International Journal of Immunology and Immunotherapy is an open access journal which is an essential reading for scholars in all areas of immunological research and practical therapy studies. The journal publishes papers describing original work in all areas of immunology including cellular and molecular immunology, immunochemistry, immunogenetics, imaging, mathematical modelling, allergy, transplantation immunology, cancer immunology, clinical immunology and immunological therapies, physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease, malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders and therapies (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection), the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo are of prime interest.
International Journal of Immunology and Immunotherapy ensures the faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. Two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. It encourage authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible.
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Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410069
Ashok H Akabari, Sagarkumar Patel, Nikita Vaghela, Vinod Ramani and Dhiren P Shah
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/08/05
Nanotechnology means measurements estimated by nanometers or one-billionth of a meter- - to make structures, medical devices, gadgets and frameworks for medical, clinical and other uses, such as disease diagnosis. Cancer immunotherapy uses medications or drugs to help a patient's immune system fight cancer, as opposed to chemotherapy, which uses drugs to directly kill cancer cells, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410068
Zilefac Brian NGOKWE, Tamoh Stive Fokam, NtepNtep David Bienvenue, Nokam Kamdem Stephane, Cheboh Cho Fon, Kouamou Tchiekou Audrey, Elage Epie Macbrain and Tamgnoue Guillaume Arthur
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/05/10
SARS-COV-2 pandemic is almost 3-years-old and remains a case for concern. An overwhelming production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the context of COVID-19, not only impairs viral clearance but also promotes paradoxically hyperinflammation including cytokine storm; an unfortunate event leading to organ failure following long term damage due to inflammation and even death....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410065
Mabrouk A Abo-Zaid, Soha S Mohammed and Ahmed H Ismail
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 05, 2022
From the different causes of death diabetes has an advanced rank in the first 10. So the aim of this study was to relate between some pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β1) and infection with diabetes as biomarkers for infection. Forty male Wister albino Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were used as a model for estimation of the related cytokines. The animals were divided in two groups, the first group was given a placebo, whereas the second was given Streptozotocin at ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410064
Praznikov Viktorm, MD, PhD
Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: May 26, 2022
Resonant methods for the study of matter have found wide application in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. For example, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410063
Selia Chowdhury, Samia Chowdhury, Nurjahan Shipa Chowdhury, Athanasios Patousis, Anna Gerothanasi and Panagiotis Patousis
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 25, 2022
Since December 2020, the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT16B2b2 mRNA vaccine has been widely used to prevent COVID-19 infection. Vaccination is now widely regarded as the most effective way to reduce the pandemic's morbidity and death. Except for mild and infrequent adverse effects, almost all vaccinations are considered safe. One of the documented adverse effects of the COVID-19 immunizations is vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenic purpura. We discuss the case of a 25-year-old gentleman who received an u...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410062
Tshetiz Dahal, MBBS
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 23, 2022
Survival rates of metastatic lung cancer including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and poor lung cell cancer (SCLC) are poor with a survival rate of less than 5%. The use of cell-oriented therapies has improved the overall survival of the median (OS) in a limited group of NSCLC patients whose tumors undergo certain genetic mutations. However in a large group of NSCLC and SCLC cell mutations are not available to lead to targeted targeted treatment. Recent positive results from new medical rese...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410061
Smita Shrestha, Mukunda Sharma and Krishna Das Manandhar
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 09, 2022
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Genotype D has been associated with chronicity leading to Liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular carcinoma. The Genotype is one of the most common genotypes detected in Nepal. However, the expression analysis for cytokines like IFNγ and IL-6 which could help in boosting the immunity in patients has not been done. The study aims to investigate the expression of IFNγ and IL-6 in chronic HBV patients with Genotype D. Sera samples from 43 Hepatitis B infected patients were coll...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410060
