International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine is an open access peer-reviewed journal, publishing original research, reviews, case reports, commentaries etc., in the field of sports and exercise medication. IJSEM is a database for physicians, physical therapists, sports trainers, orthopedic surgeons specialized in exercise medicine. It focuses on the health-and-fitness information, psychology, sports nutrition, causes and effects of damage caused by athletic injury, its medication and rehabilitation.

International Journal of Sports and Exercise medicine allows faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. All the articles pass through a dual review process in which two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. IJSME ensures the maintenance of its standards by publishing the high quality, original and new advances in its field.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine

ISSN: 2469-5718

Editor-in-chief: J.David Prologo, Dale Ding

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Sports Exerc Med

ISO abbreviation: Int J Sports Exerc Med

Other titles: IJSEM

Category: Sports Medicine

DOI: 10.23937/2469-5718

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510107

Within-Day Energy Balance in Mexican Female Soccer (Football) Players - An Exploratory Investigation

Francisco Arroyo, Dan Benardot and Elizabeth Hernandez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 24, 2018

To assure optimal performance and reduced risk of illness and injury, athletes require a food and fluid intake that optimally satisfies normal physiological requirements plus the additional demands of physical activity. Both macronutrient (i.e., carbohydrate, fat, and protein) and micronutrient (i.e., vitamins and minerals) intakes are essential for maintaining health, optimal body composition, and the desired athletic performance ....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510106

Physical Activity in the Prevention of Abdominal Obesity: Type, Duration and Intensity

Francisco Jose Gondim Pitanga, Cristiano Penas Seara Pitanga and Carmem Cristina Beck

Article Type: Opinion | First Published: October 17, 2018

To suggest the type and dose (duration and intensity) of physical activity more adequate to prevent abdominal fat in adults. The evidences that were presented are part of studies on physical activity and abdominal fat published in the national and international literature. Physical activity (aerobic and resistance exercises), with a prolonged duration of moderate intensity for men and walking or moderate intensity for women, is suggested as the m...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510105

Effects of an Intense One-Week Skiing Program on Balance Abilities in Pediatric Cancer Patients

Kurpiers N, Vogler T and Flohr S

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 10, 2018

Beside a number of physical, physiological, psychological, and social impairments, cancer and its treatment can also reduce balance abilities. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a one-week winter camp with an intense alpine skiing program on balance ability of pediatric cancer patients in the follow-up care. Eighteen pediatric cancer patients. Most studies on the effects of physical activity on cancer have been conducted on adults. Much less research has been done in pediat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510104

Proximal Hamstring Injuries: An Unusual Finding

Raj Subbu and Fares Haddad

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 06, 2018

The proximal hamstring complex is frequently injured in athletes, traditionally occurring in waterskiing, sprinting and hurdles. However, more recently it is increasingly being reported in a variety of different sports. The hip and knee joint are stabilized by the hamstring muscles due to eccentric contractions, which occur when a muscle contracts whilst passively stretched. This happens to the hamstring muscle during hip flexion and knee extensi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510103

Glenohumeral Rotational Angles May Affect Outcomes of Cross-Body Stretch: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial

Koya Mine

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 27, 2018

Various stretching techniques have been proposed to prevent or improve Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD) and Posterior Shoulder Tightness (PST). Cross-body stretch is one of the most common methods to address GIRD and PST. The current evidence is unclear with regards to the influences of glenohumeral rotational angle during cross-body stretch....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510102

High Level Cycling Performance 10 Years after Cardiac Transplantation

Grazzi Giovanni, Totti Valentina, Myers Jonathan, Mosconi Giovanni, Gambaretto Camilla, Sambri Vittorio, Trerotola Manuela, Nanni Costa Alessandro and Sella Gianluigi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 23, 2018

Cardiac Transplantation (CTX) is a treatment option for selected individuals with end-stage heart failure. However, long-term outcomes are limited by the development of cardiovascular complications, and coronary allograft artery disease is the main cause of death in Heart Transplant Recipients (HTR) five years after intervention. Training programs among HTR are recommended in the early post-operative period as well as in the long term....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510101

'Stick to it' - Exercise Programmed Adherence as the Main Determinant of Successful Weight Loss Interventions

Santiago Tavares Paes and Renato Marques Bianchini

Article Type: Perspective Article | First Published: August 04, 2018

The regular practice of physical exercise can improve the functioning of energetic systems, increasing metabolic efficiency, which reduces the progression of the pathological effects of obesity. The increase in energy expenditure secondary to physical exercise occurs by stimulating the metabolic reactions and the enhancement of energy substrate use by active exercised muscles. There are many metabolic factors activated by exercise....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510100

What Factors Can Increase the Metabolic Effects of Regular Practice of Physical Exercises in Obesity?

Santiago Tavares Paes

Article Type: Communication | First Published: August 04, 2018

Physical exercise has been used as an important tool in the prevention and treatment of obesity by developing physical qualities that positively alter body composition, metabolic activity and by attenuating the comorbidities associated with excess weight. An inverse association has been demonstrated between physical activity level and development of obesity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510099

Understanding the Behaviors and Attitudes of Athletes Participating in the 2016 Rio Olympics Regarding Nutritional Supplements, Energy Drinks, and Doping

Sulaiman Omar Aljaloud

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: July 14, 2018

Our research team traveled to Brazil to collect the data for this study. Olympic athletes participating in the 2016 Rio Olympics were randomly selected to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire, and this activity took about 20 minutes. The survey contained nine questions including frequency of use, knowledge, and perception of nutritional supplements, energy drinks, and doping. Descriptive statistics were run to summarize the data collected and the results...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510098

Identification and Validation of the Lactate Threshold Velocity using the Y-Intercept and Slope of the Fit Curve (YIS Method)

Emma Swanwick, David B. Pyne, Bernard Savage and Martyn Matthews

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 11, 2018

Although the Lactate Threshold (LT) has lost some of its status as a marker of exercise intensity, the LT does mark a metabolic transition that, when we are looking to explain energy timelines, can provide an important perspective. This paper is the first of a series looking to clarify and transform how we monitor intensity of exercise. As such we need to create a more robust method of identifying LT....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510097

Nutritional and Pharmacological Strategies of Bodybuilders in Preparation Period for Competition

Amanda Assenheimer, Igor Brandao, Mauricio Schüler Nin and Rafael Longhi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 09, 2018

Fifteen athletes were evaluated: 60% (n = 9) males and 40% (n = 6) females, with a mean age of 27 years. Regarding nutrients, carbohydrates had a mean intake of 1.68 g/kg body weight, mean protein content was 3.68 g/kg body weight, and lipids were 20.4% of the Total Energy Value. Protein and lipid intakes were not statistically significant, but when the carbohydrate consumption was compared, there was a statistical difference between the sample v...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510096

Trends in Gambling Behaviour among NCAA College Student-Athletes: A Comparison of 2004, 2008 and 2012 NCAA Survey Data

