International Journal of Stem cell Research & Therapy is an open access, peer reviewed journal that initiates reviews and publishes articles from original research field, clinical studies and other article types in all areas of stem cells. IJSCRT will be authoritatively launched in June, 2014 are distributed as quarterly journal, on frequent processing, while frequencies steadily secure the journal as bi-monthly to monthly. IJSCRT is the major forum for translational research into stem cell therapies.

A global companion looked into IJSCRT, it distributes amazing open access examining articles with an exceptional attention on essential, translational and clinical exploration into undeveloped cell therapeutics and regenerative helps, including creature models and clinical trials. The journal additionally gives audits, perspectives, editorials and reports. Journal covers all parts of science including fundamental, clinical and translational research on heredity, organic chemistry, and physiology of different sorts of stem cells including embryonic, grown-up and actuated immature microorganisms. IJSCRT likewise distributes survey articles, specialized reports and treatise on moral issues.

 
Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

ISSN: 2469-570X

Editor-in-chief: Faris Farassati

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Stem Cell Res Ther

ISO abbreviation: Int J Stem Cell Res Ther

Other titles: IJSCRT

Category: Stem cell research

DOI: 10.23937/2469-570X

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email: contact@clinmedjournals.org

 
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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410055

Fluorescence-Activated on-Chip Cell Culture Sorting (O3CS): Smart Petri Dish

Pavel G Molchanov, Jorge E Moreno-Cuevas, Martin Hernandez, Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Garza, Charles Garcia, Edward William Hillhouse, Christine Lopez, Eva M Zsigmond, Rick Wetsel, John Mazzilli, Hong Zeng8, Jeewon Kim, Jieying Yang, Raquel Cuevas, Pavel M Bulai, Taras N Pitlik, Andrey A Denisov, Sergey N Cherenkevich, Alla Yu Molchanova, Elena N Golubeva, Victor A Strukov and Victor V Boksha

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 17, 2018

On-chip cell sorting is a promising technique for sorting stem cells in culture. On-chip cell sorting allows minimization of lab personnel involvement in cells processing, dramatically reducing the risk of cell culture contamination. We developed a fluorescence-activated On-Chip Cell Culture Sorting (O3CS) system, which combines a biocompatible semiconductor light addressable microarray (chip) and optical setup for chip addressing and cell cultur...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410054

Direct and Simple Method for Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolation, Culturing and Detection

Rafal H Abdullah, Nahi Yosef Yaseen, Shahlla M Saleh, Maeda H Mohamed and Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 05, 2018

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are the best adult stem cells that can be used for autologous regenerative medicine. These cells are easily manipulated for use in cell therapy. Therefore, rapid and simple method for culture MScs is needed. In this paper, we are showing simple and robust method for culturing the stem cells. The cells were flushed from the bone marrow of the thighbones of mice and cultured directly in tissue culture fl...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410053

Stem Cell Therapy: Recent Success and Continuing Progress in Treating Diabetes

Elton Mathias, Roveena Goveas and Manish Raja

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 28, 2018

Diabetes mellitus (DM), a cluster of metabolic diseases, resulting in high blood glucose levels, is prevalent in today's world. The global costs of diabetes and its consequences are rising and are expected substantially increase by 2030, especially in middle- and lower-income countries. Evidence-based therapies, specifically targeting the reduction of high blood glucose levels, and minimizing diabetic complications, are currently the choice of tr...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410052

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (Hsct) in Mantle Cell Lymphoma: 4 Years of Complete Remission

David Cavalcanti Ferreira, Marcio Ribeiro de Andrade Filho, Fabio Rodrigues Kerbauy and Jose Salvador Rodrigues de Oliveira

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 30, 2018

According to the World Health Organization, the mantle cell lymphoma is a lymphoma subtype characterized by the translocation t (11;14) resulting in overexpression of the protein cyclin D1+. The clinical presentation typically includes extranodal, particularly bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. Of all B cell lymphomas, it has the worst prognosis and survival, around 3 to 5 years....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410051

Reconstructing Mammalian Retinal Tissue: Wnt3a Regulates Laminar Polarity in Retinal Spheroids from Neonatal Mongolian Rats, while RPE Promotes Cell Differentiation

Matthias Rieke, Afrim Bytyqi, Florian Frohns and Paul G Layer

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 25, 2018

Besides invention of iPSC technology, recent progress of stem cell-based organoids is founded on long-standing 3D-reaggregate approaches from embryonic tissues. In particular, histotypic in vitro reconstruction of avian retinal spheroids was most prolific. For instance, a complete reconstitution of all retinal layers was possible, which was supported by Wnt signalling and factors from the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE); similar in vitro findi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410050

Autologous Porcine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells for Reconstruction of a Resorbed Alveolar Bone: A Preclinical Model in Mini-Pigs