Sherif S Awad, MD, PhD and Enas Tadros, MBBS, MSc
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 04, 2021
Lymphocytes are cells within the immune system that originate in the bone marrow (B lymphocytes) or thymus (T lymphocytes). It was thought that lymphocytes are not implied in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, but now we can confirm that T cell response rather than B cell humoral immune response is essential in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Data were collected from the most recent and relevant manuscripts to clarify the role of lymphocytes in vitiligo with the most updated publications. Melanocyte-sp...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410058
Omololu-Aso J and Awoderu BO
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 14, 2021
We investigated the incidence and antibiogram profile of Serratia marcescens among hospitalized individuals, hospital environments and halls of residence of Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile Ife, Osun state. These were with a view to provide key information at molecular level that are of epidemiological and therapeutic importance. Two hundred and twenty samples from clinical and nonclinical sources were collected with ethical clearance approval (ERC/2018/09/02) from the hospital advisory committ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410057
Aishatu Yahya Muhammad
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 13, 2021
The pattern of skin dermatoses in HIV infected individuals particularly children are associated with some factors. The type of skin dermatoses gives an insight on diagnosing HIV disease. This study was conducted to identify those factors among HIV infected children that are associated with the pattern of skin disorders among HIV infected children in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the factors associated with pattern of skin dermatos...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410056
Francisca das Chagas Sobral Silva, Daniel Vasconcelos R Silva, Anderson Bruno Matos, Andrea Medeiros Salgado and Maria Queiroz
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 30, 2020
The immunological cross-reactivity between different species of dust mites such as Suidasia pontifica and Blomia tropicalis is a factor that can favor an immunotherapeutic treatment, having so great clinical relevancy. However, the pretreatment of the raw extract can potentialize its response as in the cross-reactivity analysis. Therefore, this paper seeks to pre-treat the Suidasia pontifica extract in order to obtain protein fractions by the “salt out” method and then evaluate the presence ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410054
Hanna Bessler, PhD, Chiya Moshe Leibovitch, MD and Meir Djaldetti, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 08, 2020
Epinephrine is one of the major hormones orchestrating numerous physiological responses of the organism exposed to acute or chronic stress. In those cases the plasma level of the hormone exceeds manifold the physiological values present in healthy resting individuals. Higher epinephrine concentrations affect the immune system and modulate macrophages immune responses. The purpose of the present work was to detect if physiological concentrations of epinephrine may alter the capacity of human peri...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410055
Lukyanov Sergey A, Kuznik Boris I, Shapovalov Konstantin G, Khavinson Vladimir K, Smolyakov Yuri N, Tereshkov Pavel K, Shapovalov Yuri K, Konnov Valery A and Magen Eli
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 08, 2020
Polypeptide medication Thymalin obtained from the calf thymus has beneficial effects on cell-mediated immunity and blood coagulation. Here we present a patient with COVID- 19 severe pneumonia, who has first treated with Lopinavir/ Ritonavir + hydroxychloroquine without clinical benefit; and was then given Thymalin treatment with impressive clinical and laboratory improvement. Infection induced by a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2), causes acut...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410053
Carlos Gil Moreira Ferreira, MBBS, Gustavo Bittencourt Camilo, Eleusa Nogueira Dias, Bianca Lopes de Oliveira, Carlos Murilo Schanuel, Juliana Abreu de Vasconcellos and Emílio Campos Augusto Pereira de Assis
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 09, 2020
Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (AJEG) is a neoplasm that is globally prevalent with generally bad clinical outcome. It is estimated that there is an annual incidence of new tumors in the order of 572,034 in the US with about 28,000 new cases and 10,960 deaths attributable to the disease. In Brazil, an estimated 11390 new cases, corresponding to 8690 in men and 2077 in women for the year 2020. About half of the people with cancer of the esophagus or the gastroesophageal junction have me...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410052
Dr. Roli Jain and Dr. Archana Panday
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2020