Rayna M Sansanwal, Jeffrey L Derevensky and Thomas S Paskus

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 05, 2018

Student-athletes represent a vulnerable subgroup of the college student population with regards to engagement in high-risk behaviours, including gambling. Three large samples of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes in 2004 (N = 20,587), 2008 (19,942), and 2012 (N = 22,935) were surveyed about their gambling behaviour and attitudes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510095

Oxygen Uptake, Carbon Dioxide Production, Minute Ventilation and Heart Rate during Post Exercise Recovery in Healthy and Unmedicated Elderly and Young Men

Paulo Farinatti, Felipe A Cunha, Walace Monteiro, Nadia L Silva and Gabriela Venturini

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 05, 2018

This study investigated the influence of aging and effort intensity upon oxygen uptake (V.O2), carbon-dioxide production (V.O2), minute ventilation (V.E) and Heart Rate (HR) during postexercise recovery. Young (YG: n = 16; 24 ± 2 yr) and older (OG: n = 18; 63 ± 1 yr) groups performed cycle ergometer exercise bouts at 100%, 75%, and 40% of maximal work rate, preceded by 30-min resting assessment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510094

Exercise and the Eye: A Call for Prospective, Outcomes-Based Research Collaborations between Exercise Physiologists and Ophthalmologists

David M Kleinman

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 05, 2018

The benefits of physical activity on health are becoming increasingly understood. Evidence suggests regular exercise leads to better overall heath, lower blood pressure, less chronic pain, reduced risks of cardiovascular events, and improved cognitive functioning. These factors overlap with ophthalmic health, and loss of vision is one of the most feared health consequences patients describe....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510093

Attitude of Burundi Doctors Regarding Physical Activity Prescription in Case of Musculoskeletal Problem Related to Pregnancy

NGAYIMBESHA Adrien, BIZIMANA Jean Berchmans, GAKIMA Marie Stella and NZISABIRA Felix

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2018

In the absence of medical or obstetrical complications, pregnancy should be a period of joy for every woman. However, during this period, many physiological and anatomical changes occur, and which impose a negative impact on woman's health. The gradually changing body and increasing weight of the pregnant woman cause noticeable alterations in her posture and in the way her walks....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510092

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Joint and Graft Infection following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

Harin Parikh, Aubrey Armento, Tessa Mandler and Jay Albright

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 04, 2018

Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is an uncommon postoperative complication of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa even more rarely implicated as the infectious organism. Previous reports of P. aeruginosa SSI's outline hospital-associated etiologies such as inadequate sterilization of surgical instruments, but it is known that the organism can be found in public areas such as swimming pools and hot tubs....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510091

Changes in Lifestyle, Exercises, Possible Mechanisms and Associations with Prostate Cancer

Mauro Sergio Perilhao, Roberta Luksevicius Rica and Danilo Sales Bocalini

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 09, 2018

Prostate cancer is characterized by overgrowth of the prostate, followed by a decrease in the size and intensity of the urinary stream, which is considered a major cause of illness and death worldwide. Its etiology is unknown. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyles are placed in the context of lifestyle, which has been studied since researchers realized that changes in one's living influence the onset of prostate cancer....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510090

Feet and Footwear: Applying Biological Design and Mismatch Theory to Running Injuries

Michael Wilkinson, Richard Stoneham and Lee Saxby

Article Type: Opininon Article | First Published: May 07, 2018

The Endurance-Running hypothesis proposes that natural selection has shaped humans into endurance-running specialists. Running-related-injury rates between 20-79% suggests modern humans are prone to injury in this species-specific movement pattern. This opinion piece offers a novel perspective on high-injury prevalence in human endurance running, focussing on evolutionary mismatch between modern athletic footwear and evolved foot structure and fu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510089

The Neuromuscular Efficiency of Trunk Muscles is Altered by Age in the Abdominal Muscles but by Gender in the Back Muscles

Christoph Anders, Agnes Huebner and Bernd Faenger

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 04, 2018

Several measures are applied to characterize the functional state of muscles. Among these, the Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC) is most frequently used and considered the gold standard. A little understood and used measure is Neuromuscular Efficiency (NME) of muscles. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare NME indices of several trunk muscles of healthy adults with respect to age and sex....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510088

Effects of a Slashpipe Training Intervention on Postural Control Compared to Conventional Barbell Power Fitness

Nicolas Kurpiers, Teresa Rovelli, Christin Bormann and Tim Vogler

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 26, 2018

Postural control is essential to maintaining balance and stability under health-related aspects. In the past several training concepts have been recommended for the enhancement of postural control. One of these concepts is the so-called 'Slashpipe' training, which uses a pipe partly filled with liquid in order to complete exercises similar to those found in barbell power fitness programs. However, evidence for the benefits of this intervention is...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510087

The Metabolic Cardio-Respiratory Effects of Abdominal Electrical Muscle Stimulation

Craig E Broeder, Amanda J Salacinski, Steve Mauk and Dimitria Vandarakis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 25, 2018

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been studied in athletes, healthy, and diseased populations mainly focusing on muscle strength and body composition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of acute EMS at rest and steady-state walking (3.5 mph & 5% grade) in healthy adults. Thirty-eight subjects (M = 19, F = 19) volunteered and completed resting and steady-state exercise trials with and without EMS in duplicate on separate days (test...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510086

Meniscal Pain: US Guided Meniscal Wall Infiltration Versus Partial Meniscectomy, a Comparative Study

Clement Marion, Marc Bouvard, Alain Lippa, Patrice Gardes, François Lavalle and Igor Benezis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 18, 2018

The increasing increase in the name of meniscal lesions leads to a reflection on their charge price. The aim of a treatment is to relieve the pain and to allow, as a priority, the smooth running of the daily and professional activities. The concept of meniscal economy is expanded by the medical community. We compared the benefit of infiltrations of the meniscal wall with the arhroscopic meniscectomy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510085

Physical Activity and Serum Cytokines Levels in Depressed Individuals - Gender Differences

Carolina David Wiener, Fernanda Fedrotti, Jean Pierre Oses, Karen Jansen, Diogo Rizzato Lara, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva and Jeronimo Costa Branco

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 26, 2018

The efficacy of physical activity on the reduction of depressive symptoms may be attributed to its impact over neuroinflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between habitual practice of physical activities and serum cytokines levels in individuals diagnosed with depression....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510084

The "2-2-2" Early Mobilization Protocol in Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Pilot Case Series

Frederic Lavoie, Lydia Mychaltchouk and Jean-Olivier Tetreault-Paquin

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 19, 2018

Accelerated functional rehabilitation for acute Achilles tendon rupture has been supported by various studies, both as a stand-alone conservative treatment, as well as post-operative protocol. The following pilot case series questioned whether a simple home-based incremental intensity rehabilitation program involving early mobilization would allow for results similar to surgical treatment and other conservative treatment protocols upon comparison of re-rupture rates, residual pain, treatment sat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510083

Functional Training Protocol in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial

Taysi Seemann, Anke Bergmann, Leonessa Boing, Magnus Benetti, Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira and Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimaraes

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 15, 2018

Prostate cancer treatment is associated with side effects including urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and a decrease in physical function. Physical exercise has been considered beneficial in countering these side effects. We believe that supervised exercise programs may be an efficient alternative to treatment and rehabilitation in these patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510082

