes as a potential pharmacophoric moiety in the development of new drugs for the treatment of various types of cancer. The unique physical and chemical properties of carboranes make their use attractive in drug development. In several instances, the inclusion of carboranes into a drug structure has increased the agent's binding affinity, potency, or bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight applications...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410109

Does a New Information Structure about Cosmetic Outcome of Breast-Conserving Treatment Result in a Better Informed Patient? Outcome of a Comparative Case Study

ATPM Brands-Appeldoorn, MSc, AJG Maaskant-Braat, MD, PhD, VCG Tjan-Heijnen, MD, PhD and RMH Roumen, MD, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 17, 2019

A comparative case study compared data of two cross-sectional studies. The historical group (HG) was treated in 2013, the implementation group (IG) in 2016. The HG received a questionnaire, which resulted in implementation of the following items in our practice, expansion of the BCT brochure and photo book, incorporation of the Harvard and Numeric Rating scale. The IG received the same questionnaire, with the addition of nine more questions concerning specific implementation aspects....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410108

Well Differentiated Neuroendocrine Uncommon Primary Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report

Angela Strazzanti, MD, Claudio Trovato, Angelo Caponnetto, Santi Gangi, Loredana R Villari, Pietro Gangemi and Francesco Basile

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 11, 2019

Neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NEBC) are rarely malignant with a frequency of less than 0.1-0.3% of all breast tumors. The actual incidence of NEBC in BC (Breast Cancer) populations being still largely unknown due to the lack of a clear cut diagnostic criteria. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of the Breast and Female Genital Organs definitely established that the immunohistochemical expression of NE markers is the unique requirement for NEBC diagnosis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410107

Family History of Breast Cancer Associated with Breast Cancer in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

Sarah Colonna, Karen Curtin, Eric Johnson, Wendy Kohlmann, Jennifer Wright, Anne Kirchhoff, Sean Tavtigian and Joshua Schiffman

Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH | First Published: February 25, 2019

Advances in treatments for Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) have significantly increased survival of childhood and adult patients; however, the leading cause of death in HL survivors is due to secondary malignancy following HL treatment. Among women treated for HL, breast cancer (BC) is the most common secondary malignancy. We explored if an association exists between HL and BC exists within families. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410106

Awareness Level, Knowledge and Attitude towards Breast Cancer between Medical and Non-Medical University Students in Makkah Region: A Cross Sectional Study

Ramya Ahmad Sindi, Asmaa Ahmad Alzahrani, Nesreen Abdullah Alzahrani, Rana Ahmad Bin Salman, Shaimaa Amer Alshareef, Aisha Tabassum and Mohammad Shahid Iqbal

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 21, 2019

The worldwide cancer incidence and mortality has rapidly increased in the last decade. The cancer burden globally estimated to have crossed 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million deaths in 2018. As per the report of GLOBOCAN 2018, the worldwide incidence of breast cancer is 2.08 million and deaths due to breast cancer are 6.3 lakhs. With these figures, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among women worldwide accounting for 24.2% of all cancers diagnosed in women. As per WHO countr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410105

Impact of a Dedicated Multidisciplinary Research and Treatment Network on Outcomes of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients

Debbie G Robbrecht, Rob HA Verhoeven, Peter de Vries, Michiel S van der Heijden, Joost L Boormans and Ronald de Wit (on behalf of the Dutch Uro-oncology Study group (DUOS))

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 09, 2019

Our retrospective analysis based on 3472 muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, showed a non-significant trend towards survival benefit when treated in hospitals involved in a national study-group network (DUOS), with significantly superior outcomes concerning neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, surgical margins and lymph node dissection. These factors significantly correlated with an improved survival, favoring treatment at centers that are involved in a multidisciplinary national network with dedicat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410104

Exemestane-Induced Eosinophilic Colitis in a Patient with Grade 3 Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Kristyn Sanders, Shannon Lim, Sandra Ortega RN, Mark Gimbel and Lida Mina

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 07, 2019

Approximately after three months of exemestane therapy for breast cancer risk reduction, a 60-year-old female with estrogen receptor positive, right breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) presented to the emergency room with severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Imaging studies revealed severe colitis of the transverse colon. No other medications were started except for exemestane that would have contributed to the patient's symptoms. Outpatient workup included stool cultures, l...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410103

Αβ-Crystallin and Laminin-332 are Prognostic Markers for Triple Negative Breast Cancers in a Brazilian Series

Marcia S Graudenz, Diego M Uchoa, Ermani Cadore, Juliana Giacomazzi and Sidia Maria Callegari-Jacques

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 01, 2019

Association between increased αβ-crystallin (ABC) and abnormal LN332 (LN332) expression in triple negative (TNBC) and basal-like (BLBC) breast cancers has been suggested recently. This study aims to evaluate ABC and LN332 immunohistochemical expression in a series of TN infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas and its association with clinical-pathological features and prognostic significance. Microarrays of 69 cases of TNBC cases were scored for the expression of ABC, LN332, CK5/6 and EGFR by im...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410102

Women's Attitude and Beliefs about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test by using the Health Belief Model

Emre Yanikkerem, Asl KarakuS SelCuk and Nicole Esmeray

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 19, 2018

In the study, 31.3% of women had pap smear test and women who had higher socioeconomic status, who had children, had gynecological examination regularly and who were at an advanced age were most likely to have pap smear test. Women with low socio-economic status (education, employment and income status) had low score from health motivation and high score from perceived barriers. Women who had regular gynecological examination had the pap smear test, heard and had information about the test were ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410101

The Disparities of Cancer Incidence between Sudanese Men and Women

Mohammed A Abdulrahman, Siddik M Shaheen, N'Sanh MRS N'dri, AtifElagib, Alfatih AA Osman, Manal A Elimam and Sulma Ibrahim Mohammed

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 19, 2018

Currently, cancer constitutes a public health problem in Sudan. Many factors play a role in increasing the cancer risk in Sudanese people, which include environment, genes, occupation and gender. This study is carried out to investigate the cancer incidence differences between men and women in Sudan. In this descriptive study, data on 45413 patients diagnosed with cancer throughout Sudan over five-year period (2009-2013) were collected and analyzed according to gender. Cancer types (n = 35)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410100

Pretreatment Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) as a Prognostic Factor of Outcome for Patients with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institution Experience

Ashraf Farrag, ArifShaukat, Muhammad Ali and MagdyKandil

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 10, 2018

Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been correlated with survival outcome in different types of cancers. In this study we evaluated the prognostic significance of pretreatment NLR in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We retrospectively collected the clinical and epidemiological data of all biopsy proven, non-metastatic OSCC treated in our center between 2009-2015. Pretreatment absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes counts used to obtain NLR. The impact of NLR on ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410099

High-Grade Primary Osteosarcoma of the Thoracic Spine Presenting as an Ivory Vertebra

Khin YT, Peh WCG, Chang KTE and Mya SN

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 27, 2018

We report a 12-year-old Chinese girl with high-grade osteosarcoma of the thoracic spine, a rare site for a rare tumour. Radiograph showed a dense T9 vertebral body resembling an ivory vertebra. Bone scintigraphy revealed abnormal tracer uptake in the T9 vertebral body and posterior elements. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T1- and T2- hypointense signal in the T9 vertebral body and the posterior elements, with diffuse enhancement. There was an associated heterogeneously-enhancing paravertebral...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410098

Response Prediction to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Prior to Interval Debulking Surgery and the Outcome of Responders Compared to Nonresponders

Michal Levy, Joseph Menczer, Mona Boaz, Ayelet Wandel, Yossi Mizrachi and Tally Levy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 17, 2018

Neoajuvant Chemotherapy (NACT) followed by Interval Debulking Surgery (IDS) is an acceptable therapeutic approach for selected patients with advanced stage Ovarian Carcinoma (OvC) and Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma (PPC) patients. Our aim was to assess whether the combined presence of reduction of the diameter of the largest tumor mass and of the CA125 level predict response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NACT). Clinicopathological data were abstracted from medical records of consecutive OvC and PPC...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410096

