Journal of Rheumatic Diseases and Treatment (JRDT) is an international peer-reviewed journal committed to promoting the best standards of scientific discoveries and education. It covers all aspects of medical specialty, which has the spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions, arthritic disease, and connective tissue disorders. JRDT publishes basic, clinical, and translational research.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases and Treatment is a newly launched journal which provides elaborate author benefits along with reliable copy rights policy. We are open to invite experts to join our editorial board of JRDT. All the articles pass through a dual review process in which two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. JRDT ensures the maintenance of its standards by publishing the high quality, original and new advances in its field.
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Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510082
Amani A. Alrehaili, Khadiga A. Ismail, Afrah A. Alshehri, Salwa M. Fadel, Morouj M. Alharthi, Nada S. Alqurashi, Seham H. Al Ajmani and Amal F. Gharib
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2020
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition that results in joint deformity and function loss within10 years after initiation. It is characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane and damage of the joint by the immune cell results in severe arthritis with a progressive deterioration of the joint cartilage. It has a major negative effect on the ability to perform daily activities, including work which household tasks, and health related quality of life. Epidemiological e...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510081
Lyubomir Sapundzhiev, Tanya Sapundzhieva, Anastas Batalov, Marya Staikova, and Sevdalina Lambova
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 09, 2020
Ninety-six patients with uni- or bilateral radiologically proven hip osteoarthritis (OA) were included in the study. A total number of 187 hip joints were injected. One blind arthrocentesis by lateral approach was performed on each patient. The accurate position of the needle was verified by a following injection of 0.5-1.0 ml contrast and radiological assessment. After seven days, the same patients (187) underwent a second arthrocentesis under US guidance....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510080
Hadi PoorMoghim, Moghadaseh Shakerian, Zahra Raoofi, Arash Jalali and Elham Andalib
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2020
Pregnancy occurred in 109 (84%) women (diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, 48.8%; limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, 52.2%). Based on the findings, 20 (15.5%) women were nulliparous. Overall, 229 pregnancies occurred before the disease onset and 49 pregnancies after the disease onset. Spontaneous abortion was reported more frequently in pregnancies occurring after the disease onset, compared to those occurring before the disease (24.4% vs. 9.6%; P = 0.005). Successful pregnancy was reported...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510079
Elif GUR KABUL, Bilge BAŞAKCI ÇALIK, Ceren KORKMAZ, Ummuhan BAŞ ASLAN, Murat TASCI, and Veli COBANKARA
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 02, 2020
A total of 143 participants (120 females, 23 males, mean age = 50.32 ± 12.14 years) diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) according to the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria, were included in the study. Demographic features (gender, body mass index) and disease-related characteristics features (duration of disease, morning stiffness, presence of deformity, presence of nodules, dry eye, nail abnormalities, Raynaud's phenomenon, osteoporosis, dyspnea at rest, exertional dyspnea...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510078
Adnan N Kiani, Monthida Fangtham, Wilmer Sibbitt, Roderick Fields and Nicole S Emil
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: January 30, 2020
A 20-year-old female with recurrent childhood ear infections, and reported history of recurrent oral, genital ulcerations and UTIs, presented as transfer from outside hospital with concern for Behcet syndrome. The patient initially had a 3-4-month history of fever, oral and genital ulcerations and worsening respiratory symptoms. She was initially treated at urgent care with antivirals and nitrofurantoin. She was later admitted to an outside hospital with worsening of aforementioned symptoms and ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510077
Arthur E Brawer, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 08, 2019
From April of 1992 through November of 2006 a moratorium existed in the USA prohibiting the use of silicone gel-filled breast implants for routine cosmetic enhancement. This mandate, implemented by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), centered around escalating claims of device-related systemic illness affecting hundreds of thousands of recipients who had these devices placed in their bodies during the 1970's and the 1980's. Varied theories of disease causation were proposed by numerous resea...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510076
Hadi Poormoghim, Elham Andalib, Arash Jalali, Maryam Salimi-beni and Gholam Hossein Ghafarpour
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 07, 2019
In this cross-section study 133 scleroderma patients were probed throughout a survey in which both forms of digital and non-digital plantar lesions were included. Chi-square test and student’s t-test were used to determine the associations of foot pain and lesion with clinical features and serologic findings of the disease. multivariate analysis was used for determining independent factors associated with foot lesion and pain. Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic devastating multi organ disea...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510075
Arthur E Brawer, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 07, 2019
Over the past five years clinicians from numerous countries have implicated human papillomavirus (HPV) immunizations as the cause of diverse systemic ailments, egregious injuries, and even death. Vaccine ingredients in Gardasil and Cervarix contain hidden organosiloxanes (organosilicones) and silica (silicon dioxide), all of which are capable of creating biochemical disturbances that are strikingly similar to the metabolic disruptions identified in both chronic fatigue syndrome and the recurrent...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510074
Optimise: An Austrian Multicentre Study on the Effectiveness and Safety of Tocilizumab in Combination with Methotrexate versus Tocilizumab for Mild/Moderate Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate
Burkhard F Leeb, Raimund Lunzer, Peter Fasching, Manfred Herold, Omid Zamani, Ute Riedlmair, Wolfgang Schimetta and Winfried B Graninger
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 03, 2019
As data on the efficacy of biologics in patients with mild/moderate rheumatoid arthritis are limited, this study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab plus methotrexate versus tocilizumab monotherapy on disease activity. Additional tocilizumab treatment led to improvement in patients with mild/moderate rheumatoid arthritis. The study results give no indication that the combination of Tocilizumab with Methotrexate induces a better outcome (preserving the level of disease ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510073
Mariana Magerl, Rinaldo Ferreira Gandra and Rafael Andrade Menolli
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 11, 2019
The immunofluorescence pattern of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) called rings and rods (RR) has only recently been described. This pattern has been associated with patients with Hepatitis C at treatment. There are few studies that demonstrate their appearance in healthy individuals or with other health conditions. This study reports positivity of this autoantibody in a patient never exposed to the HCV virus, in order to understand its clinical significance....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510072
Klara Nypelius Standley, Inger Gjertsson, Anna Winkvist and Helen M Lindqvist
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019
Nutritional status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often poor. In addition, popular trends in avoiding certain foods have been noted among patients with RA yet recent data on dietary intake is lacking. The aim of the present study was to examine possible differences in food intake between Swedish women with and without RA. In total 150 women with RA, selected from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register, and 163 women without RA, answered a postal food frequency questionnaire inc...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510071
Siti Khadijah SM Nazri, BSc, Wan Syamimee W Ghazali, MD, MMed, Noor Suryani M Ashari, MD, MPath and Wan Zuraida WA Hamid, MD, MPath
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 15, 2019
So far, there is no conventional parameters that have been proven to possess the ability to predict the histology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A few autoimmune serology markers of SLE including anti-dsDNA antibodies, complement C3 and C4, and anti-nucleosome could be helpful clinically, but the correlation between those and lupus renal disease is still imperfect. Recently, the urinary vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) h...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510070
Bergner R, Wadsack D and Loffler C
Article Type: REVIEW ARTICLE | First Published: Febrayry 25, 2019
Severe MTX (methotrexate) toxicity due to low dose MTX used in rheumatic diseases is rare but linked with a high mortality ranging from 13 to 44%. We analyzed 22 cases with a minimum toxicity of CTC (common toxicity criteria) grade 2, that were admitted to our hospital. We retrospectively analyzed epidemiological data, the weekly MTX dosage, renal function before and at the beginning of the adverse event, co-medication with influence on MTX toxicity or on renal function and potential other co-fa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510069
Kristofoor E Leeuwenberg and Jemima Albayda
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 11, 2019
Muscle ultrasonography is an upcoming tool in the evaluation of neuromuscular disorders. It is easily applicable in multiple clinical settings, has no contraindications, and provides a cost-effective alternative to other imaging modalities such as MRI. However, a known disadvantage of ultrasound is its dependence on examiner expertise. Furthermore, the assessment of muscle quality is done mainly through an assessment of muscle echo intensity, which is affected by machine/system settings, hamperi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510068
Farida Al Balushi, Issa Al Salmi, Abdel Masiah Metry, Mohammed Abdalla Yousef and Suad Hannawi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 20, 2018
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease that has various manifestations among different populations. This study aims to provide an overview of medical pharmacological management that SLE population received immediately at time of diagnosis. This is a retrospective analysis using patients’ registry medical information system. All patients diagnosed with SLE were reviewed by accessing their medical records including pharmacy prescription and dispersions at the Royal ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510067
Ines Rego de Figueiredo, Rita Vieira Alves, Sara Guerreiro Castro, Filipa Lourenco, Ana Margarida Antunes, Heidi Gruner and Antonio Panarra
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 15, 2018
Rheumatic diseases can be a paraneoplastic syndrome for an occult neoplasia. Some syndromes are more characteristic than others. In this case report, we present a patient with musculoskeletal symptoms suggestive of both carcinomatous arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica that was shown to have adenocarcinoma of the lung. The musculoskeletal symptoms accompanied the course of the disease, disappearing with the treatment and re-occurring when it relapsed. We present a 63-year-old male, native from ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510066
Richard De-Heer and Teresa Doherty
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2018
Hydroxychloroquine, originally used as an antimalarial agent, is now commonly prescribed for the treatment of rheumatic diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Hydroxychloroquine associated hypoglycaemia is a rare but documented adverse effect, usually noted within the first few months of starting the medication. Here we describe the case of a patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis who developed hypoglycaemia after 7 years of treatment with a stable dose of ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510065
L Ren, X Zhang, ZG Li, H Tang and R Theiler
Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH | First Published: September 01, 2018
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease whose etiopathogenesis is largely unknown. Available treatments, though effective, are insufficient in so far as there is no cure for a major proportion of patients. In those patients the disease becomes chronic with progressive joint damage, disability, and limitation of participation. Current treatment approaches include pain-relieving drugs and anti-inflammatory medications that slow joint damage, combined with physical therapies...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510064