The Effects of Pre-Exercise Blood Glucose on Responses to Short Duration High Intensity Exercise

Emma Swanwick and Martyn Matthews

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 08, 2018

Carbohydrate ingestion prior to exercise has been the subject of much debate over the last few decades with a range of individual responses observed with different carbohydrate loads, across a time period of 15-75 minutes pre-exercise. It has been argued that pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding, and subsequent insulin response, added to the onset of moderate intensity exercise can lead to hypoglycaemia (defined as a blood glucose level below 3.9 m...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510081

Effects of a Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Intervention on Athletes Psychological Responses Following Injury: A Pilot Study

Scott Rollo, Jill Tracey and Harry Prapavessis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2017

Participation in sport is associated with the possibility of athletic injury. The 2013-2014 Statistics Canada Community Health Survey indicated 33.5% of injuries were a result of participation in sport and exercise. Additionally, an estimated eight million sports injuries are treated annually in Europe and over 3.3 million athletic related injuries are reported in the United States annually....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510080

Influence of 7-Day Simulated Microgravity on Human Mechanical Properties Calf and Architecture and the Effect of Electromyostimulation Training

Yuri A Koryak

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 27, 2017

A number of studies have indicated that sudden exposure to microgravity environment causes a decrease in the tone of the skeletal muscles, reduction of muscle strength, perceptual and coordination disorders in the neuromuscular systems, shift of the spinal reflex mechanisms and degradation of joint position sense....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510079

A Step towards a Field Based Agility Test in Team Sports

David Drake, Rodney Kennedy, Jonny Davis, Matthew Godfrey, Simon MacLeod and Amy Davis

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 23, 2017

Agility perfos makinrmance tests are limited by the requirement for force plates, timing gates or expensive camera systemg application into practice challenging. The primary aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of a field based 1v1 agility test encompassing perceptual-action performance. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between the 1v1 agility tests with a range of physical performance tests including a commonly used Y step test....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510078

Plantar Fibromatosis: An Unusual Cause of Plantar Pain

Filipa Vieira, Clarissa Canella, Flavia Costa, Alessandro Severo and Edson Marchiori

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 22, 2017

Ledderhose's disease or plantar fibromatosis is a rare benign condition characterized by local proliferation of fibrous nodular tissue within the plantar aponeurosis. The diagnosis of this disease is based on clinical examination but imaging is often required to confirm the diagnosis or reveal alternative diagnosis. Because the cause of Ledderhose disease is still unknown....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510077

Foam Rolling as a Warm-up Technique for Anaerobic Power Activities

Andrea JD, Wicke J and Kleber F

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 11, 2017

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Foam Rolling (FR) compared to an Active Warm-Up (AWU) on performance measures of anaerobic power. Twenty-one male participants, recruited from a Division III university's athletic teams, completed a two day cross-over protocol to examine knee extension output using an isokinetic dynamometer....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510076

Characteristics and Relevant Factors of Sports Injury among Rural School-Aged Children in Zunyi, Southwest China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Chan Nie, Ya Hui, Yanna Zhou, Tao Wang, Huiting Yu, Shangpeng Shi and Xiuquan Shi

Article Type: BRIEF REPORT | First Published: September 23, 2017

Sports injury is common among students, it occurs during sports or exercise activities such as football, basketball, volleyball. Most sports injuries affect the locomotor system, which are traumatic in most cases [1-3]. Although great attention has been paid to their prevention and treatment, injury prevention is still a great challenge in rural Zunyi, a low-income area in southwest China....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510075

Resistance Exercise Performed at Different Degrees of Arterial Occlusion Pressure does not Induce Prolonged Oxidative Stress or Muscle Damage

Eduardo DS Freitas, Michael G Bemben, Alexandre S Silva, Rodrigo R Aniceto, João B Ferreira-Junior and Maria S Cirilo-Sousa

Article Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE | First Published: September 21, 2017

This study investigated if resistance exercise performed at differing Arterial Occlusion Pressures (AOP) causes oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twelve males completed 4 sets of 10 repetitions of knee extension at 20% of 1RM, with 30 s rest intervals between sets, that varied only in the amount of restriction pressure applied...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510074

Within - and between - Session Reliability of the Spider Drill Test to Assess Change of Direction Speed in Youth Tennis Athletes

Jessica Huggins, Paul Jarvis, Jon Brazier, Yianni Kyriacou and Chris Bishop

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: September 20, 2017

Agility or Change of Direction Speed (CODS) is a critical physical attribute in a sport such as tennis, which is categorised by frequent and multiple changes of direction. Recently, a CODS test called the 'spider drill' has been used to assess tennis athletes' ability to change direction....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510073

Apnea Training Specificity and its Implications for Performance in Aquatic Sports: Case Study Reports

Sylvia Konstantinidou and Chrysoula Chairopoulou

Article Type: CASE STUDY | First Published: September 18, 2017

Apnea training forms an essential drill used by athletes in aquatic sports such as diving, underwater rugby but also in swimming particularly fin and synchronized swimming. Literature suggests a number of long-term adaptations observed in apnea-conditioned athletes compared to controls. Unique responses to acute apneas have also been manifested by athletes with minimum apnea exposure though arguably to a lesser extent....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510072

Assessment of a Zumba® Fitness Class in Hospital Workers

Alfredo Covarrubias-Gomez, Nora I Reyes-Martínez and Lilia Castillo-Martínez

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: September 13, 2017

Mexico has an elevated prevalence of obesity. Advisors had proposed nationwide programs to increment physical activity. Exercise in the workplace had a beneficial impact in anthropometric measures and BMI. Zumba® can improve those measurements and benefit workers health. Our main objective is to evaluate the impact of a Zumba® fitness class in the health of workers. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510071

Musculoskeletal Injuries in British Army Recruits: A Retrospective Study of Incidence and Training Outcome in Different Infantry Regiments

Heagerty RDH, Sharma J and Clayton J

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: September 11, 2017

Musculoskeletal Injuries (MSKI) and the subsequent attrition incurred during basic military training represent a significant socioeconomic burden across global defence forces. The collection of accurate injury surveillance data is fundamental to meaningful analysis, identification of trends and subsequent introduction of targeted prevention strategies....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510070

Call to Action: Enhancing 'Exercise is Medicine' from the Perspective of Fitness Professionals

Taniya S Nagpal, Liza Stathokostas, Harry Prapavessis and Michelle F Mottola

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 31, 2017

Exercise is Medicine (EIM) is an international initiative that aims to incorporate exercise in primary healthcare by encouraging physicians to prescribe exercise and/or refer patients to Fitness Professionals (FPs). To determine how to increase referral and prescription practices previous research has focused solely on the perspective and recommendations of physicians, not FPs....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510069

Exercise, Nutrition and Gut Microbiota: Possible Links and Consequences

AV Costa, G Leite, A Resende, F Blachier and AH Lancha Jr

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 24, 2017

Gut microbiota plays an important role in the modulation of physiological processes associated with the digestion of nutrients, immune system and control of energy homeostasis. Changes in gut microbiota composition have been associated notably with obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases. Diet is one of the major factors capable of modulating the intestinal microbiota composition....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510068