Effect of Surgery and Adjuvant Radiotherapy on Overall Survival for Non-Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A SEER Population Analysis

John S Goodman, Howard R Sanders, Brian J Mitchell, Jeffrey D Bunn, Jason A Call, Robert K Fairbanks, Wayne T Lamoreaux, Aaron E Wagner, Ben J Peressini, Casey Strauss and Christopher M Lee

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 21, 2018

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon histology that develops from major and minor salivary gland tissue. ACC can originate from multiple different organs but is primarily associated with the salivary gland tissue in the head and neck. According to He S, et al., ACC follows an indolent clinical pattern with a tendency for perineural invasion and accounts for three to five percent of all head and neck cancers....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410095

What the Oncologist Needs to Know about Axillary Web Syndrome

Ray C Mayo and Jessica Leung

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 30, 2018

A 60 yr female underwent bilateral skin sparing mastectomy with bilateral sentinel lymph node biopsies. Two months after her surgery, the patient began to notice increasing constant "pain and stiffness" in her shoulders bilaterally and difficulty "reaching overhead". Upon presentation to her health care team, she was noted to have impaired shoulder range of motion bilaterally related to bilateral thick axillary cords....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410094

Axillary Web Syndrome: What the Radiologist Needs to Know

Ray C Mayo

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 14, 2018

A 60 yr African American female was called back from her annual screening mammogram for an asymmetry in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast on the MLO view. Ultrasound revealed a 1.7 cm irregular hypoechoic mass with indistinct margins. Additionally multiple sub-centimeter non-contiguous hypoechoic satellite masses extended towards the nipple. One axillary node showed focal cortical thickening. Subsequent biopsy of the 1.7 cm mass and most anteriorly located satellite mass showed invasiv...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410093

Basosquamous Carcinoma: Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

CH Saadani, H Baybay, H ElMahi, KH Elboukhari, S Gallouj, I SOUAF and FZ Mernissi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 13, 2018

Basosquamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) or metatypical carcinoma is a poorly known cutaneous tumor that is considered as an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma with an increased risk of recurrences and metastases. The most common onset is in the head and neck region....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410092

Quantification of Dosimetric Effects of Dental Metallic Implant on Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Plans

Chun-I Lin, Yuanming Feng, Wenhuan Jiang and Zhibin Huang

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 30, 2018

CT images with the presence of metallic implants may cause severe metal artifacts with incorrect CT numbers, which lead to inaccurate dose calculation in RT planning. The goal of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of metallic implants that correlates with the size of targets and metallic implants and the distance between the two on volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for head and neck (H&N) cancer patients with dental implants....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410091

Which Has Better Dosimetry in Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Rapid Arc or 3D Conformal Radiotherapy Techniques?

MW Hegazy, B Moftah and O Hassad

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 26, 2018

Our study was on 10 patients with RPS diagnosed and treated at king Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, planned for pre or postoperative radiation therapy with prescribed dose of 45Gy in 25 fractions. In both techniques, we looked at planning target volume (PTV) coverage, dose homogeneity and organs at risk dose (stomach, bowel, liver, kidneys and spinal cord)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410090

A Literature Review on Current Evidence of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Vineet Kwatra, Jose Roca, Sophie Merrick, Ruhe Chowdhury, Eleni Karapanagiotou and Rohit Lal

Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: April 18, 2018

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are changing the landscape in management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes antigen-4 (CTLA-4) are two important co-inhibitory receptors which can lead to suppression of T-cell function when bound to its ligands. Results from multiple large randomised phase 3 trials have shown a significant improvement in overall survival with durable response in selected group of patients following immune checkp...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410089

Clinical Utility of Serum Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Type 2 Testing as a Marker of Therapeutic Response In Tissue HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients

Seiichi Mokuyasu and Yasuhiro Suzuki

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 18, 2017

Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor type 2 (HER2) is over expressed in 20.0-30.0% of breast cancers and is currently evaluated histopathologically. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization require invasive enucleation of the tumor tissue and may be affected by heterogeneity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410088

Ipilimumab Activity in Advanced Uveal Melanoma: A Pooled Analysis

Muhammad A Khattak and Elin Gray

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 18, 2017

Uveal Melanoma is a rare tumour that displays different clinical behavior and molecular features compared with cutaneous melanoma. It is generally resistant to systemic therapy and there is no current standard effective therapy to treat patients with advanced disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410087

Immune Paralysis and the Spontaneous Remission of Cancer

BH Behzad Niakan

Article Type: short review article | First Published: November 16, 2017

Once a malignant growth grows past a certain size immune tolerance rather than immune sensitization occurs possibly due to the slow tumor growth. As the malignant grows larger some branches of the immune system (adoptive immunity) become protective of it, while other branches of the immune system oppose its growth....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410086

The Omission of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients Requires Careful Consideration

Hiroko Nogi, Takashi Kazama, Rei Mimoto, Yoshimi Imawari, Makiko Kamio, Hisashi Shioya, Yasuo Toriumi, Ken Uchida, Masafumi Suzuki and Hiroshi Takeyama

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 30, 2017

Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB) is used to accurately assess axillary lymph node status in patients with node-negative breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between non-sentinel node (SN) metastasis and clinicopathological findings in patients with one or two SN-positive breast cancer....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410085

Assessing Response to Chemoradiotherapy on 18F-FDG PET Images in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer using New Approaches of Histogram and Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix

Changdong Ma, Judong Luo, Yong Hou and Changsheng Ma

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 28, 2017

Twelve patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC and treated with combined Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) were involved in this study. We analyzed the percentage variation of gray value in every gray level or on the whole using histogram analysis algorithm which represents global intensity distribution....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410084

The Utilization of Partial Orchiectomy in Treating Small Testicular Tumors in the United States

Shaheen Alanee, Joseph Clemons, Bradley Holland, Max Nutt and Danuta Dynda

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 18, 2017

There is increasing evidence supporting the feasibility of Partial Orchiectomy (PO) as a treatment for small testicular tumors. However, the prevalence of this practice is still unknown. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End results (SEER) registry to characterize national practice patterns for surgical management of patients with testicular tumors ≤ 2 cm in size, and we examined factors that determined performing PO in such patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410083

Physiological Effort in Submaximal Fitness Tests Predicts Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Men with Prostate Cancer in a Weight Loss Trial

Andrew D Frugé, John A Dasher, David Bryan, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried and Gary R Hunter

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 16, 2017

Obesity and weight gain after the diagnosis of prostate cancer are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence and mortality; individualized plans to help prostate cancer survivors maintain or lose weight may be beneficial for recurrence risk reduction....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410082

Radiolabeled APIs for the Conduct of Human ADME Studies of Oncology Compounds

Yuexian Li, Mihaela Plesescu and Shimoga R Prakash

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 30, 2017

Human ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) studies of new chemical entities are an important part of the drug development process. These studies are normally performed by using a radioactive tracer (C-14 or H-3) blended with a therapeutic dose of non-radioactive drug in about four to six subjects. The radiolabeled API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) is utilized to evaluate the recovery and track the metabolic fate and physiological disposition of the drug....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410081

Bioactive Peptides from Legumes as Anticancer Therapeutic Agents

Gonzalez-Montoya Marcela, Cano-Sampedro Eden and Mora-Escobedo Rosalva

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 19, 2017

Food proteins are a source of nutraceutical and bioactive peptides that promote health and prevent diseases. Legume seed proteins have been widely studied to produce peptides (protein fragments) with a diversity of biological activities....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410080

Angiogenesis Inhibitor Induced Thromboembolism in Cancer Patients

Neeharik Mareedu and Carmen P Escalante

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 31, 2017

Therapy with Angiogenesis Inhibitors (AIs) is a newer targeted approach in treating cancers. It gained popularity in the past decade because of better outcomes and fewer side effects when compared to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These agents act by inhibiting the VEGF pathway and inhibit vasculogenesis, thus shutting off the nutrient supply to the continuously multiplying tumor cells....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410079