The world encounters the episode of coronavirus infection that undetermined worldwide pandemic in 2002-2003 by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and in 2011 by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 indicate similar, but distinct genome composition of SARSCoV and MERS-CoV. The World Health Organization (WHO) also declared a global emergency on January 31st due to increasing concerns over its fast spread, and on March 11th the disease was recognized as ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410051
Dr. Roli Jain, Dr. Sandeep Shukla, Dr. Neeti Nema and Dr. Archna Panday
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 24, 2020
Phytochemicals are a powerful group of compounds, belonging to secondary metabolites of plants and including a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organ Sulphur compounds, and vitamins. The potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. The ideal technology would be vaccine that gives lifelong immunity with a single dose. When whole world community of scienti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410049
Nightingale Syabbalo, MB, ChB, PhD, FCCP, FRS
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 21, 2020
Asthma is a complex chronic airway disease with several distinct phenotypes characterized by different immunopathological pathways, clinical presentation, physiology, comorbidities, biomarker of allergic inflammation, and response to treatment. Approximately 10% of patients with asthma have severe refractory disease, which is difficult to control on high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and other modifiers. About 50% of these individuals suffer from neutrophilic asthma. Neutrophilic asthma is a ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410050
Nimesh Singh, Bharat Suthar, Abhay Mehta, Neeti Nema and Archna Pandey
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020
As the world is seeing the plague of COVID-19, an illness brought about by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, developing hereditary qualities and clinical confirmations recommend a comparative way to those of SARS and MERS. A course of viral particles enters the body through the nose, eyes or mouth. Breathing conveys a portion of these particles to the lower respiratory tract where the spike proteins of the coronavirus, acting like a key, lock into epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410048
Amani A Alrehaili, Khadiga A Ismail, Ashjan Shami, Maha K Algethami, Hadeer W Elsawy and Amal F Gharib
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 08, 2020
Osteoarthritis (OA) is among the most prevalent joint diseases. Reduced patient life quality and productivity represent a major personal and community strains. GDF5 gene is involved in the development of bone and cartilage. Studies reported a clear and highly reproducible association between susceptibility of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and GDF5. This study aims to detect GDF5 gene polymorphism and to evaluate its association with susceptibility to KOA....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410046
Ajay Gupta and Ayush Gupta
Article Type: Commentaries | First Published: April 27, 2020
Countries like Italy, Spain or Germany etc. with very low prevalence of tuberculosis and discontinued BCG immunization since decades, are witnessing the worst form of this global pandemic of Corona virus. It has also been seen that Covid-19 affected more of those countries who have robust and free influenza vaccination programme. High mortality of Covid-19 patients is probably result of the reduced Th1 immunity due to lack of past exposures to various infections and poor or absent local innate i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410045
Nimesh Singh and Archana Pandey
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 26, 2020
Blood from people who have recovered can be a rich source of antibodies, proteins made by the immune system to attack the virus. The part of the blood that contains antibodies, so-called convalescent plasma, has been used for decades to treat infectious diseases, including Ebola and influenza. In the absence of a cure or vaccine for the coronavirus, a group of scientists is searching for a fast solution in an unconventional place: The veins of people who have recovered. Starting in New York City...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410043
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 06, 2020
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency in humans causes lymphopenia and this provided the rationale for developing PNP inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents. However, careful re-evaluation of clinical history of PNP deficient patients and clinical experience with PNP inhibitors together with new experimental data suggest inhibition of PNP may have immune activating effects through elevation of guanosine and activation of various tolllike receptors (TLRs). This paper proposes a mechani...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410044
Kazhal Mobaraki and Jamal Ahmadzadeh
Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: April 20, 2020
Vaccine production and immunization of the susceptible population against novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is the most important public health strategy in controlling and preventing the spread of disease. Considering the absence of a vaccine for COVID-19, physicians have to treat symptomatically using potential antiviral drugs (e.g. Tadalafil, Atorvastatin, Telmisartan, Ribavirin, Dipyridamole, Chloroquine phosphate and so forth). In such circumstances, the main question may arise on how we can chan...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410041