Validity of Simple Health Assessments to Evaluate Locomotive and Cognitive Functions of Late-Stage Older Adults in Japan

Eri Sarashina, Katsuyoshi Mizukami, Hanatsu Nagano and Rezaul K Begg

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 14, 2017

Due to the trend of ageing commonly seen in developed countries, late-stage older adults are expected to enhance their healthy life expectancy for sustainable healthcare systems. Sound locomotive and cognitive functions are the two important factors for independent lifestyles. While various institutions offer simple health assessments to check their health status, their validity still has room for debate....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510067

Glucose Turn Point as a Marker of Exercise Intensity in Elite Swimmers

Emma Swanwick and Martyn Matthews

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 11, 2017

Physical exercise brings an increased demand for substrates to be metabolized in working muscle. Part of this requirement is met by glucose, circulating in the blood, released from an increase in hepatic glycogenolysis and through the use of glycogen in the muscle. The movement of glucose from the blood into the muscle cell is mediated by GLUT-4 transporters....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510066

Medical Management of Males and Females in Return to Learn and Return to Play after Concussion: An Observational Study

Amy Hassen, Ariel Klingaman and Jennifer Reneker

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 21, 2017

This study aimed to 1) Describe differences in medical management between males and females after a concussion, and 2) Explore factors associated with the number of days to Return to Learn (RTL) and Return to Play (RTP). 111 subjects, aged 12-19 with sports-related concussion participated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510065

The Long-Term Effects of Stand-up Paddle Boarding: A Case Study

Ben Schram, Wayne Hing and Mike Climstein

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: July 12, 2017

The association between inactivity and poor quality of life has been well documented. A major barrier to exercise is a perceived lack of time and lack of enjoyment of exercise modalities. Stand up Paddle Boarding (SUP) is an aquatic physical activity deemed easy to learn....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510064

Land Based Resistance Training and Youth Swimming Performance

Marie Clare Grant and Mykolas Kavaliauskas

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 08, 2017

Resistance training has been shown to have both performance-enhancing and injury-reducing benefits in youth athletes. The benefits are somewhat overlooked by many swimming coaches, therefore the effects of a structured resistance training programme in highly trained youth swimmers was investigated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510063

Long-Term Adaptations to Aerobic-Anaerobic Physical Training in the Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acids Profile

Pablo J Iglesias, Diego Munoz, Francisco Llerena, Francisco J Grijota, Ignacio Bartolome and Marcos Maynar

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 24, 2017

Fatty acids are critical organic compounds involved in the synthesis of other lipids like phospholipids and glycolipids constituting lipid bilayer of all cell membranes, besides they are an important source of chemical energy. A correlation between several fatty acids and health has been demonstrated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510062

Immediate Effects of Stretching for Iliopsoas Muscles on Lumbopelvic-Hip Kinematics during Gait: A Randomised Controlled Trial Using Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Koya Mine, Keio Ishiguro and Takashi Nakayama

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 24, 2017

Stretching for iliopsoas muscles is commonly performed for patients with non-specific low back pain, which tends to be provoked by extension-related movements. However, it is unclear whether stretching can immediately alter lumbopelvic-hip kinematics of patients during gait....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510061

Anxiety and Depression Levels and Their Relation to the Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Patients Who Underwent Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program

Rafael Machado de Souza, Daniela Bervian Linck, Cassia Cinara da Costa, Maria Lucia Langone and Paulo Jose Zimermann Teixeira

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 19, 2017

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a preventable and treatable disease characterized by persistent airflow limitation, usually progressive and associated with an abnormal lung inflammatory response to inhalation of particles or toxic gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall worsening of the patient....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510060

Cumulative Effects of Occupational Loading as a Risk Factor for Hip Pain in UK Military Personnel - Study Protocol of a Case Control Study

Russell J Coppack, James L Bilzon, Andrew K Wills, Ian M McCurdie, Daniel T Walton, Alastair M Nicol and Alexander N Bennett

Article Type: Study Protocol | First Published: June 12, 2017

High rates of hip Osteoarthritis (OA) have been reported in occupational sub-groups exposed to prolonged and strenuous physical activity levels. The military population is particularly at risk given the demands inherent to this population....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510059

The Effects of Two Weeks of Arm Crank Sprint Interval Training in Men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

Christopher R Harnish, Roy T Sabo, Jonathan A Daniels and Deborah Caruso

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 10, 2017

Numerous studies have shown that up to half of persons with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are obese, with nearly 70% of persons with SCI exhibiting two or more components of Metabolic Syndrome, with poor glucose and insulin regulation being most common....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510058

Mood and Oxytocin Blood Levels in Physically Active Women with and without Oral Contraceptive Use in Relation to Seasonal Daylight Variation

Lisbeth Wikstrom Frisen, Peter Larsson, Lucia Mincheva Nilsson and Karin Henriksson Larsen

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 01, 2017

The aim is to provide normative data on oxytocin, and its seasonality in users and non-users of Oral Contraceptives (OC) in physically active women. Further, to elucidate the relationship between Oxytocin and Profile of Mood States (POMS) for further research to see if Oxytocin can be used as an additional diagnostic marker to detect overreaching/overtraining syndrome or other stress disorders....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510057

Arousal and Vigilance: The Effects of Physical Exercise and Positive Mood on Attention

Yael Kallo and Yuri Rassovsky

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 13, 2017

The present study was an effort to examine the extent to which the different states of arousal, as induced through exercise and manipulation of positive mood, interact to affect attentional processes. Thirty-four healthy participants were randomly assigned into 2 mood conditions: neutral and positive. A computerized auditory continuous performance test was used to measure attentional performance....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510056

Preventable Ischaemic Heart Disease and Stroke Deaths Attributable to Insufficient Physical Activity: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis in the Argentinian Population

Rosana Poggio, Laura Gutierrez, Vilma Irazola, Adolfo Rubinstein and Goodarz Danaei

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2017

A non-optimal level of PA contributes substantially to the mortality burden of cardiovascular diseases in Argentina, especially in individuals under 70-years-old. More substantial resources should be directed toward enhancing built and social environments which are essential to effectively increase PA, to improve health-related quality of life and reduce the burden of cardio-metabolic diseases in Argentina....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510055

A Non-Displaced C1 Fracture in Amateur Wrestling: A Case Report

Sergen Devran, Turgut Akgul and Omer Batın Gozubuyuk

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 20, 2017

We present a case of a bilateral atlas posterior arc fracture that occurred during wrestling training. Atlas bone fractures are rare although may result with catastrophic consequences. A male amateur wrestler aged 25 years, who was otherwise healthy fell on his head while doing a cartwheel and could not continue training....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510054

A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Combined with 6-Weeks of Crossfit Training Improves Body Composition and Performance

Rachel M Gregory, Hasan Hamdan, Danielle M Torisky and Jeremy D Akers

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 18, 2017

Twenty-seven non-elite CrossFit subjects (mean ± SD age = 34.58 ± 9.26 years) were randomly assigned to a LCKD (males, n = 3; females, n = 9) or control (CON) (males, n = 2; females, n = 13) group. LCKD was instructed to consume an ad libitum diet and restrict carbohydrate intake to less than 50 grams per day and CON maintained usual dietary intake....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510053

Does Intensive Aerobic Training Influences Cognition in Middle-Aged Men?