The Role of Notch Signaling in Liver Diseases: Contribution to Development and Cancer

Kazunori Kawaguchi, Masao Honda and Shuichi Kaneko

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 31, 2017

Liver tissue consists of several types of cells such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, stellate cells, cholangiocytes, and immune cells, all with essential functions. The liver plays an important role in metabolism because its cells act on a variety of substances, transforming them into metabolic products essential for life and the production of waste products....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410078

In Vitro Reaction of Cells Derived from Human Normal Lung Tissues to Carbon-Ion Beam Irradiation

Naoko Okano, Takahiro Oike, Jun-ichiSaitoh, KatsuyukiShirai, Masato Enari, TohruKiyono, MayuIsono, Kota Torikai, Tatsuya Ohno and Takashi Nakano

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 30, 2017

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a serious concern in carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) for thoracic malignancies. To estimate the induction of RILI after CIRT, translation of evidence in X-ray radiation therapy to CIRT is of great importance. However, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams in normal lung tissues is not fully elucidated, making the translation difficult....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410077

Acetylation of α-tubulin by a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Resminostat, Leads Synergistic Antitumor Effect with Docetaxel in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Models

Hiroaki Konishi, Akimitsu Takagi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Satoru Ishii, Yu Inutake and Takeshi Matsuzaki

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 31, 2017

There is a growing body of clinical evidence to demonstrate that inhibition of histone deacetylase is effective in the treatment of various types of cancer. We examined whether acetylation of a non-histone protein α-tubulin was induced by resminostat and this acetylation exerts combination effects with docetaxel since α-tubulin was a target of docetaxel....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1410076

Trastuzumab Emtansine in Patients with HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: a Multicenter Japanese Retrospective Study

Masako Sato, Masato Takahashi, Kenichi Watanabe, Nobumoto Tomioka, Mitsugu Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Narita, Hiroaki Kato, Masaru Abe, Yukiko Tabata, Masaya Kawada, Motoshi Tamura, Mitsuchika Hosoda, Motoi Baba, Kazuhiro Ogasawara, Tomohiro Oshino, Hiromitsu Akabane, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Masatoshi Kadoya, Kazuhiro Iwai, Yumi Okawa, Kenjiro Misu, Kazuomi Ichinokawa and Hiroko Yamashita

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 30, 2017

Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is currently approved for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anti-HER2 therapies. However, the efficacy of T-DM1 in patients who received pertuzumab, and in those patients with brain metastases, is currently unclear....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1075

Cancer Antigen 125 Levels can be Used as a Tumor Marker for Monitoring Patients with Endometrial Serous Carcinoma?

MW Hegazy, Wael H Elsawy, A Tolba and M Shoukri

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2016

Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common type of uterine cancer. Endometrial cancer is classified into two subtypes (I and II), which reflect general characteristics of its clinicopathological spectrum. Uterine serous adenocarcinoma (USAC) is under Type II neoplasms which are associated with more aggressive behavior than type I tumors. While they comprise 10-20% of endometrial carcinomas, they account for 40% of deaths from the disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1074

Massive Arterial Bleeding after Lenvatinib Therapy for Thyroid Cancer

Koichi Suyama, DaizoMurakami, Saori Fujiwara, Takashi Takeshita, Aiko Sueta, ToukoInao, Mutsuko Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Yutaka Yamamoto, Shin-yaShiraishi and Hirotaka Iwase

Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: November 26, 2016

A 69-year-old woman presented with hoarseness and other symptoms of laryngeal stenosis. A palpably large tumorin her neck was shown by computed tomography (CT) to expand invasively from her upper left thyroid lobe, and to involve her left common carotid artery and internal jugular vein (Figure 1 A-1). The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer was based on cytological evidence from fine needle aspiration biopsy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1073

Pigmented Paget Disease of the Nipple: A Rare Breast Cancer Presentation

Santiago Sherwell-Cabello, Antonio Maffuz-Aziz, Silvia Natalia Lopez-Hernandez, Melissa Lizeth Flores-Cortes, Veronica Bautista-Pina and Sergio Rodriguez-Cuevas

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: November 26, 2016

Institutional board approval was obtained before commencement of this study. A retrospective study was conducted in all women diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution from January 2005 to December 2013. Standard immunohistochemical breast cancer panel was performed to all patients (ER, PR, Her-2 and Ki-67) and CK-7, P63 and S-100 when the pigmented variety was presented. Patients with pigmented Paget disease were selected and demographic characteristics were established....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1072

Colorectal Cancer Aggressiveness is Related to Fibronectin Over Expression, Driving the Activation of SDF-1:CXCR4 Axis

Sofia Gouveia-Fernandes, Tania Carvalho, Germana Domingues, Renata Bordeira-Carrico, Sergio Dias and Jacinta Serpa

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 19, 2016

Cancer hallmarks result from dynamical interactions between tumor cells and tumor microenvironment, including normal cells, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Fibronectin (FN) is a high molecular weight, multidomain glycoprotein, present as a soluble form in body fluids, such as plasma (plasma FN), and as an insoluble form in ECM (cellular FN)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/6/1071

Prolonged Use of Aprepitant in Metastatic Breast Cancer and a Reduction in CA153 Tumour Marker Levels

Mark Lee, Matthew McCloskey and Stephanie Staples

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 16, 2016

Nausea and vomiting are common problems in patients with advanced cancer. This case report describes a patient whose refractory nausea and vomiting improved significantly with the use of Aprepitant, a highly selective neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. This improvement led to prolonged daily administration, during which time no chemotherapy or hormone therapy was administered. CA153 tumour markers were noted to have fallen during administration....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/5/1070

Validation of Measurement Based Dose Volume Metrics for the Quality Assurance of VMAT Plans

Sankar Arumugam, Aitang Xing, Tony Young, David Thwaites and Lois Holloway

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 22, 2016

Ten each of prostate and head and neck (H&N) VMAT plans were considered for this study. Three types of errors were introduced into the original plans: gantry angle independent and dependent MLC errors, and gantry angle dependent dose error. The percentage difference in PTV-D95 between TPS and 3DVH was compared for no-error and error introduced plans....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/5/1069

A First Case of Male Breast Cancer Responding to Combined Aromatase Inhibitor/Palbociclib Therapy

Steven Sorscher

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 19, 2016

For men with metastatic breast adenocarcinoma standard therapies typically involve the same therapies used for woman. Recently the FDA approved the aromatase inhibitor letrozole combined with the inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) palbociclib as first line therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. Here we report a first case of a man with metastatic breast cancer whose tumor responded to palbociclib and letrozole. This combination might be effective for other men with metas...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/5/1068

Three-Dimensional Ultrasound: Is it Useful for Decision Making in the Management of Rectal Cancer? Is 3D Ultrasound Useful in Rectal Tumor?

