Urinary VCAM-1, KIM-1, and ET-1 as Biomarkers of Lupus Nephritis: Correlation with Immunological Parameters in Hospital USM
Siti Khadijah SM Nazri, BSc, Wan Syamimee W Ghazali, MD, MMed, Noor Suryani M Ashari, MD, MPath and Wan Zuraida WA Hamid, MD, MPath
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 15, 2019
So far, there is no conventional parameters that have been proven to possess the ability to predict the histology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A few autoimmune serology markers of SLE including anti-dsDNA antibodies, complement C3 and C4, and anti-nucleosome could be helpful clinically, but the correlation between those and lupus renal disease is still imperfect. Recently, the urinary vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) h...