The purpose of continuous assessment is to monitor learner's progress so decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning in terms of expected knowledge, skills, attitude and value. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of implementation continuous assessment in practical and theoretical class for sport science students. Descriptive survey research design was employed. Sample of the data were 96 students, 15 instructors and 2 heads of departments. Random and purposive sampling techniques were employed. The collected data through questionnaire were tallied, tabulated and interpreted into percentage while, interview and documents were analyzed qualitatively through narration for the purpose of triangulation. The results of the study showed that continuous assessment assists instructors for identify problems; motivates learners to work hard through the academic year; enhances self-esteem of learners; students identify their strengths and weaknesses. The study concluded that effect of continuous assessment motivateslearners not only to participate actively but also creates an opportunity to practice the skill rather than observing the skill; Provides learners with opportunities to master the skills without the need for feedback from other and identify their strength and weakness; Moreover, Student performance/skills were improve over a period of time due to continuous repetition of skills.
Continuous assessment, Effects, Implementation, Skill improvement
BDU: Bahir Dar University; DMU: Debre Markos University; DOE: Department of Education; ICA: Implementation of Continuous Assessment; ICDR: Institute of Curriculum Development Research; MOE: Ministry of Education; SSI: Sport Science Instructors; SSS: Sport Science Students
As part of transformation in education the government of Ethiopia has introducedcontinuous assessment to replace the traditional approach that mainly focused on an examination system. Continuous assessment takes into consideration the skills, knowledge, attitudes and values a learner displays in his performance on his/her way to responsible adulthood . Continuous assessment is based on the achievement of specific outcomes by learners, and educators are bound to gear their assessment towardsachieving the prescribed outcomes . Continuous, assessment bears value in the promotion of learners and educators should view the effectiveness therefore in collaboration with the current demands of the outside world. Continuous assessment occurs frequently during the academic year and part of regular instructors-students interactions. Students receive feedback from instructors based on their performance that allows them to focus on topics they have not yet mastered. Instructors simply identify students need, review and remediation and who are ready to move in to more complex work. Thus, the results of the assessments help to ensure that all students make learning progress throughout academic year.
According to Education Training Policy of Ethiopia , continuous assessment refersto an ongoing process which takes place throughout the whole learning process. According to , continuous assessment begins with decisions that the teachers perform on the first day of school and ends with the decisions that the teachers and administrators make on the learners regarding end of year grading and promotion. Continuous assessment should be systematic, comprehensive, cumulative and guidance model. One time final examination or test does not bring a complete picture of students' performance. One of the effects of implementation of continuous assessment in practical and theoretical class of sport science student instructors have ample time to provides feedbacks aboutstudents' progress and instructors gathering relevant information about each student.
According to , students' grade was given at the end of the course. Grade is the sum of testes, quizzes, assignments and final examination buttrained was changed. Assessing the skills and academic performance of sport science students in continuous manner is highly challenging task; this task requires knowledge of specific methods and skill, however absence of proper methods of formative and summative assessment and providing feedback in continuous manner takes enormous time, but the effects are good for teaching learning process, skill improvement and providing feedback for sport science students.
The effect of implementation of continuous assessment allows sport science instructors to monitor the impact of their lessons on students understanding. Instructors can modify their pedagogical strategies to include the construction of remediation activities for students who are not working at the expected level. Hence, continuous assessment supports a cycle of self-evaluation and student-specific activities by both students and sport science instructors. Continuous assessment assist sport science instructors identify problems; motivates learners to work hard through the academic year; enhances self-esteem of learners. The study concluded that continuous assessment motivates learners not only to participate actively but also creates an opportunity to practice the skill rather than observing the skill; Provides learners with opportunities to master the skills without the need for feedback from other and identify their strength and weakness; and student performance/skills were improve over a period of time due to continuous repetition of skills.
The overall objective of this study wasto find out the effects of implementation of continuous assessment in practical and theoretical class for sport science students
Letter of permission was taken from Debre Markos University, Department of sport Science and submitted to course leader of the department for both universities. Participants on the study were willing and explained about the purpose of the study for students, instructors and department heads. Moreover, culture and traditional values of participants were taken to account.
Descriptive survey research design was employed. Questionnaires were provided for students and instructors. For the purpose of triangulation the same items of questionnaires were provided. Some items were positive and others were negative worded. An interview schedule was prepared for department heads. Interview questions were structured and semi-structured. The researcher also used document analyses as a data collection tools because documents (students assessment formats, recorded sheets and course outline and grade transfer formats) enables to know the perception of continuous assessment as well as its effects on students and instructors.
The data source from questionnaires were collected from the respondent and tally, tabulated and converted to descriptive statistics of percentage corresponding with the number of participants of the study. While, interview and document were analysed qualitatively through narration.
The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of implementation of continuous assessment in practical and theoretical class for sport science students. The study included 96 students, 15 instructors and 2 heads of the department of sport science.