Antonio Muniz-Buenrostro, Alma Y Arce-Mendoza, Edgar I Montes-Zapata, Rubi C Calderon- Melendez and Maricruz J Montelongo-Rodriguez
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 13, 2020
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in humans and among the first cells to arrive on the site of inflammatory immune response. Due to their key role in inflammation, neutrophil functions such as locomotion, cytokine production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and release of extracellular traps are extensively studied. In the presentstudy, we present a simplified neutrophil isolation protocol which has excellent reproducibility and low cost. Taken together, our findings point to the fact...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410040
Oumar Mahamat, Guessom K Oulianovie, Tume Christopher and Kamanyi Albert
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 12, 2020
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide affecting approximately 300 million individuals. Asthma or anaphylaxis are allergic diseases essentially characterized by eosinophilia and mast cells release histamine which is responsible for the production of IgE. Nevertheless, neutrophils are highly implicated and it is demonstrated in about 50% of asthma cases. Consecutive to bronchial allergen challenge for example, there is an influx of neutrophils in proximal and distal airways. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410039
Dina Tulina, Mike KS Chan, Michele WBF and Shing Yi Pan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019
Immune Modulating Peptides (IMP) discussed in literature as a universal immunocorrectors with wide areas of usage which balance the immune system without causing global immune suppression or overreaction. The present article aim is to review the effect and drawbacks of IMPs in form of Dialyzable leukocyte Extracts (DLE) or Transfer Factors (TF) during and following chemotherapy, radiotherapy, drugs interactions, cancer response and clinical outcomes in different cases of cancers such as metastat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410038
Shahin Asadi and Mahsa Jamali
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 26, 2019
Goltz syndrome (focal skin hypoplasia) is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the skin, skeletal system, eyes and face. People with Goltz syndrome have birth defects. These disorders include very thin skin veins (skin hypoplasia), pink yellow nodules, subcutaneous fat, lack of upper skin layers (aplasia cutis), small clusters of superficial skin vessels (telangiectasia), and veins in dark skin Or bright. Goltz syndrome is caused by mutation genes PORCN, TWIST2, HCCS. Goltz syndrome (focal ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410037
Meir-Djaldetti, MD, Chyia-Leibovitch, MD, Esther-Ganelin-Cohen, MD, PhD and Hanna-Bessler, PhD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2019
Rituximab, the monoclonal antibody against B lymphocyte protein CD20, is a major asset for treatment of diseases in which B CD20 cells are the foremost etiologic culprit. Based on observations that rituximab is capable to modulate immune responses the question if the drug may affect the capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for cytokine production was posed. The discovery of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against B lymphocyte membrane protein CD20, contributed greatly to ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410036
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 08, 2019
The regulation checkpoints of CD4CD25 expansion in presence and absence of transcription factor FOXP3 are critical to maintain balance between inflammatory TH17 and anti-inflammatory FOXP3CD4CD25 Treg cells. We investigated impact of potent inflammatory mediator nitric oxide NO(.) on commitment of normal spleen T cells following activation. The single cell suspension of healthy C57BL/6 mice splenic CD4 cells was stimulated by plate-bound antiCD3/antiCD28 antibodies in presence of cytokine cockta...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410035
Article Type: REVIEW ARTICLE | First Published: February 23, 2019
The interaction between CD8 and HLA class I is largely monomorphic and of low affinity. Previous HLA mutation studies have indicated that manipulation of the affinity of this interaction can have dramatic biological effects. Reductions in CD8-HLA class I affinity can lead to inhibition of T cell mediated target cell killing, whilst modest affinity increases lead to enhanced target cell killing whilst retaining antigenic specificity. Here it is shown that target cells bearing a high affinity chim...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410034
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 14, 2018
Inflammation is a complex biological response mediated by macrophages to protect the body from the pathogens and danger signals. The inflammatory response is initiated by priming, a process increasing the expression of inflammatory genes by extracellular pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated detection of pathogens, followed by triggering, a process detecting cytosolic pathogens by intracellular PRRs. Triggering induces the formation of intracellular PRR complexes called inflammasomes compo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410033