Sthela M Murad-Regadas, Romulo M Almeida, Rosilma G Lima Barreto, Doryane MR Lima, Francisco Sergio Pinheiro Regadas, Lusmar Veras Rodrigues, Francisco Coracy C Monteiro, Paulo G Oliveira, Joao Batista Barreto and Univaldo Etsuo Sagae

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 17, 2016

Consecutive patients treated for rectal cancer or adenomas in 4 colorectal centers in Brazil were included. Patients with early-stage rectal cancer identified by 3D-US were assigned to receive resection only, and those with a later stage were assigned to receive CRT. A second 3D-US was performed after CRT to detect the presence of residual tumor and metastatic lymph nodes or complete response....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/5/1067

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsies alone are not Sufficient for Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Cayce B Nawaf, Nathanial T Ondeck, Laura A Skrip, Rollin K Say, John M Gunselman, Jamil Syed, Peter G Schulam and Preston C Sprenkle

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: September 22, 2016

Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies (MRI-Tbx) has the potential to detect significant prostate cancer with a small number of cores; however, there are concerns that some clinically significant (CS) cancers may not be visible on MRI or identified with targeted biopsies alone....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1066

Rapid Development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus after Initiation of Anti-PD-1 Therapy

Muneeb Shah, Luke Maxfield, Rehan Feroz and Kevin Donohue

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 25, 2016

Programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) is a receptor on immune cells that serves as a checkpoint and plays an important role in preventing the activation of T-lymphocytes. Malignant cells are known to activate this receptor, thereby allowing them to evade immune surveillance. Programmed death 1 immune-checkpoint inhibitor antibodies (anti-PD-1), such as nivolumab, act to revamp the immune response against tumor cells by preventing activation of this PD-1 receptor....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1065

Culture of Circulating Tumor Cells - Holy Grail and Big Challenge

Tianyu Guo, Claire S Wang, Wen Wang and Yongjie Lu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 19, 2016

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), the most important representation of 'liquid biopsy', provides a minimally invasive approach to tumor tissue, and has been a hot topic in cancer research for years. CTCs bear great potential to provide a surrogate for traditional biopsy, and the culture of CTCs is essential to investigate the biological features of CTCs and their roles in cancer metastasis as well as to provide the opportunity for in vitro therapeutic sensitivity tests to guild treatment selection...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1064

Dosimetric Study on the Consequences of Replacing the mMLC Collimator Used for Intracranial SRS by an Integrated MLC-160

Tania Santos, Tiago Ventura, Miguel Capela and Maria do Carmo Lopes

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 17, 2016

At IPOCFG, stereotactic radiosurgery is performed using an add-on micro-multileaf collimator (3 mm minimum leaf width), m3, with full advanced integration in a linear accelerator equipped with a standard 82 leaf multileaf collimator with 1 cm leaf width. This work aimed to evaluate if it would be possible to dispense the use of the m3 if the standard MLC was replaced by a MLC-160 with 5 mm leaf width at isocenter....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1063

Estimating Relapse Free Survival as a Net Probability: Regression Models and Graphical Representation. An Application of a Large Breast Cancer Case Series

Annalisa Orenti, Elia Biganzoli and Patrizia Boracchi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 12, 2016

In most clinical studies, the evaluation of the effect of a therapy and the impact of prognostic factors is based on relapse-free survival. Relapse free is a net survival, since it is interpreted as the relapse-free probability that would be observed if all patients experienced relapse sooner or later. Death without evidence of relapse prevents the subsequent observation of relapse, acting in a semi-competing risks framework. Relapse free survival is often estimated by standard regression models...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1062

Cancer Risk among Physicians is Different from that among Non-Physicians: An Observational Pilot Study

Hyun Young Kim

Article Type: Pilot Study | First Published: July 29, 2016

We conducted a retrospective, case-control study on cancer risk among physicians and non-physicians at a health screening center. A total of 1,110 Korean subjects aged 30 to 65 years were assessed for cancer risk. A physician group (primary clinic, N = 147, tertiary hospital, N = 123) and non-physician group (N = 840) were included....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/4/1061

Impact of Eribulin Monotherapy on Post-Progression Survival in Patients with HER2-Negative Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

Takeshi Kotake, Yuichiro Kikawa, Sachiko Takahara, Shigeru Tsuyuki, Hiroshi Yoshibayashi, Eiji Suzuki, Yoshio Moriguchi, Hiroyasu Yamashiro, Kazuhiko Yamagami, Hirofumi Suwa, Toshitaka Okuno, Takahito Okamura, Takashi Hashimoto, Hironori Kato, Akihito Tsuji and Masakazu Toi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 25, 2016

Introduction: A multicenter observational retrospective study was conducted to assess the clinical response and survival impact, especially post-progression survival impact, of eribulin monotherapy in HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer (A/MBC) patients. Patients and methods: This retrospective observation cohort study contains 110 A/MBC patients treated with eribulin monotherapy during April 2011 and August 2014 in 12 Kyoto Breast Cancer Research Network (KBCRN) institutions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1060

Rapid Fatal Progression of Cervical Cancer during Pregnancy Treated by Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

Iptissem Naoura, Lise Selleret, Frederic Selle and Emile Darai

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 29, 2016

Cervical cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynaecological malignancy in pregnant women. The prognosis of this cancer does not seem to be influenced by the pregnancy. However, the cancer management comes into competition with maternal and foetal outcomes, especially during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Challenging issues lie in the cervical screening during pregnancy, the evaluation of lymph node status and the indication of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to avoid foetal prematurity without compr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1059

Appendiceal Metastasis in a Patient with Advanced Breast Cancer on Hormonal Therapy

Edmond Kwan, Nezor Houli, Meron Pitcher and Shirley Wong

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 20, 2016

A 70-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain nine months after the diagnosis of de-novo, hormonal-receptor positive advanced breast cancer. Imaging revealed appendiceal stranding likely representative of acute appendicitis. Surgery was performed, and pathological examination of the inflamed appendix revealed metastatic carcinoma consistent with breast primary. The case highlights the diagnostic challenges of abdominal pain in a patient with advanced cancer....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1058

ADAM17: A Gatekeeper in Immune-Oncology?

Peter R Lowe and Nathalie Corvaia

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: June 20, 2016

Recent therapeutics searching to reactivate and target the immune system to destroy tumors have demonstrated remarkable success in the treatment of patients with previously intractable disease such as metastatic melanoma. Current research is enlarging the spectrum of targets and strategies for enhancing the immune response against tumors, in order to further improve treatment efficacy. In that respect, ADAM17, has frequently been described for it's over expression or over activation in the tumor...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1057

Immune and Genetic Susceptibility in the Development of Cervical Cancer

Barbara Mora, Felipe M Benavente, Carmen G Ili and Priscilla Brebi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 13, 2016

Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide. Although 99.7% of cases are attributed to a previous infection by Human papillomavirus, a small percentage of the infected women progress to cervical cancer, suggesting the existence of different risk factors involved in the development and progression of this pathology. Genetic variability related to the host immune system could play an important role in the defense response to Human papillomavirus and therefore to the proba...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1056

Breast Cancer Screening and Chemoprevention

J Drew Payne, Menfil Orellana-Barrios, Teri Payne, Anita Sultan and Catherine Jones

Article Type: Short Chart Review | First Published: May 31, 2016

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer related death among women in the United States. Breast cancer chemoprevention is a proven way to reduce breast cancer incidence. This article will present a short literature review and an assessment and description of breast cancer screening and chemoprevention in an outpatient internal medicine clinic. Records were reviewed to provide description of the screening in an outpatient internal medicin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/3/1055

Second Line and Maintenance Therapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer without Driver Mutation: An Evolving Paradigm

Stephanie Brule and Paul Wheatley-Price

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016

Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer amongst men and women combined, and is responsible for the greatest number of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents about 85% of all lung cancers, and is the umbrella term that includes the most common histological subtypes: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Due to the fact that it is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage or recurs after potentially curative treatment, t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1054

New Insights into Functional Implication of Genetic Variation in Association with Cancer

Yanfeng Zhang

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 16, 2016

Investigations of the genetic basis of cancers have identified hundreds of robust risk loci associated with cancers using large-scale, case-control, candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide association studies (GWASs) during the past ten years. Most leading single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer sensitivity lie in non-protein-coding regions, suggesting the potentially regulatory functions as targets for susceptible variants. That is a critical question to understand t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1053

Prdx Overexpression in Tumor Tissue of Breast Cancer Patients

Jillian Muhlbauer and Shelley A Phelan

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 08, 2016

Peroxiredoxin (Prdx) proteins are evolutionarily conserved thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that reduce various cellular peroxides, protecting cells from oxidative damage. Prdxs also have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating redox-sensitive cell signaling in a number of cell processes. Prdxs have been implicated in cancer biology, and are upregulated in many cancers including breast cancer, as well as several breast cancer cell lines. To explore the entire Prdx family in b...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1052