Yoshinori Taniguchi, Hirofumi Nishikawa, Yasuhiko Yoshinaga, Eri Amano, Shigeto Kobayashi and Yoshio Terada
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: June 23, 2018
Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a sterile arthritis occurring in a genetically predisposed individual, secondary to an extra-articular infection, usually of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (iBCG) is used as an effective immunotherapy of bladder cancer. Despite of the clinical efficacy, ReA could develop as adverse event and the frequencies are known as about 0.5 to 1% in Western countries and 2.0% in Japan. However, the trend of freq...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510063
Roberts DC, Jester A, Southwood T, Johnson K and Oestreich K
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 15, 2018
Avascular necrosis is a known complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. We report an unusual case of avascular necrosis affecting both the lunate and triquetrum in a child with this condition. Vasculitis, synovitis and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies were probable predisposing factors. The use of arthroscopic synovial debridement improves symptoms even in the presence of carpal chondromalacia and potentially delays the need for salvage surgery....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510062
Edward B Miller
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 15, 2018
The relationship between the immune system and both Hodgkin's (HL) and Non-Hodgkin's (NHL) lymphomas is a complex bidirectional process which has fascinated researchers and clinicians for many years. Lymphomas of all types are known to be associated with autoimmune paraneoplastic manifestations, and conversely are recognized in increased frequency in patients with pre-existing autoimmune diseases....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510061
Ilaria Cavazzana, Carlo Alberto Scire, Francesca Dallara, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Angela Tincani and Franco Franceschini
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 14, 2018
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease, characterized by an increased risk of premature death, largely due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and particularly to coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition to classical Framingham CV risk factors, the inflammatory burden of the disease leads to the development of early and accelerated atherosclerosis, mediated by cytokines, immune complex, abnormal lipid metabolism and endothelial dysfunction....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510060
Kenneth L Wiley, Edward Treadwell, Kayihura Manigaba, Beverly Word, Jarren Oates and Beverly D Lyn-Cook
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 28, 2018
There is increasing evidence that epigenetic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Both global and gene specific methylation is known to occur in lupus patients, as well as, changes in histone acetylation status. Histone acetylation is associated with active chromatin or activation of genes, whereas histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is associated with silencing of genes. Therefore, HDACs have been targeted as potential therapeutic targets for a numb...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510059
Majoska HM Berkelaar, Nicoline M Korthagen, Gerrit Jansen and Willem Evert van Spil
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 03, 2018
Synovitis is common in knee OA patients and a known contributor to disease incidence and progression. Macrophages are the most common immune cell type present in this inflamed synovial tissue and expectedly contribute both directly and indirectly to OA progression through the induction of inflammatory mediators, growth factors and proteinases, resulting in enhanced cartilage degeneration and osteophyte formation. Furthermore, macrophage infiltration and soluble macrophage products may be associa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510058
Liping Ding, Xiaoping Hong and Dongzhou Liu
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: January 22, 2018
IL-37 not only has anti-inflammatory effects, but also induces marked metabolic changes with higher levels of muscle AMPK, greater rates of oxygen consumption, and increased oxidative phosphorylation both in the context of inflammation- induced fatigue and in healthy mice. In addition, expression of human IL-37 in mice could protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis and suppress the migration ability of neutrophils in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury condition....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510057
Dan Murphy, Robert Marshall, Chris Harrington, Andrew Taylor and David Hutchinson
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 10, 2017
Over 60 years ago Caplan's syndrome was described in the coal miners of South Wales (UK). Higher rates are seen in mining populations globally, particularly in kaolin workers. We describe Caplan's syndrome in a kaolin worker associated with a raised urinary cadmium level....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510056
Shradha C Borukar, Arun R Chogle and Sudha S Deo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 29, 2017
In our study, 42 RA patients were selected according to the ACR Criteria and 50 healthy participants were recruited for comparison, as controls. After a detailed medical history and anthropometric evaluation, all participants were subjected to CRP analysis and their disease activity scores (DAS28-CRP) were calculated using DAS calculator....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510055
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 29, 2017
A 30-years old study reported gout to be oligo- or polyarticular in 40% of cases presenting to a rheumatology clinic. The prevalence of gout has increased markedly since and presently gout has become the most prevalent inflammatory joint disease. Furthermore, specific Ultrasound (US) changes in gout have been described in recent years....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510054
Werner Kullich, Barbara Stritzinger, Monika Mustak-Blagusz, Thomas Berger, Albrecht Falkenbach4 Jutta Rus-Machan and Bibiane Steinecker-Frohnwieser
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 01, 2017
Complaints of the shoulder are often accompanied with pain, function lease and impaired quality of life. Inpatient rehabilitation in Austria acts as a powerful non-operative intervention to improve shoulder function and to reduce pain. The aim of this presented study was to observe the long-lasting effects of rehabilitation on shoulder complaints in a follow up trial....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510053
Kim-Orden Michael, Barrett Kody and Khatod Monti