The analysis Table 1, shows that more than three quarter of the respondents, 75 (78.13%) were males; while 21 (21.83%) of them were females. This shows the ratio of female sport science students are quite low as like as female sport science instructors in both universities. Regarding on the age nearly hundred 92 (95.83%) were in the age group 18 to 25 years; while 2 (2.08%) of sport science students were between 26 and 30-years-old but 9 (60%) instructors were between 26-30. The table further reveals that the majority of sport science students respondents 94 (97.91%) are young these deduces that they have more to offer in terms of energy and productivity.
Table 1: Frequency distribution of sport science students' by institution, sex and age. View Table 1
The data obtained from Table 2 item 2.1, show that, 12 (80%) of the respondents of sport science instructors and almost 80 (83.33%) of the research sample for sport science students were agreed that, continuous assessment is a suitable tool for determining the progress of learners The general aim of assessment learners in outcomes-based education is growth, development and support . The purpose of continuous assessment is to monitor learner's progress through an area of learning so that decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning in terms of expected knowledge, skills, attitude and values.
Table 2: Frequency distribution of respondents' on the perceptions of continuous assessment. View Table 2
As shown in Table 2 item 2.2 More than ninety 14 (93.33%) of sport science instructors and 78 (81.25%) of sport science students agreed that continuous assessment helps sport science instructors in identification of problems experienced by sport science learners in the mastering of skills. In line with this,  stated that, continuous assessment is an important and a powerful diagnostic tool that enables students to understand the areas in which they are having difficulty, it enable teacher to assess the curriculum as implemented in the classroom and it provides information on achievement of particular level of skills.
The 2.3 item in Table 2, show that more than ninety 14 (93.33%) of the research sample of sport science instructors and three quarter 75 (78.13%) of the research sample of sport science students agreed that continuous assessment is not only enhance academic achievement of students but also improve the skill of students;  Torrance (1995), authentic strategies for assessment would not only consider a learner's memory, but also skills, attitudes, knowledge and values and 14 (14.58%) of sport science students disagreed with the statement. Pupils receive feedback from teachers based on their performance that allows them to focus on topics they have not yet mastered.
As can be seen from item 2.4 of Table 2, almost three quarter 11 (73.33%) of the respondents of sport science instructors and more than 80 (83.33%) of sport science students were agreed that continuous assessment creates conducive teaching learning environment on sport science course. However 1 (6.67%) of instructors and 10 (10.42%) of sport science students were against this view. A possible reason for the first finding could be frequent interactions between pupils and teachers leads that teachers know the strengths and weaknesses of their learners. These exchanges foster a pupil-teacher relationship based on individual interactions. One-to-one communication between the teacher and the pupil can motivate pupils to continue attending school and to work hard to achieve higher levels of mastery .
Table 3 item 3.1, more than ninety 14 (93.33%) of sport science instructors and 75 (78.13%) of the research sample of sport science students at Bahir Dar and Debre Markos universities said that, continuous assessment motivates learner to participate actively in their learning. In continuous assessment learners are always aware of their progress and thus able to understand their strengths and weaknesses. More over students were motivated these leads students participate actively and creates an opportunity to practice the skills than to observe the skill.
Table 3: Frequency distribution of respondents' on the effects of continuous assessment on learner's performance. View Table 3
Table 3 items 3.2 majority of respondents 14 (93.33%) of sport science instructor and 75 (78.13%) of sport science students said that continuous assessment provides learners with opportunities to masters the skills without the need for feedback from other and identify their strengths and weaknesses.  Says one of the characteristics of continuous assessment is transparencies, which means all assessment results, are available to the learners. When they know their assessment results learners will be able to identify where their strengths and weakness lie.
Table 3 item 3.3 more than three quarter 12 (80%) of sport science instructors and 74 (77.08%) of sport science students strongly agree that continuous assessment provides learners with opportunities to take decisions about their careers at an early stage.  said that when learners are granted opportunities to demonstrate their potentialities at an early stage they are also able to decide on possible careers at an early stage.
Table 3 item 3.4, majority 13 (86.63%) of the respondents of sport science instructors and three quarter 75 (78.73%) of the research sample of sport science students acknowledged that, continuous assessment motivates learners to work hard throughout the year and understand how the techniques work rather than practicing it.
As can been seen Table 3 item 3.5, more than seventy 11 (73.33%) of sport science instructors and more than three quarter 83 (86.46%) of respondents sport science students agreed that continuous assessment enhances the self-esteem of learners. The self-esteem of a learner is the degree of positive or negative feeling that he/she has on the assessment or evaluation of himself . In continuous assessment experiences of success and effectiveness in university work enhances the self-esteem of the learners. However 1 (6.67%) of sport science instructors and 7 (7.29%) of sport science students at Bahir Dar and Debre Markos Universities disagree with the statement.