Theodore Parthimos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Sokratis G Pappageorgiou and Ioannis Zalonis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 10, 2017

Thirty-three amateur runners (group of athletes) compared with thirty healthy adults with no previous involvement in sports (control group). Both groups were evaluated by means of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for attention, processing speed, memory, visuospatial organization, executive functions and athletic test for aerobic capacity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510052

Breathe Long, Live Long

Carl C Bell and Joseph A Kurian

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: February 28, 2017

Using ancient wisdom, personal experience, and modern 21st century science can help researchers understand and design scientific inquiry that will lead to useful and pragmatic research agendas. This approach is illustrated by the observations made by Taoist beliefs, the senior author's personal experience, and the scientific literature on how resting heart rates promote longevity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510051

Vacuum Sealing Drainage for Treating Early Infection after Total Hip Arthroplasty

Tao Liu, Fujiang Cao, Yunqiang Xu and Shiqing Feng

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 14, 2017

Surgical site infections (SSIs) can have a profound impact on patients as they often require hospital readmission, additional surgical interventions, lengthy intravenous antibiotic administration, and delayed rehabilitation. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) exposes the wound site to negative pressure, resulting in the improvement of blood supply, removal of excess fluid, and stimulation of cellular proliferation of granulation tissue....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510050

The Effect of High-Speed Resistance Training on Movement Speed and Power of Older Women

Celia Cohen Barros, Celia Pereira Caldas and Luiz Alberto Batista

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 13, 2017

The relationship between physical fitness and functional capacity in the aging process is notable. Functional capacity determines the degree of independence to remain socially included and its decline is an effective indicator of poor quality of life. Significant scientific evidence support that an active lifestyle helps to prevent and minimize the negative effects of aging. Physical exercise is an important goal for Health Promotion....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510049

Predicting V̇O2 Change from a Single Unidirectional Trial of Cadence Manipulation in Recreational Runners

Thomas Ruediger and Ryan Dombkowski

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 10, 2017

The study protocol was approved by the University's Institutional Review Board. Subjects of either gender were recruited by convenience from a local cohort of graduate students or by direct association or relationship with this cohort. Subjects self-identified themselves as recreational runners logging at least 10 miles per week, free of any neuromuscular or neurological disorders, lacking any joint or limb pain or discomfort, and willing to sign...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510048

Controlled Trial on the Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Mass and Function among Older Women Subjected to Resistance Training

Maria Jose Prieto Kinesiologist, Marcela Catalan Kinesiologist, Gonzalo Ayala Kinesiologist, Nicolas Gajardo Kinesiologist, Gladys Barrera Registered Nurse, Sandra Hirsch, Maria Pia de la Maza and Daniel Bunout

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 01, 2016

Older women aged between 60 and 75 years without chronic debilitating diseases, living in the community were invited to participate. All were subjected to supervised resistance training using elastic bands, three times per week during 12 weeks and were randomized to receive, in a double blind fashion, 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate or maltodextrin, during the same period....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510047

Effects of Daily and Flexible Non-Linear Periodization on Maximal and Submaximal Strength, Vertical Jump and Speed Performance of Brazilian Army Skydivers

Fabien Pereira da Silva, Jose Vilaca-Alves, Leonardo Lopes de Souza, Juliano Spineti dos Santos, Tiago Figueiredo, Gabriel Andrade Paz, Jeffrey M Willardson and Humberto Mirand

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 28, 2016

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of daily non-linear periodization (DNLP) and flexible (FNLP) models on maximal and submaximal strength, vertical jump and speed performance gains after 12 weeks of Brazilian army skydivers....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510046

Energy Restoration by an Original Fruits & Vegetables Juice Intake in a Cohort of Elderly People Affected by Sarcopenia

Maria Vadala, Beniamino Palmieri and Carmen Laurino

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2016

30 participants (27 women and 3 men) affected by sarcopenia were prescribed to drink a fixed volume of fruits & vegetables juice for 3 months. In this anecdotal and retrospective observational study, we filled questionnaire (0-5 rating) describing subjective well-being feelings, psycho-neurological traits, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular as well as any untoward effects....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510045

Changes in Endothelial Markers during a Summer Ultra-Endurance Road Cycling Event in the Heat

Kupchak BR, Kazman JB, Umeda EA, Vingren JL, Lee EC, Armstrong LE and Deuster PA

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 22, 2016

Purpose: To assess the impact of completing a 164 km road cycling event performed in a hot environment (Wichita Falls, Texas in August), on endothelial biomarkers and resultant risk of blood clots in men and women....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510044

Perceived Health, Sedentary Time, Body Mass Index, and Breaks from Prolonged Sitting in the Workplace

Sonali Sarkar, Wendell C Taylor, Dejian Lai, Ross Shegog and Raheem J Paxton

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 11, 2016

This study provides important information related to factors associated with perceived health. A better understanding of perceived health and motivation are important for employers and worksite program developers. Our findings suggest that more education is needed to inform the public about the relationships between sedentary behavior and health....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510043

Preventive Physiotherapy Applied to Portuguese Surf Athletes: Association in Improving Performance and Reducing the Number of Injuries

Beatriz Minghelli, Filipe Costa, Patricia Moreira and Monica Vicente

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 26, 2016

Surfers are constantly subjected to suffer injuries that can result from environmental exposure, unpredictability in performing the maneuvers, contact board, involvement with the wave and/or excessive training. Physical therapy applied to surfers aims to prevent common injuries of this activity, improving the physical performance of the athlete. This study determined the prevalence of injuries in surf athletes and the association of preventive Ph...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510042

Effect of Flare Reaction to Intra-Articular Hyaluronan Injection on Cartilage Boundary Lubricating Ability of Human Synovial Fluid

Taryn E Ludwig, Jenelle R McAllister, Victor Lun, J Preston Wiley and Tannin A Schmidt

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 01, 2016

Lubrication of articular cartilage is achieved by a combination of lubrication mechanisms. Fluid film lubrication occurs at high speeds and low loads when cartilage surfaces are separated by a layer of synovial fluid (SF). Boundary lubrication occurs at low speeds and high loads when cartilage surfaces are in contact and lubrication is provided through molecular interactions at the surface....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510041

The Suitability of Global Rating Scales to Monitor Arthroscopic Training Progress

JJ Stunt, GMMJ Kerkhoffs, B van Ooij, IN Sierevelt, MU Schafroth, CN van Dijk, J Dragoo and GJM Tuijthof

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 17, 2016

As developing arthroscopic skills is challenging and training time for residents is limited, arthroscopic skill competency of residents should be measured. Assessment tools, such as Global Rating Scales (GRS), have been developed for structured, objective feedback and to assess learning curves. The goal of this study is to assess known-groups and convergent validity of these scales, to evaluate the suitability of these scales to monitor training ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510040