Relation between Thyroid Disease and Breast Cancer

Ersin Turan and Baris Sevinc

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 31, 2016

Benign thyroid nodules are most common surgically treated endocrine disorder. Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women. In the recent study, we aimed to detect the relation between breast cancer and benign thyroid nodules. The patients operated because of breast cancer and have a definite diagnosis with pathological evaluation were included in this prospective study....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1051

Improved Antitumoral Efficacy of Mesothelin Targeted Immune Activating Fusion Protein in Murine Model of Ovarian Cancer

Yang Zeng, Binghao Li, Patrick Reeves, Chongzhao Ran, Zhao Liu, Mojgan Agha-Abbaslou, Jianping Yuan, Pierre Leblanc, Ann Sluder, Jeffrey Gelfand, Timothy Brauns, Mark Poznansky and Huabiao Chen

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2016

The candidate therapeutic fusion protein (scFv-MtbHsp70) is a recombinant Mycobacteria tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (MtbHsp70) fused with a single chain antibody (scFv) targeting mesothelin, combining the immune-targeting capacity of the scFv with the broader immune activating capabilities of MtbHsp70. The previous version of the fusion protein, VIC-007, markedly enhanced survival of ovarian tumor-bearing mice through the augmentation of tumor-specific cell-mediated immune responses....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1050

The Many Faces of Lung Cancer

Luciano Cardinale, Valeria Angelino, Edoardo Piacibello and Andrea Veltri

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 27, 2016

The aim of this short review is to illustrate various CT findings of lung cancer (LC) other than the classical aspects. Overall, LC is the second commonest cancer in men and women in the developed world and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 20-25% of cases. In comparison with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), SCLC typically exhibits more aggressive behaviour with rapid growth, early metastatic spread and frequent association with paraneoplastic syndromes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1049

Cardiac Involvement in Carcinoid Syndrome: Role of Serial Standard and Contrast Echocardiography

Francesca Casadei, Antonella Moreo, Francesco Musca, Paola Vallerio, Miriam Stucchi and Cristina Gannattasio

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 23, 2016

We report a case of a 52 year-old woman with cardiac carcinoid metastases who developed a moderate tricuspid regurgitation without the typical findings of carcinoid valve disease. Echocardiography allowed to define the mechanism of valve insufficiency. Moreover, standard and contrast echocardiography permitted characterization of the structural features of the mass, size measurement and monitoring growth during follow-up....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1048

New Enzyme-Targeting Radiosensitizer (KORTUC) Containing Hydrogen Peroxide & Sodium Hyaluronate for Intra-tumoral Injection Using Mice Transplanted with SCC VII Tumor

Ryo Akima, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Shiho Morita-Tokuhiro, Akira Tsuzuki, Shin Yaogawa, Shinji Kariya, Norihiko Hamada, Akihito Nishioka, Shinichiro Masunaga and Koji Ono

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 21, 2016

The therapeutic effect of radiotherapy using linear accelerators (Linac) for relatively large tumors of more than several centimeters in diameter is reduced to one- third due to a large number of hypoxic tumor cells and a significant amount of anti-oxidative enzymes, such as many kinds of peroxidases and catalase. To overcome tumor hypoxia and abundant peroxidase activities, an injection of hydrogen peroxide into tumor tissue is considered to be a most effective method. However, this is consider...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1047

P53 Sensitizes Breast Cancer Stem Cells to Let-7 miRNAs Induced Repression

Jian Liu, Ning Du, Huangzhen Wang, Xin Wang, Peili Wang, Jia Zhang, Gang Li, Jing Zhang, Sida Qin, Chongwen Xu, Shou-Ching Tang, Xin Sun, Boxiang Zhang, Dapeng Liu and Hong Ren

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 10, 2016

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the tumor recurrence and resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. Let-7 family of miRNAs functions in regulating cancer biology by repressing multiple downstream oncogenes. In this study, we examined the regulatory loop of suppressive let-7 and p53 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and explored the mechanism through which this loop affects the growth patterns of breast cancer stem-like cells (BrCSCs)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/2/1046

Metronomic Chemotherapy Preserves Quality of Life Ensuring Efficacy in Elderly Advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

Francesca De Iuliis, Stefania Vendittozzi, Ludovica Taglieri, Gerardo Salerno, Rosina Lanza, and Susanna Scarpa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 01, 2016

Metastatic non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are diseases with poor prognosis and platinum-based doublet chemotherapy still remains their standard cure. Elderly patients often present comorbidities that limit the utilization of this chemotherapy; therefore these patients should have a first-line treatment with low toxicity and capable to preserve the quality of life (QoL) but, at the same time, to ensure the best possible response. Furthermore, a first-line treatment allows patients to be fit ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1045

Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma to a Lymph Node with Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Xiao Huang, Kazunori Kanehira, Fadi Habib and Bo Xu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 19, 2016

Metastatic carcinoma to a lymph node with high grade lymphoma is very rare, particularly when high grade lymphoma is the first time diagnosis. Here we report a case where metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was found in a retroperitoneal lymph node with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Histologically, the metastatic adenocarcinoma is located mainly in the subcapsular region....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1044

Incidental Paget's Disease of the Nipple in a Prophylactic Skin-Sparing Mastectomy for BRCA1 Mutation: Implications for Increased Use of Prophylactic Nipple Sparing Mastectomy

Esther Dubrovsky, Farayan Jalalabi, Aysegul Sahin and Dalliah M Black

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 10, 2016

Prophylactic skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM) have become suitable options for breast cancer prevention in appropriate patients with hereditary risk of breast cancer. Prophylactic total mastectomy (TM) provides approximately 90% to 95%- risk reduction in patients with BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutations. Initially, bilateral TM was recommended because of the concern for an increased breast cancer risk from remaining residual breast tissue....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1043

Developing Pathway Collection for Personalized Anti-cancer Therapy

Luminita Castillos and Anton Yuryev

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 01, 2016

We describe methodology for developing personalized anti-cancer drug therapy using pathway analysis. We successfully applied this methodology to treat several cancer patients that were terminally diagnosed by standard of care criteria at the hospital. Our approach consists of profiling patient tumor using gene expression microarray and calculating pathways responsible for the differential expression between tumor and normal control tissue....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1042

Breast Cancer in Surgical Site: Unusual Presentation of an Ectopic Milk Line Malignancy

Zsolt Varga, Miklos Torok, Eva Sebo, Judit Toth and Dezso Toth

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 30, 2016

A 56-year old woman with history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was referred to outpatient clinic 3 years after the operation with a non-healing reddish lump in the surgical scar. The lesion was situated at the site of the right subcostal port, in the medioclavicular line, below the ribcage. Local excision was performed and histological evaluation revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was thought to be metastatic. After multiple recurrences, appearance of an axillary lymph node m...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1041

The Usefulness of Nutritional Index CONUT for Risk Assessment and Prognosis after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

Shinichi Sekine, Takuya Nagata, Tomoyuki Okumura, Shunsuke Kawai, Katsuhisa Hirano, Takeshi Miwa, Makoto Moriyama, Hirofumi Kojima, Isaya Hashimoto, Kazuto Shibuya, Shozo Hojo, Isaku Yoshioka, Koshi Matsui, Shigeaki Sawada and Kazuhiro Tsukada

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 30, 2016

Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is a highly invasive surgery. Therefore, assessment of pre-operative nutritional status may contribute to the postoperative course. Patients (n = 116) who had undergone PD were included in this study. We evaluated the usefulness of the body mass index (BMI), prognostic nutrition index (PNI), and controlling nutritional status score (CONUT) for evaluating post-operative complication risk by examining the relationship between pre-operative nutritional status and the oc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1040

Microwave/Radiofrequency (MW/RF) Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk: Meta-Analysis of Accumulated Empirical Evidence