Kristina Juneblad, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist and Gerd-Marie Alenius
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2018
Two-hundred and seventy-four patients with established disease and 30 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine different serological biomarkers were investigated in relation to disease activity, disease manifestations and in comparison with controls. In addition to standard statistical methods, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to investigate different phenotypes of PsA....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410032
Shigeru Tansho-Nagakawa, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Yoji Koshibu, Takane Kikuchi-Ueda, Ryuichi Nakano, Go Kamoshida, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hiroto Ikeda, Yasuyuki Uchida, Tetsuya Sakamoto and Yasuo Ono
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018
The aim of the present study was to assess the changes in cell membrane antigens on neutrophils from peripheral blood obtained from patients with pneumonia. Neutrophils play an important role in the phylaxis against pneumonia caused by bacteria and fungi. The recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs is a multistep process that involves granulopoiesis, neutrophil release, expression of neutrophil chemoattractants and cellular adhesion molecules, and the eventual transmigration of neutrophils into ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410031
Upendra P Hegde, Evan R Jellison and Nitya G Chakraborty
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 11, 2018
It remains a wonder how Tregs induce tolerance for the development of cancer. Previously we have shown with melanoma patients that, increase in peripherally induced Tregs (pTregs) number in blood is related to the poor prognosis of the disease. In vitro induced Tregs (iTregs) and pTregs are remarkably similar and significantly different in functionality from tTregs. Here, we worked with 12 melanoma patients- six HLA A2 positive and six HLA A2 negative. PBL and tumor cells were obtained from the ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410030
Daniel Ezekwudo, Richard Keidan, Bolanle Gbadamosi, Vonda K Douglas-Nikitin, Zhou Yu, Jeffrey Margolis, Michael Stender, Susanna Gaikazian and Ishmael Jaiyesimi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 24, 2018
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive form of skin cancer mostly seen in fair-skinned individuals between the ages of 60-80 years, and is associated with a poor prognostic outcome. Approximately 1500 new cases of MCC are diagnosed in the United States every year with an annual incidence rate of 0.7 per 100,000 persons....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410029
Meir Djaldetti and Hanna Bessler
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 23, 2018
The introduction of corticosteroids in the therapeutic armamentarium has been a great contribution to human health. Budesonide, a semi-synthetic glucocorticoid derivative gained its popularity due to its anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and even anti-carcinogenic properties....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410028
Ashley S Plant and Eugene I Hwang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 13, 2018
Immunotherapy for pediatric oncology is a robust and prolific area of active research and has changed the face of treatment for some cancers, such as, B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and neuroblastoma. However, the field faces challenges and hurdles unique to the pediatric population especially in the area of neuro-oncology....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410027
Nagahito Saito, Nobuo Takemori, Enrique Rewald, Hiroshi Nagura, Yutaka Kohgo and Hong-Kean Ooi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 09, 2018
High dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) has been performed for increase of platelet to patients with immune-thrombocytopenia (ITP). We observed by standard and immunoelectron microscopy the phenomenon of the direct cell to cell contact between red blood cells (RBCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) in bone marrow (BM) of patients with ITP (ITP-patients) after IVIG and then compared to that of the mice injected human immunoglobulin (IgG). RBCs were observed to adhere directly to the ECs of...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410026
Isabel C Hageman, Frans J van Overveld and Ger T Rijkers
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 24, 2017
Activation and control of the immune system is regulated by costimulatory molecules as well as by checkpoint inhibitors. Checkpoints are essential in maintaining self-tolerance and minimizing collateral damage by modulating the immune response....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410025
Vanessa Elizabeth De Gregorio, Silvia Carino, Juan Carlos Valdez, Silvio Eugenio Castillo and Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 07, 2016
A non-specific vaccine used as immunotherapy can be used to prolong an equilibrium phase in the tumor growth, similar to the doxorubicin treatment used in the model, although by different mechanisms. Non synergic effect was observed in the group treated with both vaccine and doxorubicin (low dose). Future studies should be necessary to evaluate the correct combination of vaccination and cytotoxic drug can be used for this purpose and to achieve increased activated dendritic cells in the tumor d...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410024
