Modulation of Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) Expression in Patients with and without Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Possible Drug Targets for Treatment
Kenneth L Wiley, Edward Treadwell, Kayihura Manigaba, Beverly Word, Jarren Oates and Beverly D Lyn-Cook
There is increasing evidence that epigenetic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Both global and gene specific methylation is known to occur in lupus patients, as well as, changes in histone acetylation status. Histone acetylation is associated with active chromatin or activation of genes, whereas histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is associated with silencing of genes. Therefore, HDACs have been targeted as potential therapeutic targets for a number of diseases, including lupus.
Synovial Macrophages: Potential Key Modulators of Cartilage Damage, Osteophyte Formation and Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis
Majoska HM Berkelaar, Nicoline M Korthagen, Gerrit Jansen and Willem Evert van Spil
Synovitis is common in knee OA patients and a known contributor to disease incidence and progression. Macrophages are the most common immune cell type present in this inflamed synovial tissue and expectedly contribute both directly and indirectly to OA progression through the induction of inflammatory mediators, growth factors and proteinases, resulting in enhanced cartilage degeneration and osteophyte formation. Furthermore, macrophage infiltration and soluble macrophage products may be associated with pain in OA, although data are somewhat controversial.
Liping Ding, Xiaoping Hong and Dongzhou Liu
IL-37 not only has anti-inflammatory effects, but also induces marked metabolic changes with higher levels of muscle AMPK, greater rates of oxygen consumption, and increased oxidative phosphorylation both in the context of inflammation- induced fatigue and in healthy mice. In addition, expression of human IL-37 in mice could protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis and suppress the migration ability of neutrophils in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury condition.
Rheumatoid Pulmonary Nodules and Significantly Elevated Urinary Cadmium in a Kaolin (China Clay) Worker: Could Cadmium Adsorption onto Occupationally Inhaled Dust Explain Caplan's Syndrome?
Dan Murphy, Robert Marshall, Chris Harrington, Andrew Taylor and David Hutchinson
Over 60 years ago Caplan's syndrome was described in the coal miners of South Wales (UK). Higher rates are seen in mining populations globally, particularly in kaolin workers. We describe Caplan's syndrome in a kaolin worker associated with a raised urinary cadmium level.
Werner Kullich, Barbara Stritzinger, Monika Mustak-Blagusz, Thomas Berger, Albrecht Falkenbach4 Jutta Rus-Machan and Bibiane Steinecker-Frohnwieser
Complaints of the shoulder are often accompanied with pain, function lease and impaired quality of life. Inpatient rehabilitation in Austria acts as a powerful non-operative intervention to improve shoulder function and to reduce pain. The aim of this presented study was to observe the long-lasting effects of rehabilitation on shoulder complaints in a follow up trial.
Algorithm for Treatment of Hip and Knee Osteonecrosis: Review and a Presentation of Three Example Cases
Kim-Orden Michael, Barrett Kody and Khatod Monti
Osteonecrosis (ON) of the hip and knee can be a source of severe morbidity for affected individuals. Although several risk factors and explanations for the pathogenesis of ON have been recognized, there exists little consensus in the literature as to the appropriate clinical management.
Burkhard F. Leeb
The therapeutic scope of inflammatory rheumatic diseases and of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in particular, has increased dramatically over the last twenty years leading to incredibly better chances for the patients. Simultaneously disease activity assessment has become more and more important, not only to document the patient's disease course, but also for justifying the application of potentially dangerous and expensive remedies.
Marcelo Fernandez Casares
Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) also known as Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease (DPLD), include a large group of lung diseases characterized by various patterns of inflammation and fibrosis on high-resolution CT and in lung biopsy.
Suppression of Experimental Arthritis through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Autophagy Modulation
Huimin Yan, Hui-Fang Zhou, Ying Hu and Christine T.N. Pham
Autophagy plays a central role in various disease processes. However, its contribution to inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. We observed that autophagy is engaged in the K/BxN serum transfer model of RA but autophagic flux is severely impaired. Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug that has been shown to stimulate autophagy. Induction of autophagic flux, through metformin-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and interruption of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mitigated the inflammation in experimental arthritis.
Eduardo Branco de Sousa
Non-operative treatment of knee osteoarthritis has gained special interest between patients and orthopedic surgeons, not only to alleviate pain and improve function, but also to postpone joint replacements. Projections showed an increase of 673% in the number of arthroplasties to be performed in the United States through 2030.
Upper back pain (UBP) is the pain experienced at the thoracic spine region. Spinal pain prevalence is 66 per 100 people and15% them is UBP. Although it is so frequent, it is less studied than neck or low back pain.It can be seen at any period of life, from childhood to elderly.This article briefly describes differential diagnosis in UBP.
Hassan M Bassiouni and Ahmed A Negm
The basic idea of this editorial was to try to propose new techniques and laboratory measurements for future incorporation into a new score for identifying an acutely inflamed osteoarthritic knee joint. In the area of research, defining clinical status was always a hurdle to proper patient recruitment because working on quiet cases of OA with minimal to moderate pain is totally different from working on acute cases of OA with a lot of pain. Hence the problem of defining the clinical status at time of recruitment has become of an utmost importance.
Lukas A. Holzer
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a long-term chronic disease that is characterized by the deterioration of cartilage in joints resulting in stiffness, pain and impaired range of motion. OA is a disease that is associated with ageing. However, there are various factors e.g. obesity, lack of exercise, genetical abberations, occupation, trauma and gender that contribute to progression of OA. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. The World Health Organization estimates that globally 25% of adults over the age of 65 years have clinically symptomatic osteoarthritis of any joint.
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