Evaluation of Physical Activity Intensities and Energy Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Adults

Ludivine Paris, Martine Duclos, Romain Guidoux, Nicolas Lamaudiere and Sylvie Rousset

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 04, 2016

Western lifestyle characterized by lack of physical activity and diet rich in fat and refined sugars is associated with various non-communicable chronic health diseases. The prevalence of obesity worldwide is steadily increasing. In 2014, 39% of adults worldwide were overweight and 13% were obese. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and an excessively rich diet are responsible for chronic imbalance between energy intake and expenditure fav...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510039

A Comprehensive Kinematic Analysis during a 15 Km Submaximal Training Run

Joshua P. Bailey, John A. Mercer and Janet S. Dufek

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 02, 2016

Recent studies have investigated biomechanics of running during competitive road races in an attempt to record endurance runners in their natural environment, due to the ability to measure numerous runners in a short period of time. A key focus area for running races are the foot strike pattern differences among foot wear conditions, running speed measured as finishing time and changes related to fatigue during later stages of the race. Identific...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510038

Physical Activity Prevalence and Awareness after an Exercise is Medicine on Campus Campaign, 2011-2013

Kelly R Rice, Tim K Behrens, Rachel L Cline, Lisa Hines and Kristin Sturm

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 01, 2016

The benefits of physical activity (PA) are well known, and documented to include: reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, depression, and other widespread preventable disease. It is recommended that adults participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week in order to receive health benefits. Despite the numerous benefits one can accumulate through participation in PA, levels remain low...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510037

Baseline Values of the SCAT in Mexican Football Association Players

Ortiz MI, Murguia-Canovas G

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 16, 2016

Recently, there has been increasing cases of sports-related concussion. Individuals with this kind of injury may develop acute or chronic symptoms that may affect their health and athletic performance. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the baseline scores in all domains of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) among Mexican football association players....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510036

Four Weeks of Balance Training does not Affect Ankle Joint Stiffness in Subjects with Unilateral Chronic Ankle Instability

Tarang Kumar Jain, Clayton N. Wauneka and Wen Liu

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: January 15, 2016

Balance training has been shown to be effective in preventing ankle sprain recurrences in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) but the biomechanical pathways underlying the clinical outcomes are still unknown. This study was conducted to determine if a 4-week balance training intervention can alter the mechanical characteristics in ankles with CAI....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510035

The Effect of Dynamic and Static Stretching on Golf Driving Performance

Graeme G. Sorbie, Julien S. Baker, Yaodong Gu and U. Chris Ugbolue

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: January 11, 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dynamic and static stretching warm-up routines on golf driving performance. Three different components were tested; namely carry distance, accuracy and ball contact. Twelve male competitive golfers took part in the experiment. Two supervised warm-up treatments were tested on nonconsecutive days. Each subject was randomized to either a dynamic stretching (DS) or static stretching (SS) routine....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510034

Correlations between Vitamin D Concentrations and Lipid Poanels in Active Duty and Veteran Military Personnel

Ashlyn M. Hiserote, Cristobal S. Berry-Caban, Qiang Wu and Laurel M. Wentz

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 07, 2016

Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States and has been associated with dyslipidemia along with additional cardiovascular conditions. Dyslipidemia raises the risk for cardiovascular disease and has been linked to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military personnel. The purpose of this study was to identify significant correlations between serum vitamin D and lipid panel concentrations in active duty and veteran milita...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510033

Caribbean Sports and Nutrition: Focus on the Glycemic Index

Fitzroy J. Henry

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 05, 2016

Caribbean athletes have displayed their admirable talents at global events for many years. More recently, they have become world champions and record holders. Given the small size of the Caribbean population these mighty achievements are truly remarkable. Even more remarkable is the fact that these athletes seldom utilize one of the most important performance enhancers - nutrition this paper highlights the value of appropriate uses of carbohydrat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510032

Validity of a Kinect-based Tracking System for Clinical Assessment of Knee Kinematics

Edward Nyman, Jr.

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: January 04, 2016

The primary objective of this study was validation of a three-dimensional single-camera system (Kinect) for use as a clinical screening tool for evaluating knee kinematics during drop jump landings. Lower extremity kinematics for each of eight adolescent female participants were simultaneously tracked by a traditional motion capture system and the prototype Kinect-based tracking system during performance of a drop jump landing task. Peak sagittal...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510031

Profile of Rugby Injuries in High School Zimbabwean Adolescents

Matthew Chiwaridzo, Yemurai Masunzambwa, Nirmala Naidoo, Farayi Kaseke, Jermaine Dambi and Takura Matare

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 28, 2015

Background: Rugby is a popular sport played in many countries worldwide. There has been recent growing interest for the sport in Zimbabwe especially among adolescents. However, no study has been done to document the profile of rugby-related injuries among Zimbabwean adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years. The goal of the present study is to describe the injuries sustained by adolescent males during the 2014 high school rugby season. Meth...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510030

Postural Dual Task Performance during Anti-Saccades in Healthy Children

Layla Ajrezo, Sylvette Wiener-Vacher and Maria Pia Bucci

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 21, 2015

Purpose:It is known from literature that postural stability in children is affected by a secondary task. In the present study we explored the effect of anti-saccades on postural sway in healthy children. Methods: 43 healthy children from 8 to 15 years old participated to the study. Postural stability was measured by Techno Concept platform and simultaneously eye movements were recorded by an eye tracker (Mobile T2). Children performed anti-saccad...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510029

Dietary Iron Intake and Hemoglobin Concentration in College Athletes in Different Sports

Takako Fujii, Yuka Okumura, Etsuko Maeshima and Koji Okamura

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 11, 2015

Iron-deficiency anemia is relatively prevalent among endurance athletes. It is therefore recommended that athletes consume a greater amount of iron. Resistance exercise has been shown to alleviate anemic symptoms, suggesting that the prevalence of anemia may vary among athletes that participate in different sporting events and that their iron requirements may differ according to their sports. The present study investigated the relationship betwee...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510028

Preliminary Study on Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence in Iranian Female Athletes

Behnoosh Vasaghi-Gharamaleki and Sedigheh Ostad-Rahimi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 04, 2015

Research carried out over the past few decades has shown that urinary incontinence is observed among physically active women, including those involved in professional high impact sports. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and assess its risk factors among Iranian female athletes. A total of 195 volunteers comprising women athletes aged between 16.5 and 32.5 years....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510027

Motive8! Feasibility of a Text Messaging Intervention to Promote Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis

Holly Blake, Anna L. Roberts, Mark E. Batt and Jonathan P. Moses

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: November 28, 2015

27 people (6 male, 21 female; aged 25-81 years) with knee osteoarthritis received 4 text messages per week, for 6 weeks. Telephone surveys were conducted at baseline and 6 weeks to measure physical activity levels and beliefs, including self-efficacy for exercise, barriers and benefits of exercise, social support and pain. Participants completed physical activity diaries. Process evaluation included participant perceptions of the intervention and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510026