Alice Kohli, Martin Glatz and Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 22, 2016
Data on the safety of a cluster regimen to start a subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with house dust mite (HDM) extract in pediatric patients are scarce. This study investigates the rate of adverse events (AEs) and the applicability of a cluster regimen for HDM SCIT in pediatric patients, and identifies possible risk factors for the development of AEs....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410023
Nicholas A Young, Marshall V Williams, Wael N Jarjour, Michael S Bruss, Brad Bolon, Samir Parikh, Anjali Satoskar and Maria Eugenia Ariza
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 20, 2016
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an environmental factor with strong links to systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) pathogenesis; however, the mechanism(s) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether the EBV protein "deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase)", which can induce aberrant immune responses, contributes to the immunopathology of lupus nephritis (LN). Using the NZM2410/J SLE mouse model, we demonstrated that intramuscular injections of EBV-dUTPase protein (10...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410022
Clifford M Snapper
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: August 03, 2016
Anti-Ig-dex was originally conceived as a means for modeling BCR-mediated B cell activation in response to polysaccharides. Polysaccharides consist of long chains of repeating sugars that are capable of multivalent cross-linking of BCR on the surface of polysaccharide-specific B cells. Normal B cells of a given antigen-specificity are present in the host at frequencies so low that studying the behavior of such B cells is highly challenging technically....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410021
Tatiana Barbosa dos Santos, Cassio Santana Meira, Cibele do Carmo Miranda, Leociley Rocha Alencar Menezes, Livia Macedo Dutra, Liviane do Nascimento Soares, Andersson Barison, Emmanoel Vilaca Costa, Elisalva Teixeira Guimaraes and Milena Botelho Pereira Soares
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 27, 2016
Immunomodulatory drugs are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions; however, their prolonged use is usually associated with the appearance of side effects and many immune disorders continuous without a suitable treatment. Natural products are an important source of therapies to a variety of illnesses. The present work investigated the immunomodulatory activity of a hexane extract and isolated compounds from Annona vepretorum Mart....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410020
Caroline Maria Oliveira Volpe, Elisa Duarte Candido, Celio J Castro-Junior, Paula Martins Ferreira Anjos and Jose Augusto Nogueira-Machado
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 18, 2016
Diabetes mellitus is a immunological disease characterized by metabolic deregulation and inflammation. Hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs interact with their respective receptors (RAGEs), a multiligand member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, inducing activation of cascade of several signaling pathways associated with diabetes vascular...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410019
H Kobayashi, Y Kobayashi, S Ode, K Sugiyama, N Kitamura and M Takei
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 16, 2016
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cardiac involvement such as myocarditis and myocardial infarction is common. This cardiac involvement may have serious consequences and can contribute to worsening of a patient's cardiac-related morbidity and mortality. Importantly, cardiac involvement is typically clinically silent, only manifesting as cardiac dysfunction after an extended preclinical phase. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a sensitive noninvasive diagnostic technique that c...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410018
Gail Gullickson, Elise C. Ambrose, Richard G. Hoover and Jacki Kornbluth
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: May 24, 2016
Uridine cytidine kinase like-1 (UCKL-1) is a largely uncharacterized protein over-expressed in many tumor cells, especially in highly malignant, aggressive tumors. Sequence analysis indicates that UCKL-1 has homology to uridine kinases, enzymes that play a role in DNA and RNA synthesis and that are often up-regulated in tumor cells. Previous studies have shown that UCKL-1 is a substrate for natural killer lytic-associated molecule (NKLAM), an E3 ubiquitin ligase found in NK cell cytolytic granul...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410017
Ozgenc O, Meltem A
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 23, 2016
Listeria monocytogenes is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. However, this bacterium is an important cause of severe infections in neonates, pregnant women, the elderly, transplant recipients, and other patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Various clinical features due to L. monocytogenes have been described such as sepsis, central nervous system infections, endocarditis, gastroenteritis and localized infections. A review of the clinical aspects of listeriosis with...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410016