Iris Atzmon, Shai Linn, Elihu D Richter and Boris Portnov

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 30, 2016

Scientific debate regarding the health effects of Microwave/Radiofrequency (MW/RF) radiation has continued for decades, but has risen sharply in recent years due to an explosion in wireless technology. Several studies of the health effects of MW/RF radiation were published in recent years, but their results have not been analyzed to date using meta-analysis tools....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1039

Microwave/Radiofrequency (MW/RF) Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of Time-related Trends in the Accumulated Empirical Evidence

Iris Atzmon, Boris Portnov, Shai Linn and Elihu D Richter

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 27, 2016

Scientific debate regarding health effects from MW/RF radiation has increased considerably in recent years. In the early 1980's much of the evidence concerning the health effects of MW/RF radiation came from occupational studies, however, in the 1990's and the 2000's, environmental studies became more dominant. This resulted from an increase in public awareness about exposure to MW/RF radiation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1038

Multimodal Treatment of Breast Cancer Liver Metastases Based on Hepatic Resection and Microwave Coagulo-Necrotic Therapy (MCN)

Yuko Takami, Susumu Eguchi, Masaki Tateishi, Tomoki Ryu, Kazuhiro Mikagi, Yoshiyuki Wada and Hideki Saitsu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 11, 2016

Background: Generally it is rare to select surgery for treating breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM), but we have carried out aggressively surgical treatment to BCLM. Especially as a part of treatment strategies, we have used intraoperative loco-regional microwave ablation, named microwave coagulo-necrotic therapy (MCN). In this study, we investigate whether or not surgical treatment, combining hepatic resection and/or MCN, is useful for treating BCLM. Methods: Between 1994 and 2014, 33 patient...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/3/1/1037

Zinc Ionophore (Clioquinol) Inhibition of Human ZIP1-Deficient Prostate Tumor Growth in the Mouse Ectopic Xenograft Model: A Zinc Approach for the Efficacious Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Renty B. Franklin, Jing Zou, Yao Zheng, Michael J. Naslund, Leslie C. Costello

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 09, 2016

Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths in males. This is mainly due to the absence of an available efficacious chemotherapy despite decades of research in pursuit of effective treatment approaches. A plausible target for the treatment is the established clinical relationship that the zinc levels in the malignant cells are markedly decreased compared to the normal epithelium in virtually all cases of prostate cancer, and at all stages malignancy. The decrease in zinc re...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1036

Long-Term Survival and Quality of Life Outcomes with Multiple Gamma Knife Radiosurgeries for Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Brain: Case Report and Review of Literature

Andrew T Roehrig, Ethan Ferrel, Robert K Fairbanks, Wayne T Lamoreaux, Alexander R MacKay, Jason A Call, John J Demakas, Aaron Wagner, Barton S Cooke, Benjamin C. Ling, Jonathan D. Carlson and Christopher M Lee

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2015

Metastatic disease to the brain from breast cancer can be treated with multiple modalities. Determining effective therapies for select patients with brain metastases is critical to maximizing survival and quality of life. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be an effective option for select patients with brain metastases, and is highly targeted with rapid fall-off of radiation dose outside the treatment zone. The following case illustrates the potential use of multiple Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1035

Fascin is Expressed in Basal-Liketype Triple Negative Breast Cancer Associated with High Malignant Potential in Japanese Women

Hiromichi Tsuchiya, Akiko Sasaki, Yuko Tsunoda, Masafumi Takimoto, Terumasa Sawada, Seigo Nakamura, kentaro Iijima and Katsuji Oguchi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 07, 2015

No molecular targeted drug has been developed for poor-prognostic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) because it has no hormone or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) sensitivity. In addition, TNBC has recently been sub classified into 6 types. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Fascin, an actin-binding protein associated with breast cancer, in 301 invasive breast cancer samples. Of these, 32 were identified as TNBC and were classified into the basal-like type and other no...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1034

Palliative Management of Malignant Bowel Obstruction with Carcinomatosis

Kirti Joseph, Jaclyn Schneider and Amy A Case

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 27, 2015

Mr. H was a 73 year old male with a past medical history of lumbar spinal degenerative disease, pyloric stenosis repair as a child and a Hartmann procedure for a perforated diverticulitis at age 43, with colostomy reversal shortly after. In August of 2014 he was diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer, with extensive metastases to the lung including large masses that invaded into the airways as well as a right middle and upper lobe mass compressing the superior vena cava. He underwent and assisted l...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1033

C4.4A and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) May Contribute to breast Cancer not Mediated Through epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

Natsuko Inoue, Takahiro Watanabe, Seiichi Hirota, Masahisa Ohtsuka, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Koji Morimoto, Toyomasa Katagiri and Yasuo Miyoshi

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 11, 2015

C4.4A, a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol-anchored membrane protein, plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) affecting progression of colorectal cancer, while aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been identified as a stem cell marker for breast cancer. Since cancer stem cells link to EMT phenotype, both molecules seem to be important for breast cancer progression mediated via EMT. In this study, associations between expressions of C4.4A or ALDH1 and vimentin, a mesenchyma...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1032

Feasibility and Efficacy of Definitive Hypofractionated High-Dose Radiotherapy for Cutaneous Angiosarcoma of the Scalp

Emiko Shimoda, Kazuya Inoue, Nobuhide Wakai, Yoko Morimoto, Isao Asakawa, Nobumasa Fujitani, Tadashi Yoshimine, Tetsuro Tamamoto, Maiko Takeda, Kohei Ogawa, Hideo Asada and Masatoshi Hasegawa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 03, 2015

Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare but highly aggressive vascular tumor resistant to all treatment modalities available. The aim of this study was to analyze the treatment outcomes of patients who received definitive hypofractionated high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Between April 2008 and December 2014, 11 patients with histologically proven cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp visited our Department of Radiation Oncology, because dermatologists suggested that there was no...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/5/1031

Cervical Cytology Screening - Is the Change of Policy Risk Free?

Emily H. Hertzberg, Nurit Ariel, Dalia Kaplan, Michal Markovitz and Zeev Blumenfeld

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 01, 2015

With the change in the cervical cancer screening guidelines, women younger than 21 will not be routinely screened and the screening interval is extended to three years. In spite of the well-received newly recommended guidelines on cervical cancer screening, how many patients will be excluded by the guidelines that may have otherwise benefited from the screening?. It is important to look at the trends in the screened population in order to answer this question. Our aim was to determine the effect...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1030

Vaginal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) with Unusual Liposarcomatous Differentiation - A Case Report

F Gougeon, J. Doyon, P. Sauthier and K. Rahimi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 28, 2015

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare sarcomas usually arising in peripheral nerve bundles or from pre-existing neurofibromas. They have frequent divergent differentiation. Here we present a case of MPNST arising in the vagina of a 70 y.o women. Beside the unusual location, this tumor presented liposarcomatous differentiation, a finding which has only been reported three times in the past and never in a MPNST of the female genital tract....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1029

Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Hormone-Receptor Positive Advanced Breast Cancer-The Emerging Role of CDK4/6 Inhibitors

Ciara C O'Sullivan

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 14, 2015

Dysregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathway in cancer cells may inhibit senescence and promote cellular proliferation. By using various different mechanisms, malignant cells may increase cyclin D-dependent activity. The cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls the cell cycle restriction point, and is commonly dysregulated in breast cancer; making it a rational target for anticancer therapy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1028

Targeting of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Using Anti-inflammatory and Pro-inflammatory Agents

Parvin Forghani and Edmund K Waller

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 03, 2015

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been considered to be key mediators of immuno-suppression in cancer. The numbers of MDSCs increased in the blood and in the tumor microenvironment during inflammation. Due to the strong correlation between inflammation and cancer that results in tumor progression through MDSCs-associated immune-suppression, it is posited that modulating MDSCs using anti-inflammatory drugs will enhance the activity of immunotherapy and antitumor immunity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1027

Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Neck from Unknown Primary Sites: the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre (ORCC) Experience

Osama Marglani, Ameen Zaid Alherabi, Ali Safar, Suliman Alghamdi, Libni Eapen, Helen Caetano and Martin Corsten