Regarding on the interview both agreed with the phrase and said that, “Continuous assessment occurs frequently during the whole academy year therefore, sport science instructors and sport science students work their best throughout the year. Moreover, instructors learn which students' need review and remediation and which students are ready to move on more complex work this creates conducive classroom environment and contractive interaction between student and instructors in the university”.
On the issues of document analysis, the document of the survey from Bahir Bar and Debre Markos universities showed that, both had assessment procedures but completely different due to the system that they were follow.
The term assessment is often confused with other term like test, measurement, examination and evaluation. According to , assessment is considered to be wider and more comprehensive than test, measurement and examination. But when we compare with evaluation it is narrower in scope. Assessment is the process of collecting and synthesizing information to aid decision making . According to , assessment is a general term that includes the full range of procedures use to gain information about student learning and the formation of value judgments concerning learning process. Information is usually gathered with observation, rating of performances and paper and pencil test. In general assessment begins with the identification of learning objectives and with a judgment concerning how well those objectives have been attained.
According to , the evaluation of higher education learners' progress was based on test and examinations which focused only on the cognitive aspect of learners while other factors were ignored. Continuous assessment is not only concerned with the cognitive aspect of the learner but also considers other facets such as skills, attitudes and values . Explain that, continuous assessment as an instrument for promoting learners' skills, knowledge, attitudes and values. Continuous assessment is one of the aspects of the new approach in higher education of Ethiopia. Its authenticity lies in the fact that it gathers information directly pertinent to the quality of performance that perfectly embodies all the defined aspects of that performance.
According to , authentic strategies for assessment would not only consider a learner's memory, but also skills, attitudes, knowledge and values. Effective teaching and learning can only take place if the learner, educator and content are constantly assessed . Explain that, continuous assessment can be defined as ongoing process that measures a learner's achievement during the course of a grade or level providing information that is used to support a learner's development to enable improvements to be made in the learning and teaching process. In general aassessment is the process of gathering information about how learners are progressing in their learning. It gathers information about what learners know and can demonstrate as a result of their learning processes . Explained that, Assessment is the process of collecting synthesizing and interpretation to aid in decision making. Assessment involves much more than scoring, grading and paper and pencil test . Examined that, traditionally the evaluation of higher education learners' progress was based on test and examinations which focused only on the cognitive aspect of learners while other factors were ignored.
According to , assessment in higher education is a set of process that measure the outcome of learning in terms of knowledge acquired, understanding and skill gained. It also enables instructors to evaluate to the effectiveness of their teaching. Institutions of higher education should have effective procedures for designing, approving, supervising and reviewing the assessment strategies for programs and awards. In continuous assessment, instructors can get feedbacks about the proper attainment of the desired behaviour or the extent to which the student performance has improved over a period of time. Instructors by gathering relevant information about student progress or improve their teaching activities in order to enable them to meet intended objectives. According to , continuous assessment refers to the ongoing process which takes place throughout the whole learning process. The learners' progress is periodically monitored and continuous assessment is taking place on and off throughout a course or period of academic year.
Continuous assessment is a classroom strategy implemented by instructors to ascertain the knowledge, understanding, and skills attained by students . USAID, in education quality review newsletter, explained that teachers administer assessments in a variety of ways over time to allow them to observe multiple tasks. According to , with continuous assessment teachers must embed the assessment in their instructions, score the assessments and discuss standards for good learners' work with colleagues, and learners.
 Explained that, Class size and time allotments are the great problem in implementing continuous assessment in higher institutions. The standard established by La Porte's committee after considerable research points the acceptable class size. It recommends not more than 35 students as the suitable size for active classes. Class should never exceed 45 for one instructor . Explained that, instructors could then decide on the type of remedial work that would assist learners in the areas in which they do not perform well. Sport science instructors do not only assess learners by means of testes and examinations but can utilise various methods of assessment. The guide for Diploma in Education Senior Primary Outlines  state that, there are six purpose of continuous assessment these are diagnostic, teaching methodology, motivation, formative, summative and evaluative
The study confirms thatthe effect of implementation of continuous assessment in practical and theoretical class:
• Motivates learners not only to participate actively but also creates an opportunity to practice the skill rather than observing the skill;
• Provides learners with opportunities to master the skills without the need for feedback from other and identify their strength and weakness;
• Provides learners with opportunities to take decisions about their careers at an early stage;
• Student performance/skills were improve over a period of time due to continuous repetition of skills;
• Enhance academic achievement and skill improvement of sport science students;
• Creates a conducive teaching learning environment in sport science course;
• Instructors have got proper attainment of the desired objective;
• Instructors gather relevant information about progress of individual students in practice and theoretical class.
The authors give special thanks to Berhanu Tesema (Assistant Profeser's), Tesfahun Berhanu and My sister Tiruwork Bitew for generous contribution and valuable comments on this article.