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: July 19, 2017
Osteonecrosis (ON) of the hip and knee can be a source of severe morbidity for affected individuals. Although several risk factors and explanations for the pathogenesis of ON have been recognized, there exists little consensus in the literature as to the appropriate clinical management....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510052
Luis Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da Silva, Alderico Girao Campos de Barros and Marcelo Glauber da Silva Pereira
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 12, 2017
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with an autoimmune feature and an etiology that is still unknown. It is characterized by a symmetrical peripheral polyarthritis that affects primarily the small joints of hands and feet, with several levels of extra-articular manifestation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510051
Aisha Bushra, Osman Farooq, Svetlana P Eckert, Caila B Vaughn, Rabheh Abdul Aziz and Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 18, 2017
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that is distinct from multiple sclerosis and is primarily characterized by recurrent episodes of optic neuritis (ON) and/or longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). The presence of aquaporin antibodies (AQP4-ab) in the serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a highly specific biomarker for diagnosis, although repeated testing may be necessary to confirm its presence....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510050
Pavel Horak, Martina Skacelova and Ahmed Kazi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 01, 2017
Strontium ranelate is a medicine used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis in women and osteoporosis in men. Preclinical data suggest its dual effect consisting of the control of bone resorption and promotion of bone formation. Administration of strontium ranelate leads to significant increase in the bone mass. Changes in bone density can be used to evaluate the adherence of patients as well as, in case of strontium ranelate, to estimate the fracture risk reduction....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510049
Nihal Ozaras, M Serdar Sag, M Akif Sariyildiz and Sule Deveci
Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: February 21, 2017
Rheumatic diseases (RD) have increased risk for stroke. We examined the records of acute stroke patients for concomitant diseases. Two of 178 patients had gout, no other RD was detected. Considering the result of our study and current evidence in the literature, we suggest that patients with gout should be monitored closely for the risk of stroke and the clinician should be aware of higher risk of stroke in these patients....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510048
J Rovensky, S Blazickova and I Stiborova
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 21, 2017
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, autoimmune disorder which may have even fatal consequences, particularly if it affects vital organs of the human body. It is typically manifested by inflammation of various organ systems. The course of the disease includes sporadic flare-ups, or relapses, which may lead to irreversible damage of the organs. The focus is on the suppression of clinical symptoms, inhibition of the formation of autoantibodies induce remission, preventing relapse and irrever...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510047
Laura E Eades, Angeline S Thiagarajah, Sarah A Jones, Huapeng Fan, Anastasios Nalpantidis, Eric F Morand and Michelle Leech
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 21, 2017
Clinical data was obtained from RA patients and medical records. Three control cohorts were also recruited, including 23 healthy controls, 25 patients with fibromyalgia and 44 patients with depression. Blood was taken from each participant. Following isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood, RNA was extracted. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) were performed to quantify GILZ expression....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510046
Gioacchino Li Cavoli, Luisa Bono, Calogera Tortorici, Carlo Giammarresi, Tancredi Vincenzo Li Cavoli and Ugo Rotolo
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 14, 2017
Scleroderma or Systemic sclerosis is a vascular and fibrotic disease with organ-based complications and high mortality and morbidity. Renal involvement can be quite varied and scleroderma renal crisis is the most severe manifestation. We report our experience. In February 2016 a 52-year-old male was admitted to hospital with pulmonary oedema and severe arterial hypertension (240/120 mmHg)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510045
Anna Zhou, Xindi Li, Lin Zhao, Yonghong Liu and Xinghu Zhang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 13, 2017
Objectives: This study aims to describe the clinical manifests, CSF features and brain MRI characters of patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP) and central nervous system (CNS) involvement presented as encephalitis. Methods: Seven cases with RP and CNS involvement were enrolled from 2011 to 2015. RP was diagnosed upon the modified McAdam criteria, and CNS dysfunction secondary to RP was decided by clinical manifests, CSF analysis and brain MRI....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510044
Hèctor Corominas, Silvia García-Diaz, Salvador Campos, Silvia Sánchez-Serrano, Silvia Iniesta, Isabel Padró, Lucinda Sanchez-Eslava, Elena Fernández-Casado, Montse Sesma, Cristina Saura, Mari Carmen Rodríguez, Maria Rusiñol and Montse Jordana
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 31, 2017
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory heterogeneous disease presenting with acute flares, showing a prevalence of 0.5% in Spanish population according to the study EPISER and an annual incidence of 8.3 cases per 100,000 population, and that in the absence of optimal and individualized treatment causes a long-term severe disability....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510043
Jozef Rovensky and Marie Sedlackova
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 10, 2016
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare immune-mediated disease that may affect multiple organs. It is characterised by recurrent episodes of inflammation of cartilaginous structures and other connective tissues, rich in glycosaminoglycan. Clinical symptoms concentrate in auricles, nose, larynx, upper airways, joints, heart, blood vessels, inner ear, cornea and sclera....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510042
Kelsy Greenwald and Jo Ann Ball
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 03, 2016
Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) in the past decade have become ubiquitous screening for tuberculosis (TB). Development of these interferon release tests helped screen for TB in patients at high risk, specifically those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The blood test was designed to strongly stimulate interferon release when blood was exposed to a tube laced with TB antigens....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510041
Amal Mohamad El-Barbary, Marwa Ahmed Aboelhawa, Abeer Abdelmenem Shahba, Noha Mohamed Shafik, Hala Elsayed Hamouda and Hossam Abdelhafiz Zaytoun
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 01, 2016
One hundred and fifty RA patients classified into two equal subgroups according to the presence of sicca symptoms, in addition to seventy five healthy controls. All patients were subjected to self-reported questionnaire about sicca symptoms, DAS 28, Unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR), Schirmer's test, ESR, CRP, RF, Anti- CCP, Anti-Ro, Anti-La antibodies, serum and salivary CXC ligand 13 (CXCL13), B cell activating factor (BAFF), ultrasonography for major salivary gland and biopsy of m...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510040
Soren Rytter, Birthe Lykke Thomsen, Birgitte Schutt Christensen and Lilli Kirkeskov
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 21, 2016
Kneeling work leads to an additional risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA). Previous studies have primarily been based on radiography, but radiography is limited by its inability to visualize articular cartilage, in which the earliest signs of OA occur. The objective of this explorative study, based on available data, was to examine the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected knee cartilage lesions in male floor layers exposed to kneeling work, as compared to non-exposed ma...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510039
Neher M, Stahl C, Festin K and Nilsen P
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 17, 2016
Research on the use of research in rheumatology practice is largely lacking. This study attempts to fill this knowledge gap by exploring the degree to which evidence-based practice (EBP) is implemented in clinical rheumatology practice and identifying individual and organizational factors that may potentially affect research use in the clinical environment....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510038
Francis Rousset, Laurent Grange, Minh Vu Chuong Nguyen, Clara Pinosa-Zezza, Philippe Gaudin, Thierry Conrozier, Francoise Morel and Bernard Lardy
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2016
This study provided experimental evidence that glucosamine sulfate decreases ADAMTS5 expression and apoptosis. In addition, ginger root and copper sulphate decreased pro-MMP1 expression by regulating NOX4 activity. Our data suggest the implication of Heme Oxygenase-1 in the molecular mechanisms....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510037
B Hodkinson, I Okpechi and SA Botha-Scheepers
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2016
A 30-year-Black African female was diagnosed with SLE when she presented with a Coombs positive haemolytic anaemia, lymphopenia, polyarthritis, oral ulcers and a malar rash. Her antinuclear antigen (ANA) was positive, she had hypocomplementaemia and she was HIV negative. She was commenced on oral corticosteroids (initially high dose 60 mg/day and later weaned to 15 mg daily), chloroquine sulphate and azathioprine. Her blood counts and SLE symptoms improved. Four months after diagnosis, she devel...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510036
Claudia Eve Thieme, Sibylle Winterhalter, Bianca Apitzsch and Nicole Stuebiger
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 02, 2016
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-syndrome (VKH) is a multisystemic, T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder which is characterized by bilateral granulomatous panuveitis with extraocular manifestations in the central nervous and auditory system as well as in the integumentary field. Neurological and auditory manifestations include aseptic meningitis, meningism, tinnitus and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Integumentary findings can include alopecia, poliosis and vitiligo. The etiology of this disease is thought...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510035
Joao Eduardo Torrecillas Sartori, Luiz Fernando Cireia, Denise Poltronieri Martins, Gabriela do Prado Rocha, Juliany Roberta Cintra, Ana Luiza de Aquino Oliveira, Juliana Goncalves Yogolare, Lucas Romagnolli, Alexandre de Andrade Budin, Sabrina Mayara Cezario, Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Camila Ive Ferreira Oliveira, Doroteia Rossi da Silva Souza, Gerardo Maria de Araujo Filho and Lazslo Antonio Avila
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 10, 2016
Objective: To evaluate the association among genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase, oxidative stress, lifestyle habits and medication therapy in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Patients and methods: A total of 187 women (22-84 years) were studied: 81 patients with fibromyalgia (G1) and 106 individuals without the disease (G2). They had their peripheral blood sample submitted for analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510034
Maria do Socorro Teixeira Moreira Almeida, Joao Vicente Moreira Almeida, Manoel Barros Bertolo, Catarina Fernandes Pires and Viriato Campelo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 01, 2016
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease whose etiology is unknown, while its immunopathogenesis involves the participation of both genetic and environmental factors. Human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4) exhibits a strong association with RA in various populations and ethnic groups; in addition, a heightened frequency of HLA-DR1 among individuals with RA has been found in some populations....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510033
Ann K Harvey, Mariah J Lelos, Claire J Greenhill, Ashley T Jones, Susanne P Clinch, Michael J Newton, Stephen B Dunnett, Sean L Wyatt, Anwen S Williams and Simon A Jones
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 01, 2016
Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease of articular joints, patients often suffer from co-morbid neuropsychiatric changes, such as anxiety, that may reflect links between heightened systemic inflammation and abnormal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we apply behavioral neuroscience methods to assess the impact of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) on behavioral performance in wild type (WT) and interleukin-10 deficient (Il10-/-) mice. Our aim was to identi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510032