A Recovery Based Intervention to Improve Retention in an Activity Centric Health and Fitness Program. An 'outside-in' Approach

J. David Prologo

Article Type: Hypothesis | First Published: November 24, 2015

One hundred eight million people were estimated to be on a diet in the United States in 2014 at any given time, with each of those making 4 to 5 attempts to lose weight each year - translating to approximately 2.5 billion dollars spent failing weight loss programs. A variety of mechanisms have been studied and marketed in attempts to increase the length of time users will follow their diet and/or exercise programs, with largely disappointing resu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510025

Prediction of Performance in Vasaloppet through Long Lasting Ski-Ergometer and Rollerski Tests in Cross-Country Skiers

Erik Mygind, Kristian Wulff, Mads Rosenkilde Jensen and Jorn Wulff Helge

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 09, 2015

The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in 'Vasaloppet' and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes test and a 120 m...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510024

Antropometric Measures and Physical Habilities for Elders Practioners of Physical Activities Programs on West of Parana

Jacques Macsue, Possamai Leonardo Trevisol, Nogueira Edinaldo JS, Paganotto Maykon and Dorst Debora Goulart Bourscheid

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: October 31, 2015

Aging is the last phase of adulthood characterized by the set of physiological changes, reduced physical abilities and basic skills such as strength and balance. However studies show that physical exercise is highly important in improving and maintaining physical fitness. Thus this study aimed to correlate the strength of arms and legs with circumference of left and right leg and balance. This study included elders participants of exercise projec...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510023

The Original Compared with Terminal in Anterior or Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

Denglu Yan, Yancheng Song, Zhaojie Wang and Zhi Zhang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 29, 2015

Background: It currently remains unclear why the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is most commonly torn from its proximal attachment on the femur and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is torn from its distal attachment on the tibia. This study is designed to evaluate the difference of ligament attachment in bone through a comparison of the origin with the terminal ends in both the ACL and PCL. Methods: A sample population of 203 knee patients...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510022

Physiologic Changes and Nutrient Intake in Female Participants during a Simulated 80.5 Kilometer Ultramarathon Run: A Pilot Study

R Scott Van Zant, Justin Grogg, Jennifer Schoon, Jason Exposito and Meghan Carroll

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: October 8, 2015

Purpose: To frequently examine body weight (BW), blood parameters, nutrient/fluid (N/F) intake, urine output and vital signs of recreational female runners completing a simulated ultramarathon. Methods: Three participants completed an 80.5 km run on a closed 8.1 km course. BW, blood glucose (BG), N/F intake and urine output were measured 24 hr pre- and post event. Complete blood count was measured 1 hr pre-and post event. BW, HR, SBP, DBP, BG, bl...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510021

Manuscripts in the Sport and Exercise Sciences

Roger Ramsbottom

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 20, 2015

Scientific journals act as a means of exchange or the sharing of information / novel ideas between the author and its readership. A journal's editorial board are responsible for published papers which attain high standards of scientific merit. In order to further this process the authors have a responsibility to write clearly and succinctly, with clarity for the reader being upper-most in mind. Thus 'jargon' needs to be avoided and any acronyms u...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510020

A Community-Based Exercise and Support Group Program Improves Quality of Life in African-American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

Nora L. Nock, Cynthia Owusu, Susan Flocke, Susan A. Krejci, Emily L. Kullman, Kris Austin, Beth Bennett, Stephen Cerne, Carl Harmon, Halle Moore, Mary Vargo, Paul Hergenroeder, Hermione Malone, Michael Rocco, Russell Tracy, Hillard M. Lazarus, John P. Kirwan, Ellen Heyman and Nathan A. Berger

Article Type: Orginal Research Article | First Published: September 5, 2015

African-American (AA) breast cancer (BCa) survivors have higher mortality rates, more comorbidities and are less likely to meet national physical activity guidelines after diagnosis compared to Caucasian BCa survivors. We previously reported that a 20-week resistance exercise intervention coupled with a support group and home walking program, conducted using facilities and personnel at a community cancer support center, in Stage I-III AA BCa surv...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510019

Severe Musculoskeletal Injuries due to the use of Cleats Whilst Cycling

J Kukadia, G Zamfir, G Arealis, N Ashwood and B Karagkevrekis

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: September 4, 2015

In cycling, pedalling symmetry and foot position is paramount for an energy efficient and injury free ride. Traditionally a clipped pedal was used to secure the foot onto the pedal, which was found to be related to a number of overuse knee injuries, leading to the advent of clipless pedals or cleats, which allowed for a more efficient pedal stroke. Whilst there is some research behind cleat design in football, little remains for cycling. Here we ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510018

Glyceryl Trinitrate Patches: A Modern Treatment for Tendinopathies

Yusuf Assem and Manit Arora

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 23, 2015

Tendinopathy encompasses a variety of conditions that develop within tendons in response to overuse, characterized by pain and dysfunction. These include disorders of the Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, lateral epicondyle, medial epicondyle and the rotator cuff. Historically, most of these disorders have been attributed to tendinitis or inflammation of the tendon, however recent histopathological work has lent support to tendinosis as the under...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510017

Exergaming to Improve Physical and Mental Fitness in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Pilot Study

Claudia L. Hilton, Allison Attal, John Best, Tim Reistetter, Pete Trapani and Diane M. Collins

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 18, 2015

Although not included as core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), children and adolescents with this diagnosis often experience executive function (EF) and motor impairments. This study investigated the use of a speed-based exergame called the Makoto arena as an intervention strategy to improve EF and motor performance in in 17 school-aged children and adolescents with ASD. All areas of EF improved, with significance in the overal...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510016

Effects of Pitching a Simulated Game on Upper Extremity Kinematics in Youth Baseball Pitchers

Gretchen D. Oliver and Hillary A. Plummer

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: August 09, 2015

Overuse injuries in youth baseball players have increased exponentially with the insurgence of participation in the sport. It has been estimated that 5 million children (6-17 years) participate in organized youth baseball in the United States. Additionally, it has been documented in a survey of 476 youth pitchers (9-14 years) that roughly half reported either shoulder or elbow pain while pitching, thus leading researchers to speculate overuse inj...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510015

Paediatric Hip Pain: A Rare Injury

Raj Subbu and Fares Haddad

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 07, 2015

Paediatric hip pain in young athletes can be a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The anatomy of the paediatric pelvis and surrounding structures varies considerably to that of an adult and therefore is predisposed to different types of injuries which can lead to future deformities if not managed appropriately. Unlike adult pelvic fractures, which have set guidelines and management strategies, less research exists on these injuries in the paedi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510014

Effect of Hypercapnic Severity on Plasma Ammonia Accumulation and Respiratory Exchange Ratio during Incremental Exercise

Takahide Kato, Takaaki Matsumoto, Atsuko Tsukanaka, Masataka Nakano, Ryo Ito, Masato Amano, Marc Cole and Stanley M Yamashiro

Article Type: Original Investigation | First Published: July 20, 2015

Blood lactate (La) and ammonia (Am) concentrations are widely accepted markers of metabolism not only in clinical studies but also during exercise. Elevations from normal resting levels of both are observed in exercise and associated with deleterious effects such as fatigue. A decrease in blood La concentration during exercise under hypercapnic conditions was previously reported, and La threshold (LT) was unchanged by hypercapnia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510013