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: September 25, 2015

Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to the neck from an unknown primary site presents a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic disease entity, despite a thorough diagnostic workup. The optimal management of patients who have this syndrome is still unclear and controversial. We present our experience in management of patients with unknown primary....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1026

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Determine the Optimum Staging modality for Primary Breast Cancer

Berney M, Manning A, Carter M, Sacchini V, Kell M R. Barry M

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 24, 2015

Staging of primary breast cancer can radically alter the management if stage IV disease is accurately detected. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether conventional CT TAP or PET-CT provides the optimum staging modality. A meta-analysis involving 158 patients with primary breast cancer showed that PET-CT was more sensitive than CT-TAP for detection of metastatic disease (OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.37 - 4.53, p < 0.0001). A systematic review of 1780 patients undergoing PE...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1025

Common Polymorphisms in the USF1 Gene and Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

Meng Zhang, Jian Bai1, Junjie Huang, Yukun Ge, Hu Xiong, Wei Lu, Jizhou Shi, Lu Fang, Song Wu and Zhiming Cai

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 21, 2015

Upstream transcription factor 1(USF1) has been identified to be implicated in the development of many cancer categories. In view of recent studies, several polymorphisms in USF1 gene appeared to exert diverse influence on cancer susceptibility. However, the association between USF1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility remains inconclusive due to the finite relevant published discoveries. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by pooling all available published data on the susceptibility of U...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1024

The Influence of Melatonin on Immune System and Cancer

Anna Gry Vinther and Mogens H. Claesson

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 19, 2015

Melatonin has been shown to play a fundamental part in neuro immune modulation. Besides regulating the circadian rhythm it works as a natural antioxidant with immune stimulatory and anti-cancer properties. Melatonin is a regulator of hemopoiesis and modifies various cells and cytokines of the immune system. Melatonin elicits oncostatic properties in a variety of different tumor cells....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1023

A Derivative of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-3 Inhibits PAK1 Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

Peter Oladimeji, Yuzuru Kubohara, Haruhisa Kikuchi, Yoshiteru Oshima, Courtney Rusch, Rebekah Skerl, Maria Diakonova

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 17, 2015

Differentiation-inducing factors 1-3 (DIFs 1-3), chlorinated alkylphenones identified in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, are considered anti-tumor agents because they inhibit proliferation of a variety of mammalian tumor cells in vitro. Although the anti-proliferative effects of DIF-1 and DIF-3 are well-documented, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of DIFs have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of DIFs and their derivatives ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1022

Laparoscopic-Assisted Surgery for Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Originating from the Descending Colon: A Case Report and Literature Review

Keiji Matsuda, Takahiro Yagi, Mitsuo Tsukamoto, Yoshihisa Fukushima, Takuya Akahane, Ryu Shimada, Atsushi Horiuchi, Keisuke Nakamura, Takeshi Tsuchiya, Tamuro Hayama, Junko Tamura, Hisae Iinuma, Shoichi Fujii, Keijiro Nozawa, Takuo Tokairin, Yuko Sasajima, Fukuo Kondo and Yojiro Hashiguchi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 30, 2015

Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) localized in the large intestine is extremely rare. We report a first case of MFH in colon that underwent a laparoscopy-assisted colectomy. A 74-year-old female had a 3-month history of blood stool. Barium enema study showed protrusion in the descending colon. Colonoscopy revealed submucosal tumor-like lesion with central ulceration. A biopsy was obtained and the pathological report was that MFH was suspected. Laparoscopic-assisted left hemicolectomy ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1021

A Randomized Double Blinded Study of Ganoderma Lucidum (Lingzhi) in Salvage Setting of Recurrent Gynecologic Cancer

Prapaporn Suprasert, Chatchawann Apichartpiyakul, Choompone Sakonwasun, Pimonphan Nitisuwanraksa and Rochana Phuackchantuck

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 28, 2015

Lingzhi is a widely used anti-cancer herbal medicine in Asian countries with limited knowledge of the efficacy especially in gynecologic cancer patients. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Lingzhi in the forms of water extract type and spore type with a placebo control in a salvage setting of gynecologic cancer treatment. Sixty gynecologic cancer patients who failed at least two regimens of chemotherapy were randomly divided equally to ingest 6000 mg/day of Lingzhi in form of wa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1020

Reducing Sample Sizes in Phase II Trials based on Exact Binomial Tests by Shifting Design Parameters

Dirk Klingbiel, Qiyu Li and Martin Bigler

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 20, 2015

Currently, a large number of new anticancer agents is accompanied by constrained resources, requiring prioritization. In addition, emerging molecular subtypes subdivide common cancer entities into rare diseases, making it harder to conduct phase II trials as a crucial step in drug development and therapy optimization. We extend a recent work by Khan et al. on the design of phase II clinical trial based on exact binomial tests....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1019

Screening for the Polyomaviruses BKV, JCV and SV40 in Pediatric Malignancies

Karin Kosulin, Alexander Zimmerhack, Johannes A. Hainfellner, Christine Haberler, Gabriele Amann, Susanna Lang and Thomas Lion

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2015

Different studies suggested an oncogenic potential of the polyomaviruses JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40, particularly in brain tumors and neuroblastoma, which belong to the most frequent malignancies in children. However, currently available data are controversial, possibly due to the different regional prevalence of the viruses and the detection techniques used. To elucidate the presence of these polyomaviruses in the indicated tumor entities and in childhood cancer in general, we have ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/3/1018

A Simple Two-Stage PCR Method for Quality Amplification of Degenerate DNA

Ebili Henry O, Ham-Karim Hersh Abdul and Ilyas Mohammad

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 06, 2015

Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue banks are invaluable to cancer genetics and biomarker discovery. However, FFPE tissue-derived DNA is degenerate. As such, any PCR technique which will give adequate amplification of such DNA to enable downstream applications is important to the characterization of genetic biomarkers and to personalized medicine. The aim of this article is to describe a two-stage PCR method which efficiently amplifies degenerate FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Amplicon enr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/2/1017

Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells and Signaling Pathways

Mohammad Khalid Zakaria, Ashraf Ali, Kaneez Fatima, Mohd Suhail, Shilu Mathew, Saleh Alkarim, Esam Azhar and Ishtiaq Qadri

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 30, 2015

Loss of hepatocytes due to infection, inflammation or partial hepectomy simulates a response which helps in the liver restoration. This maintains homeostasis and keeps a check on the usual wear and tear in the liver. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) were demonstrated to be associated with myeloid leukemia. However, with recent advancements in the approaches and techniques, CSCs are also present within a wide variety of solid tumors and malignancies of epithelial origin....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/2/1016

The Shortage of Essential Cancer Drugs and Generics in the United States of America. Global Brain Storming Directions for the World.