Julie Azais, Pascale Vergne-Salle, Christine Bonnet, Carine Dufauret-Lombard, Richard Treves and Philippe Bertin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2016
Tumour-necrosis-factor (TNF) inhibitors, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have non-specific (placebo effect) and specific effects. This meta-analysis appraises these effects within the first 3 months of treatment. Data were collected from ACR 20, 50 and 70 scores at week-24 from RA patients receiving TNF-blockers or a placebo after methotrexate (MTX) failure....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510031
Annie HN Law and SI Yeo
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 07, 2016
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, with multifaceted clinical presentations. There are currently fewer than 550 cases reported in the literature. This case illustrates the protean manifestations of ECD with multisystem involvement, including skeletal and extra skeletal (cutaneous, cardiac, pituitary, retroperitoneal, and pulmonary) manifestations...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510030
Walter Berg, Ingo H Tarner, Gabriela Riemekasten, Ulf Muller-Ladner and Uwe Lange
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 26, 2016
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic, severe connective tissue disorder characterized by a microangiopathy and excess deposition of connective tissue matrix in the skin and internal organs. Skin involvement is the most conspicuous manifestation of SSc, and based on its extent two distinct disease subsets are recognized, diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc), with lcSSc affecting only the distal extremities and the face and dcSSc also affecting the proximal e...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510029
Thais Muniz Montalvao, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela, Cesar Koppe Grisolia and Leopoldo Luiz Santos-Neto
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: January 09, 2016
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory, complex, multisystem autoimmune disease of multifactorial origin. It is characterized by a large set of antibodies, especially antinuclear antibodies. Its incidence rate varies from 1 to 10 per 100,000 persons/year and its prevalence rate is 20-70 per 100,000. It is a more frequent rare disease in women between 15 and 45 years old. The cause of SLE is still unknown; however, there is a loss of the regulatory mechanisms which maintain ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510028
Laura Geraldino-Pardilla Yevgeniya Gartshteyn and Fabian Mendoza
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: December 31, 2015
Large volume effusions as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is rare, and when it does occur, it is usually associated with complications of chronic lupus disease, such as nephrotic syndrome, constrictive pericarditis, heart failure or Budd-Chiari syndrome. Massive serositis as a presenting feature of SLE is rare. We describe two adult cases of new onset SLE presenting with massive ascites in the first case, and large bilateral pleural effusions in the second case. The s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510027
Justin T Easley, Joel W Nelson, Rachel E Mellas, Salah Sommakia, Chunhua Wu, Bryan Trump, and Olga J Baker
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 17, 2015
Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its aspirin-triggered epimeric form (AT-RvD1) are endogenous lipid mediators (derived from docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) that control the duration and magnitude of inflammation in models of complex diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated that RvD1-mediated signaling pathways are expressed and active in salivary glands from rodents and humans. Furthermore, treatment of salivary cells with RvD1 blocked TNF- -mediated inflammatory signals and improved epithelial integrity. T...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510026
Hakan Genc, Alper Gumustepe, Fikriye Figen Ayhan and Aynur Karagoz
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 18, 2015
The juvenile-onset spondyloarthropathies begin at age of 16 years or younger and are associated with the HLA-B27 allele. They are classified as the enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subgroup of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) by the international league of associations for rheumatology (ILAR) . Although the adult form has inflammatory low back pain as the predominant clinical symptom, the juvenile form has peripheral enthesitis and arthritis as its main clinical features. For this reason...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510025
Travis C Sizemore
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 18, 2015
The clinical significance of creatine kinase [CK] levels in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies [IIM] has varied between studies. CK levels continue to be the most sensitive laboratory marker for muscle disease in IIM but vary depending upon the disease entity. The goal of this article was to further elucidate the clinical significance of CK levels in the setting of IIM, including role of CK in diagnostics and prognostication. A case report was described with a subsequent literature review comple...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510024
Pingheng Zhang, Jian Liu and Bing Tan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2015
Peripheral blood samples were taken from 30 RA patients and 20 healthy volunteers, as controls. Ex vivo correlates of disease severity, such as C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor, and immunological activation, such as interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and IL-6 were measured biochemically. Factors derived from the coagulation fibrinolytic system were also determined, such as the number of platelets, platelet activating factor, plat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510023
Katsuji Nishimura, Masako Omori, Yasuhiro Katsumata, Eri Sato, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Masayoshi Harigai, Hisashi Yamanaka and Jun Ishigooka
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 31, 2015
Objective: Fatigue has been intensively studied in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, previous studies have mostly included patients with long-term disease who have been treated with corticosteroids. We investigated fatigue in corticosteroid-naive patients with early-stage SLE. Methods: Forty-three SLE inpatients without neuropsychiatric SLE manifestations and 30 healthy control subjects with similar demographic characteristics participated in this study. The Profile of M...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510022
Maria Helena Favarato
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 28, 2015