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 16, 2016
A recently diagnosed 6-year-old child with XLA was started on SCIG. A loading dose of 6 g, in three consecutive days (2 g/day) was prescribed. Initially, the aim was trough serum IgG over 500 mg/dL. Nevertheless, 15 months later, IgG levels fell below 500 mg/dL, and some infections occurred. A new aim of IgG over 700 mg/dLwas established, after current recommendations. Dose was increased to 3 g every 7 days. IgG levels rose over 700 mg/dL, and infections disappeared. Parental evaluation of quali...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410015
Gabriel Moran, Evelyn Arevalo, Miguel Barria, Alexander Ortloff and Hugo Folch
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 27, 2015
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a protein family of cellular receptors that mediate the recognition of microbial challenges and the subsequent inflammatory response. The role of these receptors in allergic diseases of airways remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate TLR2 and TLR4 expression in the lung in a murine model of bronchial hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus. Different groups of 5-month-old mice (Balb/c) were housed in cages containing hay bedding that w...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410014
Senol Comoglu, Ece Comoglu, M. Nesil Keles and Kemal Deger
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 06, 2015
Idiopathic rhinitis (IR), previously referred to as 'intrinsic rhinitis' or 'non-allergic perennial rhinitis', is a form of rhinitis that occurs without a known predisposing factor. In fact, IR is a subtype of non-allergic non-infectious rhinitis; the pathophysiology of IR has not been completely elucidated. Negative skin-prick test (SPT) along with the classical symptoms at the time of presentation may lead to misdiagnosis of vasomotor rhinitis. However, vasomotor rhinitis is a form of non-alle...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410013
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 16, 2015
During the stress-mediated response to infection and tissue injury, their levels markedly increase and contribute to acute and chronic inflammatory disorders as cell autonomous and non-autonomous activators of toll-like receptors (TLRs). There is controversy, however, whether S100A8 and S100A9 are pathogenic or protective during infection and inflammation. Some studies suggest that S100A8 and S100A9 proteins function extracellularly to amplify TLR-mediated responses, thereby increasing inflammat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410012
Nagahito Saito, Kiminari Ito, Katsuhiro Higashiura, Rinji Murakami, Naotaka Miyoshi, Toshiaki Nakagawa, Maneo Yamamoto, Chiko Ueno, Kenta Honma, Makio Ishikawa, Kazunori Ehata, Tomoyuki Yanami, Katsumi Katagiri and Hong Kean Ooi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 27, 2015
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematological disorder due to abnormal maturation and differentiation of stem cells. It is clinically manifested as cytopenia and commonly seen in elderly persons. Some MDS cases are known to show longitudinal hemolysis, which is attributed to various factors. Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) had been found in blood for transfusion and is also capable of infecting immature erythroid cells. In our study, we made a thorough review of six elderly MDS cases with slight...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410011
Hanna Bessler and Meir Djaldetti
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 23, 2015
Fever is one of the leading signs of the inflammatory process and it is one of the mechanisms that activate the immune system to defend the organism from various pathogens. For this goal, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are among the first to be mobilized by triggering their capacity for phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine production....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410010
Musabak Ugur, Kartal Ozgur, Demirel Fevzi, Gulec Mustafa, Safali Mukerrem, Battal Bilal, Nevruz Oral, Baysan Abdullah, Yesillik Sait, Karaman Murat and Sener Osman
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 20, 2015
Good's syndrome (GS) that consists of hypogammaglobulinemia and thymoma is a rare adult-onset disease. Some paraneoplastic syndromes like pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and myasthenia gravis (MG) may accompany to this immunodeficiency disease. We herein reported two fatal cases of GS....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410009
Article Type: Opinion | First Published: April 03, 2015
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus. Although the underlying etiology is unknown, EoE is thought to be a TH2 response to environmental allergens in a genetically predisposed individual....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410008
Maria Yaldo, Katherine Caretti, Jessica Kado and Darius R Mehregan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2015
