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Mini Review 

The Role of Interleukin-37 in Inflammation: Suppression or Promotion?

Liping Ding, Xiaoping Hong and Dongzhou Liu
Abstract

IL-37 not only has anti-inflammatory effects, but also induces marked metabolic changes with higher levels of muscle AMPK, greater rates of oxygen consumption, and increased oxidative phosphorylation both in the context of inflammation- induced fatigue and in healthy mice. In addition, expression of human IL-37 in mice could protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis and suppress the migration ability of neutrophils in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury condition.

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Case Report 

Rheumatoid Pulmonary Nodules and Significantly Elevated Urinary Cadmium in a Kaolin (China Clay) Worker: Could Cadmium Adsorption onto Occupationally Inhaled Dust Explain Caplan's Syndrome?

Dan Murphy, Robert Marshall, Chris Harrington, Andrew Taylor and David Hutchinson
Abstract

Over 60 years ago Caplan's syndrome was described in the coal miners of South Wales (UK). Higher rates are seen in mining populations globally, particularly in kaolin workers. We describe Caplan's syndrome in a kaolin worker associated with a raised urinary cadmium level.

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Research Article 

Sustainability and Clinical Effectiveness of Inpatient Rehabilitation in Painful Shoulder Diseases

Werner Kullich, Barbara Stritzinger, Monika Mustak-Blagusz, Thomas Berger, Albrecht Falkenbach4 Jutta Rus-Machan and Bibiane Steinecker-Frohnwieser
Abstract

Complaints of the shoulder are often accompanied with pain, function lease and impaired quality of life. Inpatient rehabilitation in Austria acts as a powerful non-operative intervention to improve shoulder function and to reduce pain. The aim of this presented study was to observe the long-lasting effects of rehabilitation on shoulder complaints in a follow up trial.

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Case Series 

Algorithm for Treatment of Hip and Knee Osteonecrosis: Review and a Presentation of Three Example Cases

Kim-Orden Michael, Barrett Kody and Khatod Monti
Abstract

Osteonecrosis (ON) of the hip and knee can be a source of severe morbidity for affected individuals. Although several risk factors and explanations for the pathogenesis of ON have been recognized, there exists little consensus in the literature as to the appropriate clinical management.

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Commentary 

Individualized Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Care Means more than Achieving a Number

Burkhard F. Leeb
Abstract

The therapeutic scope of inflammatory rheumatic diseases and of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in particular, has increased dramatically over the last twenty years leading to incredibly better chances for the patients. Simultaneously disease activity assessment has become more and more important, not only to document the patient's disease course, but also for justifying the application of potentially dangerous and expensive remedies.

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Editorial 

Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

Marcelo Fernandez Casares
Abstract

Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) also known as Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease (DPLD), include a large group of lung diseases characterized by various patterns of inflammation and fibrosis on high-resolution CT and in lung biopsy.

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Research Article 

Suppression of Experimental Arthritis through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Autophagy Modulation

Huimin Yan, Hui-Fang Zhou, Ying Hu and Christine T.N. Pham
Abstract

Autophagy plays a central role in various disease processes. However, its contribution to inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. We observed that autophagy is engaged in the K/BxN serum transfer model of RA but autophagic flux is severely impaired. Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug that has been shown to stimulate autophagy. Induction of autophagic flux, through metformin-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and interruption of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mitigated the inflammation in experimental arthritis.

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Editorial 

Non-Operative Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Fear the Future?

Eduardo Branco de Sousa
Abstract

Non-operative treatment of knee osteoarthritis has gained special interest between patients and orthopedic surgeons, not only to alleviate pain and improve function, but also to postpone joint replacements. Projections showed an increase of 673% in the number of arthroplasties to be performed in the United States through 2030.

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Editorial 

Differential Diagnosis in Upper Back Pain

Nihal Ozaras
Abstract

Upper back pain (UBP) is the pain experienced at the thoracic spine region. Spinal pain prevalence is 66 per 100 people and15% them is UBP. Although it is so frequent, it is less studied than neck or low back pain.It can be seen at any period of life, from childhood to elderly.This article briefly describes differential diagnosis in UBP.

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Editorial 

Difficulties in Defining a Clinical Score for Acute Flare-Ups in an Osteoarthritic Knee

Hassan M Bassiouni and Ahmed A Negm
Abstract

The basic idea of this editorial was to try to propose new techniques and laboratory measurements for future incorporation into a new score for identifying an acutely inflamed osteoarthritic knee joint. In the area of research, defining clinical status was always a hurdle to proper patient recruitment because working on quiet cases of OA with minimal to moderate pain is totally different from working on acute cases of OA with a lot of pain. Hence the problem of defining the clinical status at time of recruitment has become of an utmost importance.

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Editorial 

Subchondral Bone: An Emerging Target for Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Lukas A. Holzer
Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a long-term chronic disease that is characterized by the deterioration of cartilage in joints resulting in stiffness, pain and impaired range of motion. OA is a disease that is associated with ageing. However, there are various factors e.g. obesity, lack of exercise, genetical abberations, occupation, trauma and gender that contribute to progression of OA. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. The World Health Organization estimates that globally 25% of adults over the age of 65 years have clinically symptomatic osteoarthritis of any joint.

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