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, with several different clinical manifestations. Its annual incidence is about 5 cases per 100000 inhabitants. The prevalence is around 52 cases per 100000 inhabitants. The gastrointestinal tract may be affected, either by the disease itself or by adverse reactions of medications or by opportunistic infections. Although common, the incidence of gastrointestinal manifestations may be underestimated, as the symptoms m...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510021
Glen T D Thomson, Janine L Johnston and Brent R J Thomson
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 28, 2015
A 41-year-old man presented with clinical features of eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) confirmed on biopsy. The patient responded to high-dose prednisone but subsequent steroid sparing medication including methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, etanercept, golimumab and rituximab failed to deliver steroid sparing response. Tocilizumab provided rapid and sustained improvement in the patient's symptoms and signs. Withdrawal of tocilizumab resulted in a flare of the clinical manifestations of EF; retreatment...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510020
Yelliann Ruiz-Irizarry and Petros Efthimiou
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 24, 2015
Rhabdomyolysis and inflammatory arthritis are common rheumatologic conditions that manifest in people of all ages. Proximal muscle weakness associated to rhabdomyolysis is frequently the initial presentation of inflammatory myopathies such as dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyosistis (PM) both, extensively described in literature to be related to paraneoplastic process. Inflammatory arthritis has been associated to certain paraneoplastic syndromes, but not in relation to Chronic Meylogenous Leukemi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510019
John D. Carter, Michelle Patelli, Scott R. Anderson, Neelesh Prakash, Ernesto J. Rodriquez and Louis R. Ricca
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 09, 2015
Clinical gout begins as an acute intermittent and intensely painful arthritis that can progress to a chronic, inflammatory, destructive condition. The initial episodes may last several days and are often followed by pain-free, inter-critical periods that may last months to years. Chronic gouty arthritis is manifested by shorter inter-critical periods, boney destructive changes and possible development of visible tophi. Advanced gout leads to chronic pain, decreased quality of life, and an increa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510018
Article Type: Letter | First Published: August 03, 2015
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is one of the most frequently seen rheumatic diseases in clinical practice. Its treatment is defied by the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS)/ European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). A flowchart is designed to easily understand this treatment strategy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510017
Pathological Relationship of Osteomalacia at the Site of Atypical Periprosthetic Femoral Shaft Fracture after Typical Femoral Neck Fracture Occurred in the Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Report
Takanori Wakayama, Yoshitomo Saita, Tomonori Baba, Hidetoshi Nojiri and Kazuo Kaneko
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 17, 2015
We describe a patient who suffered an atypical periprosthetic femoral shaft fracture two years after surgical treatment for a typical osteoporotic femoral neck fracture. This patient had been suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), steroid-induced diabetes, and steroid-induced osteoporosis, and had undergone long term administration of glucocorticoids (GCs), bisphosphonates (BPs), and active vitamin D (aVD) analog. Prodromal pain and periprosthetic cortical stress reaction had occurred in the ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510016
Amira A Shahin, Noha M Abdelbaky and Sahar S Emam
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 09, 2015
Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a rare complication of malaria. The ischemic changes begin distally and progress rapidly to cause irreversible tissue necrosis requiring amputation in almost all cases. We report a case of a 21-years-old female with malignant malaria complicated by SPG. Our treatment regimen includes corticosteroids in addition to the anti-malaria and anticoagulation therapy. Clinicians should be aware of this entity as early recognition can help in reducing morbidity and...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510015
Prof. Ray Marks
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 03, 2015
Anxiety is a very common psychological syndrome occurring in the adult population either as a trait or specific condition, and/or in response to a variety of situations, especially adverse health conditions. This narrative review examines the extent to which anxiety may preside among adults with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis, regardless of site, and its linkage to the pain experience. Drawn from the English language peer reviewed work over the last 35 years, articles that focused on the topic of...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510014
Kwong Jenitta M, Peng Tammy, Mohiuddin Adil, Chefiz Dalya, Craig Vicki, Weissmann David, Moorthy L Nandini, Weiss Pamela F, Cron Randy Q and Andujar Joanna
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 11, 2015
We report a case of MAS occurring during the initial presentation of sJIA treated with high dose anakinra. Excess interleukin-1 can lead to the clinical and laboratory findings of sJIA and MAS, and the up regulation of interleukin-6. Uncontrolled production and activation of macrophages and T lymphocytes lead to MAS manifestations, including prolonged high fever, pancytopenia, coagulopathy, lymphadenopathy, hepatic insufficiency, and neurologic dysfunction....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510013
Francesca Romana Spinelli, Arbi Pecani, Fulvia Ceccarelli, Cristiano Alessandri and Fabrizio Conti
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 23, 2015
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation of synovial joints and production of autoantibodies such as Rheumatoid Factor and antibodies directed against modified proteins - i.e. anti-citrullinated peptides antibody (ACPA). Carbamylation, as a post translational modification, has been recently associated to RA since anticarbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP) have been detected in the sera of RA patients. The effect of treatment on anti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510012
Maurizio Rossini, Angelo Fassio, Luca Idolazzi, Ombretta Viapiana, Elena Fracassi, Giovanni Adami, Maria Rosaria Povino, Maria Vitiello and Davide Gatti