Ahmed Elzawawy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 15, 2015

The shortage of the older essential cancer drugs that are off patent, mostly generics and injectable, has its threatening impact on health of cancer patients, clinical trials and the burden of costs spending on the health system in the United Sates. The problem is multifactorial and mostly economical and due to lack of incentives for production....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/2/1015

Web-Based Quality of Life Questionnaire Followed by Paper-Based Questionnaire for the Non-Responders: Daily Practice in Patients with Prostate Cancer

Tillier CN, van Stam MA, de Blok W, van Muilekom HVM, Bloos-van der Hulst J and van der Poel HG

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 13, 2015

Patient-related outcome measures (PROMS) play an increasingly important role in the planning and evaluation of medical care. A high response rate is crucial to get a good view of the patient population. Quality of life questionnaires in oncology are important in order to evaluate the impact of the disease or the treatment of cancer patients and guide treatment decisions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/2/1014

Nitric Oxide Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced 5-FU Resistance of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

Eri Sasabe, Ayumi Tomomura, Mayuko Hamada, Naoya Kitamura, Tomohiro Yamada and Tetsuya Yamamoto

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 16, 2015

Hypoxic environments in tumors induce expression of hypoxiainducible factor (HIF). HIF contributes to the development of the malignant progression through the induction of various target genes. We previously reported that treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs and γ-rays enhances expression and nuclear translocation of HIF-1α under normoxic conditions; susceptibility of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells to the drugs and γ-rays is negatively correlated with expression of HIF...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1013

Gene-Specific Promoter Methylation Status in Hormone-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Associates with Postmenopausal Body Size and Recreational Physical Activity

Lauren E. McCullough, Jia Chen, Alexandra J. White, Xinran Xu, Yoon Hee Cho, Patrick T. Bradshaw, Sybil M. Eng, Susan L. Teitelbaum, Mary Beth Terry, Gail Garbowski, Alfred I. Neugut, Hanina Hibshoosh, Regina M. Santella, Marilie D. Gammon

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 09, 2015

Introduction: Breast cancer, the leading cancer diagnosis among American women, is positively associated with postmenopausal obesity and little or no recreational physical activity (RPA). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain unresolved. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation may represent an early event in carcinogenesis, but few studies have investigated associations between obesity/RPA and gene methylation, particularly in postmenopausal breast tumors where these lifest...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1012

Phase I Clinical Study of Survivin-Derived Peptide Vaccine for Patients with Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancers

Fukino Satomi, Hiroaki Shima, Toru Mizuguchi, Toshihiko Torigoe, Goro Kutomi, Yasutoshi Kimura, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Yasuaki Tamura, Tomohide Tsukahara, Takayuki Kanaseki, Akari Takahashi, Hiroko Asanuma, Yoichi M. Ito, Hiroshi Hayashi, Osamu Sugita, Noriyuki Sato and Koichi Hirata

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 04, 2015

Survivin is a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. It is expressed in fetal tissues but not in normal adult tissues. Since Survivin is over expressed in various types of tumor tissues as well as tumor cell lines, it is considered to be suitable as a target antigen for cancer vaccine therapy. We identified an HLA-A24-restricted antigenic peptide, SVN-2B (AYACNTSTL), derived from a splicing variant of Survivin-2B. In the present study, we carried out a phase I clinical study ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1011

Primitive Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma: Three Cases with Immunohistochemical Profiling

Mira Akiki, Fereshteh Farkhondeh, Virginie Fourchotte and Xavier Sastre-Garau

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 22, 2015

Most carcinosarcoma, formerly designed as Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumors are found in the uterus or the ovary, but rarely in the fallopian tube. The histogenesis of this type of tumor and its place regarding serous or poorly differentiated carcinoma are discussed. We document here three typical cases primarily developed in the fallopian tube. The patients were 69, 70 and 82 years old. They all presented with abdominal pain and large unilateral adnexal mass apparently confined to the ovary. Bil...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1010

Smac13-Tat Fusion Peptide Induces Cell Death and Sensitizes HeLa Cells to Chemotherapeutic Drugs

Yoshinori Mano, Toshihiko Torigoe, Hiroko Asanuma, Yoshihiko Hirohashi and Noriyuki Sato

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 19, 2015

Background: The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells and play an important role in the inhibition of caspases, thereby suppressing programed cell death and leading to chemoresistance of cancer cells. However, the anti-apoptotic function of IAPs could be suppressed by Smac, the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase through its direct interaction with IAPs. Smac can interact with IAPs through the N-terminal Ala-Val-Pro-Ile tetrapeptide do...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1009

A Cross-Disciplinary Look at Shoulder Pain and Dysfunction after Treatment for Breast Cancer

Delva Shamley

Article Type: Opinion | First Published: January 15, 2015

Shoulder morbidity is a well-documented consequence of treatment for breast cancer. Despite less invasive surgery, a subset of breast cancer survivors present with decreased shoulder complex mobility, tightness, oedema, weakness, pain and numbness after treatment. Additional considerations are connective tissue changes such as scarring and Axillary Web Syndrome (cording), which are known contributory factors to arm dysfunction and pain after treatment. Patients experiencing shoulder and arm prob...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1008

HER2 Positive Gastric And Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma; An Irish Tertiary Center Experience

Yasir Y Elamin, Shereen Rafee, Mutaz M Nur, Nemer Osman, John V Reynolds, Cian Muldoon and Kenneth J O'Byrne

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 29, 2014

Background: Trastuzumab has been approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over expression and gene amplifiation metastatic gastric cancer. Here we present the prevalence of HER2 positive gastric cancer in an Irish population, the use of Trastuzumab in fist line and beyond progression. Methods: The study was conducted in St Jamess Hospital, Dublin. A retrospective analysis of the date of patients with HER2 positive gastric cancer over a period of 3 years was c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1007

Epidemiology and Radiotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Rex Cheung

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: October 27, 2014

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer secondary to chronic liver conditions such as hepatitis Bvirus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections, obesity and alcoholism. HCC is the sixth most common solid tumor, and third most lethal cancer globally. Thre may be a gender diffrence in the development and outcome of chronic liver diseases. In U.S., the incidence of HBV infection has declined since the introduction of HBV vaccination in 1981. But approximately 350 million of global popula...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1006

Knowledge, Attitude and Screening Behaviour of Benue State University Male Students towards Prostate Cancer Awareness

Joyce M.Terwase, Chioma C. Asuzu and James A. Mtsor

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 18, 2014

The study investigated the influence of knowledge, attitude and screening behaviour of Benue State University Male Students towards prostate cancer awareness. Five research questions and research hypotheses guided the study. The study was a cross-sectional design utilizing a pretested 34-item Prostate Cancer Questionnaire (PCQ) (Cronbachs alpha of 0.62) to collect information about knowledge, attitude and screening behaviour regarding prostate cancer among Benue State University Male students M...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1005

Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Differentiation Histologic Variant of Urothelialcarcinoma of Urinary Bladder: Oncological Outcome Following Definitive Surgical Treatment

Mohamed Wishahi, Hossam Elganzoury and Mohamed Badawy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 29, 2014

Objectives: To investigate the impact of variant histologic patterns of urothelialcarcinoma of the bladder on oncological outcomes of patients treated with Radical Cystectomy (RC). Three histologic patterns were evaluated: Urothelial Carcinoma (UC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), and urothelial carcinoma with Squamous Differentiation (SqD). Materials and methods: Retrospective archival study included 258 patients treated with RCfor muscle-invasive carcinoma. Data were reviewed in demographic a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1003

Is Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Still an Option for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in the Era of BTK Inhibition?

Josh D. Simmons and Jeremy Pantin

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 08, 2014

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains the most common adult leukemia in Western countries. Over the last several decades, there has been an evolution in therapeutic options from single-agent alkylating agents to purine analog-containing regimens, as well as chemo-immunotherapy combinations. Despite the high initial response rates reported with conventional chemo-immunotherapy, patients invariably relapse and may subsequently develop resistance to further conventional therapy.Unfortunately, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1002

Isnt it the Timing for Physics Guidelines on High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer?

Yongbok Kim

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 23, 2014

Prostate cancer has been known as the most frequently occurring (233,000 estimated new cases in 2014) and the secondly death-causing (29,480 estimated deaths in 2014) for men in the United States of America. Based on the extension of tumor, prostate cancer is staged in the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) scoring system. Depending upon clinical TNM staging, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (ng/mL) and pathologic biopsy denoted as Gleason sum score (GSS), localized prostate cancer patients are ca...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1001

International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research- Commited to Ensure Quality Publication in Cancer Research

Sulma I. Mohammed

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 20, 2014

With great pleasure we welcome you to the inaugural issue of the International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research. We envision this journal to provide a platform for all cancer researchers around the world to publish their high quality findings in cancer and clinical research as well as a venue to nurture researchers and young investigators in developing countries. The journal aims to accelerate the pace of research, discovery and innovation in clinical research around the globe....


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Articles Published

All articles are fully peer reviewed, free to access and can be downloaded from our ClinMed archive.

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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24



Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42



Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69



International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97



Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55