Physiologic Responses to Two Distinct Maximal Cardiorespiratory Exercise Protocols

Rebecca D Larson, Gregory S Cantrell, Carl J Ade, John W Farrell III, David J Lantis, Monica A Barton and Daniel J Larson

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 05, 2015

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare physiologic responses elicited by a ramp protocol to those elicited by a staged protocol. Methods: 57 subjects were recruited and consented to be tested on two separate occasions across one week using a magnetically braked cycle ergometer. Expired gases were collected using a calibrated metabolic cart....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510012

High-Resolution Accelerometry Resolved by Time-Frequency and Principle Pattern Analysis

W Jeffrey Armstrong, John D Welch, Frank Borg and Travis W Beck

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 03, 2015

The measurement peak-to-peak amplitude high-resolution accelerometery (HRA) during single-leg balance has been shown to be reliable. In the present (repeated measures design) study, the HRA signal was transformed into a wavelet-based HRA-intensity-pattern and analyzed using principle components analysis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510011

Feasibility of Focused Cardiac Ultrasound in Pre-participation Screening

Miriam L. Fishman, Jennifer Shea, Brian G. Choi and Allen J. Solomon

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 29, 2015

Objective: Current American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for pre-participation athletic screening recommend a 12-point history and exam to minimize the risk of sudden cardiac death. We tested the hypothesis that focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) performed and simultaneously interpreted by a cardiologist using a handheld ultrasound device would be a feasible addition. Methods: We performed pre-participation screening according to AHA recommen...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510010

A New View of Responses to First-Time Barefoot Running

Michael Wilkinson, Nick Caplan, Richard Akenhead and Philip R Hayes

Article Type: Original Investigation | First Published: May 28, 2015

We examined acute alterations in gait and oxygen cost from shod to-barefoot running in habitually-shod well-trained runners with no prior experience of running barefoot. Thirteen runners completed six-minute treadmill runs shod and barefoot on separate days at a mean speed of 12.5km.h-1. Steady-state oxygen cost in the final minute was recorded. Kinematic data were captured from 30-consecutive strides. Mean differences between conditions were est...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510009

Eccentric Loading Increases Peak Torque Angle of the Ankle Plantar Flexors in Healthy Volunteers

Matthew Wellisch, Peter Hamer, Luke Hopper, Max Bulsara and James Debenham

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 24, 2015

Eccentric loading of the ankle plantar Flexor's (PF) has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the conservative treatment of Achilles tendinopathy, however, its mechanism of therapeutic benefit remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PF eccentric loading on PF angle to peak torque (AtPT), peak torque (PT) and lower limb vertical stiffness. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomised to an eccentric (n=15) or concentric ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510008

Exercise and Stem Cell Therapeutics for the Infarcted Heart

Joseph R Libonati

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 18, 2015

Heart failure afflicts 5.1 million individuals in the United States and its prevalence is expected to increase 25% by 2030. It is associated with a poor quality of life, increased mortality, and is extremely expensive to health care systems. The progressive loss of cardiomyocytes is a central feature of heart failure from multiple etiologies....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510007

Effectiveness of Bracing and Taping, and the Influence of Light Finger Touch, During Unexpected Ankle Inversion Perturbations

J. Daniel Freedman, Youngmin Jun, David A. Humphreys and James P Dickey

Article Type: Orginal Research | First Published: May 15, 2015

Ankles are the most frequent site of musculoskeletal injury and a major cause for lost time in sports. Taping and bracing are commonly used to support unstable ankle joints. The purpose of this project was to evaluate whether taping or bracing effectively reduce ankle motion, or alter the timing or amplitude of muscle activation, during unexpected perturbations. 14 male subjects stood on their right foot on an inversion motion platform and underw...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510006

Influence of 120-Day Stimulated Microgravity with Countermeasures on Human Muscle Musculo-Tendinous Stiffness and Contractile Properties

Yuri A Koryak

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 15, 2015

It is well known that the unloading of the musculoskeletal system by actual or simulated microgravity causes numerous changes in the musculoskeletal system, such as muscular atrophy and decreased contraction strength, both after relatively short-term (10-17) and long-term (>5 weeks) periods of unloading. The deterioration of musculoskeletal function causes no direct health hazards and does not affect the capacity for work during short-term space ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510005

Epidemiology of Volleyball Related Injuries in the Young Athlete

Gerardo E Miranda, Manuel Mas, Deric Lopez, Carlos Perez and William Micheo

Article Type: Epidemiologic Study | First Published: April 24, 2015

Volleyball is a worldwide sport played by approximately 200 million people. It is played at different levels of competition, and organizations, starting from youth to the professional level. Young athletes get involved early in club leagues and interscholastic competition. Volleyball is currently among the most popular club sports in the United States and Puerto Rico....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510004

Mosh Pit Injuries: A Case Series of Avulsion Fractures in 2 Adolescents

Muhammad Waseem, Sabeeda Kadavath, Swathi Sethuram, Husayn Al-Husayni and Gerard Devas

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 17, 2015

Apophyseal avulsion fractures are almost exclusive to the adolescent population. It has been commonly associated with sports injuries. In our case reports, we identify two cases of these apophyseal avulsion fractures with no history of routine physical activity. In the context of our patients, identifying causation of hip pain was essential to understanding the mechanism of any trauma resulting in fractures. The adolescents presented in this case...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510003

Characterization of Endorphin Gene Expression Following Electroporation in Mice Tibialis Anterior Muscle: Implications for Gene Doping Detection

Morten Klitgaard Nohr, Parisa Gazerani, Julie Gehl3 and Jacek Lichota

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 13, 2015

Since ancient time, doping has been used by athletes. The prevalence for using performance-enhancing agents is increasing and new methods are being applied. Gene doping is foreseen to become one of the new doping methods in athletic performances. This study was therefore performed to investigate the possibility of transfecting a gene encoding the endogenous peptide preproenkephalin (PENK) in mice as gene doping candidate and subsequently establis...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510002

Late-Night Matches for Professional Soccer Players: Should we be Concerned about Sleep and Recovery?

Hugh H.K. Fullagar

Article Type: Perspective | First Published: March 30, 2015

Elite soccer players compete within the uppermost echelon of the most popular and participated sport in the world. Both male and female stars of the game, from Cristiano Ronaldo to Marta Vieira, entertain hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Indeed, the financial growth of the game in recent decades has enabled global television audiences to witness the game they love....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510001

Electromyographic Cross-Spectral Analysis of Antagonist Muscle Coactivation

Travis W. Beck

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 20, 2015

The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to compare the responses for traditional EMG amplitude measures with those from the crossspectrum approach for assessing agonist-antagonist interaction, and (2) to examine changes in the agonist-antagonist interaction for the elbow flexors and extensors with increases in movement velocity. Eighteen healthy, college-aged subjects (mean SD age = 21.8 2.7 yrs) volunteered to perform maximal, concentric...



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