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2015
It is a matter of fact that the inflammatory pathogenesis does not explain all the skeletal manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), and the development of bone involvement is sometimes unconnected from the clinical scores of inflammation. On the basis of recent studies, we would like to make a point of the new available evidence about the metabolic pathogenic component of bone erosions....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510011
Magrini D, Lehman TJA and Moorthy LN
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 21, 2015
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a rare group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders that is associated with multiple symptoms including joint stiffness, misshapen bones, reduced hand function, frequent otitis media, 'thickened' facial features, hearing problems, vision problems and heart complications. We conducted this study to determine how many (if any) children that come to pediatric rheumatology have unrecognized MPS and if routine screening for MPS is needed....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510010
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: May 13, 2015
What is a diagnosis, but recognition of a phenotype? The term spondyloarthropathy is much debated, with alternative appellation suggestions. Spondyloarthritis and spondylarthritis have been suggested, but there has also been a movement to separate peripheral and axial disease, with the latter referred to as axial spondyloarthropathy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510009
Rodrigo Eduardo Rosa, Admar Moraes de Souza, Lucio Ricardo Hiurko Felippe, Pedro Grachinski Buiar, Pedro Gabriel Lorencetti, Chayanne Natielle Rossetto and Valderilio Feijo Azevedo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 13, 2015
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disease of immunological origin which has been correlated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although the risk factors are not clear, many cardiac alterations have been described, such as conduction disturbances, coronary heart disease, aortic root dilation, cardiac valve alterations, and ventricular diastolic dysfunction....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510008
Uwe Lange, Gabriel Dischereit, Elena Neumann, Klaus Frommer, Ingo H. Tarner and Ulf Muller-Ladner Kerckhoff-Klinik
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 09, 2015
Bone remodelling is characterized by a balance between bone resorption and bone formation. The osteoblasts are responsible for bone synthesis and the osteoclasts for bone resorption. A finely adjusted interaction between molecular mechanisms results, via cytokines, hormones and growth factors, in homeostasis of bone metabolism....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510007
Burkhard F. Leeb
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: March 03, 2015
The therapeutic scope of inflammatory rheumatic diseases and of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in particular, has increased dramatically over the last twenty years leading to incredibly better chances for the patients. Simultaneously disease activity assessment has become more and more important, not only to document the patient's disease course, but also for justifying the application of potentially dangerous and expensive remedies....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510006
Marcelo Fernandez Casares
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 02, 2015
Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) also known as Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease (DPLD), include a large group of lung diseases characterized by various patterns of inflammation and fibrosis on high-resolution CT and in lung biopsy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510005
Huimin Yan, Hui-Fang Zhou, Ying Hu and Christine T.N. Pham
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 28, 2015
Autophagy plays a central role in various disease processes. However, its contribution to inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. We observed that autophagy is engaged in the K/BxN serum transfer model of RA but autophagic flux is severely impaired. Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug that has been shown to stimulate autophagy. Induction of autophagic flux, through metformin-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and interruption of mammalian target...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510004
Eduardo Branco de Sousa
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 23, 2015
Non-operative treatment of knee osteoarthritis has gained special interest between patients and orthopedic surgeons, not only to alleviate pain and improve function, but also to postpone joint replacements. Projections showed an increase of 673% in the number of arthroplasties to be performed in the United States through 2030....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510003
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 21, 2015
Upper back pain (UBP) is the pain experienced at the thoracic spine region. Spinal pain prevalence is 66 per 100 people and15% them is UBP. Although it is so frequent, it is less studied than neck or low back pain.It can be seen at any period of life, from childhood to elderly.This article briefly describes differential diagnosis in UBP....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510002
Hassan M Bassiouni and Ahmed A Negm
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 19, 2015
The basic idea of this editorial was to try to propose new techniques and laboratory measurements for future incorporation into a new score for identifying an acutely inflamed osteoarthritic knee joint. In the area of research, defining clinical status was always a hurdle to proper patient recruitment because working on quiet cases of OA with minimal to moderate pain is totally different from working on acute cases of OA with a lot of pain. Hence the problem of defining the clinical status at ti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5726/1510001
Lukas A. Holzer
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 15, 2015
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a long-term chronic disease that is characterized by the deterioration of cartilage in joints resulting in stiffness, pain and impaired range of motion. OA is a disease that is associated with ageing. However, there are various factors e.g. obesity, lack of exercise, genetical abberations, occupation, trauma and gender that contribute to progression of OA. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. The World Health Organization estimates that globally 25% of adul...
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