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to be involved in the immunogenic response in a variety of dermatological disorders including psoriasis, condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. However, the expression of TLRs in Molluscum contagiosum has not yet been clearly defied.Expression of TLRs 1-9 was examined in molluscum by immunohistochemical staining....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410007
Takayuki Fujita, Yusuke Murata, Seiichiro Hemmi, Mamiko Kajiwara, Minako Yabuki, Yoshinobu Fuke, Atsushi Satomura and Masayoshi Soma
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 31, 2015
Insulin resistance is a major player in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. C3 converts to C3a and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) by complement activation. ASP activates adipose tissue macrophages and accelerates continuous inflammation. Tissuebound C3a is known to induce insulin resistance. We examined the relationship between insulin resistance and complement activation by the in vivo alteration of ASP....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410006
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 21, 2015
Steroid immunosuppression has maintained a long-lasting relevance in renal transplantation. In addition to its role in preserving allograft survival, it is often the fist line agent in the rescue treatment of acute rejection events. Its major drawbacks include metabolic adverse effects and long-term cardiovascular morbidities. Motivated by the need to avoid growth impairment, pediatric renal transplant community provided a template for steroid minimization strategy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410005
Mie Nieda, Hiroshi Terunuma, Yuuta Eiraku, Xuewen Deng and Andrew J Nicol
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 05, 2015
The CD56+ cells freshly isolated from human peripheral blood contain a substantial subset of CD14+CD86+HLA-DR+ cells which spontaneously differentiate into enlarged DC (dendritic cell)-like cells. We show here that interferon-α (IFN-α)-induced DC-like cells expressing high levels of CD56 and CD14 can be differentiated from monocytes obtained as adherent cells from patients with various cancers, in the presence of IFN-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410004
Development of a Method for Detection of Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Belonging to Clinically Important Twelve O Serotypes Based on the Combination of PickPen-Assisted Immunomagnetic Separation and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification
Ahmad Yaman Kayali, Oscar Escalante-Maldonado, Varaporn Vuddhakul, Kazuko Seto, Yoshitsugu Nakaguchi, and Mitsuaki Nishibuchi
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 22, 2015
Not only O157 Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) but some of non-O157 STECs are attracting attentions as clinically important STEC and a possible food-borne spread of these pathogens is becoming a worldwide concern. In this study, we developed a sensitive, specific, and simple method to detect STECs of clinical significance in retail beef so that it can be used even in resource-limited countries. We designed and fie-tuned a protocol characterized by PickPen devise-assisted immunomagnet...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410003
Samia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellao Tavares, Wilame de Lima Bravo Junior and Jessica Lissandra Alves Leite
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2015
The aging process is complex and affects a variety of functions, including lower defense capability of the immune system. The immune activity, as most of physiological functions, decreases with age. The principal alterations in humoral immune response are associated with concentration of immunoglobulins, amount and activity of B cells and also the changes in the affinity of the antibodies. The current study aimed to analyze the levels of IgG and IgM antibodies of elderly and young people and to ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410002
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2014
Cockroach allergen-derived proteases play a direct role on airway epithelial as well as dendritic cells thru activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2. Cockroach-derived proteases lead to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen thru disturbing airway epithelial integrity, which can activate innate immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells) via binding to Toll-like receptor or C-type lectin receptors. The activated dendritic cells promote the adaptive immune system cells to a Th2 cel...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3672/1410001
Michael J. Littlefild, Isaac Teboul, Iryna Voloshyna and Allison B. Reiss
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 08, 2014
Rationale: Macrophages are key players in inflammation and atherosclerosis. They express surface receptors of different subtypes for the endogenous autocoid adenosine. Macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions attain two clear-cut functional phenotypes M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (immunosuppressive). This study examines the relative expression of adenosine receptors and proteins involved in cholesterol transport in THP-1 human macrophages upon differentiation into M1 and M2 subtypes....
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