Cecilie Gudveig Gjerde, Daniele De Santis, Massimo Dominici, Guglielmo Zanotti, Solve Hellem, Serena Piccinno, Jorge S Burns, Alba Murgia, Olivia Candini, Mauro Krampera, Pierfrancesco Nocini, Alessandro Addis, Jerome Amiaud, Pierre Layrolle, Kamal Mustafa and Elena Veronesi

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 29, 2017

Regeneration of atrophied alveolar bone prior to insertion of dental implants is a major challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgery....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410049

Adult Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cirrhosis Management: Current Practices and Future Perspectives

Sellamuthu Subbanna Gounder, Radha Kodiappan, Soon Choy Chan, Abhi Veerakumarasivam and Baskar Subramani

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 26, 2017

Liver cirrhosis is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Although treatable by liver transplantation, quality of life is unlikely to drop in all the patients after five years. The shortage of matching donors and the high risk of surgical-associated complications further limits the therapeutic potential of transplantation....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410048

Reduction of Gingival Black Triangles with Dental Pulp or Gingival Stem Cell Injection Therapy: Clinical and Outcomes Research Gaps

Jennifer Hilario Diaz and Jordana Kate Schmier

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 31, 2017

Gingival Black Triangles (GBTs), or gingival embrasures, are aesthetically displeasing even when they are not severe enough to require periodontal treatment. Multiple treatment modalities exist, including veneers, composite and other prosthetic modalities, with few, if any, treatments covered by insurance....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410047

Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells and Chitosan Hydrogels Produce Similar Beneficial Effects in Acute Myocardial Infarctions and Ischemic Cardiomyopathies

Robert J Henning, Abraham Khan, David Whitaker and Narendra Sastry

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 26, 2017

We utilized two separate techniques, human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells (hUCBC) and chitosan hydrogels, to limit acute myocardial infarction size and LV remodeling. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells (hUCBC), contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. Chitosan is a polysaccharide....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410046

Effects of Overexpression of C-Myc and Bcl-2 on Viability, Apoptosis and Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Waruna Lakmal Dissanayaka, Xiaofei Zhu and Chengfei Zhang

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 29, 2017

The development of cell lines with high cell density, controlled proliferation, apoptosisresistance, and easy adaptation into cultures of serum free media is essential for the success of tissue engineering strategies....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410045

Secretome of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Grown in Hypoxia Accelerates Wound Healing and Vessel Formation In Vitro

Sushma Bartaula-Brevik, Anne Isine Bolstad, Kamal Mustafa and Torbjorn O Pedersen

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 20, 2017

Hypoxia is one of the factors that trigger the release of inflammatory and vasculogenic cytokines during tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with and without endothelial cells (EC) were cultured in vitro in normoxic and hypoxic environments. The mRNA expression of inflammatory and vasculogenic cytokines were evaluated at 1, 12, 24 and 48 hours. After 48 hours of incubation in normoxic and hypoxic conditions, supernatants termed as c...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410044

The C. Elegans Gscs: A Powerful Model for In Vivo Study of Adult Stem Cell Regulation

Patrick Narbonne, Abigail R Gerhold, Jean-Claude Labbe and Paul S Maddox

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 10, 2016

Adult stem cells hold tremendous potential for regenerative medicine. Harnessing their therapeutic benefits requires that we gain fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which stem cells function and divide in vivo. This is hampered by the fact that stem cells often reside in compartments that remain difficult to access using imaging approaches....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410043

Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible-Revisiting Pathogenesis of Benign Tumor of the Jaw

Qilin Xu, Qunzhou Zhang, Steven Wang, Brian P Ford, Prem Pate, Lee R Carrasco, Anh D Le and Faizan Alawi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 07, 2016

Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an uncommon benign tumor of the jaw, which clinically presents as a slow-growing neoplasm with cortical bony expansion. It has been postulated that COF might be derived from the inactive-like small nests or islands of odontogenic epithelium. However, the pathophysiology of this rare benign tumor remains largely unknown. Herein, we reported a case of simple type of COF in the mandible in a 24-year-old man who p...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410042

Advancing Research in Regeneration and Repair of the Motor Circuitry: Non-Human Primate Models and Imaging Scales as the Missing Links for Successfully Translating Injectable Therapeutics to the Clinic

Magdalini Tsintou, Kyriakos Dalamagkas and Nikos Makris

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 28, 2016

Regeneration and repair is the ultimate goal of therapeutics in trauma of the central nervous system (CNS). Stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) are two highly prevalent CNS disorders that remain incurable, despite numerous research studies and the clinical need for effective treatments. Neural engineering is a diverse biomedical field that addresses these diseases using new approaches. Research in the field involves principally rodent models and ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410041

Progress towards Clinical Use of iPS Cell Derived Therapies

Malin Kele and Anna Falk

Article Type: Mini-Review | First Published: August 17, 2016

A decade has passed since Shinya Yamanaka published his landmarking publication on how to produce pluripotent stem-cell-like cells and the term induced pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells, was coined. This past decade has been a decade devoted to pluripotent cells, scrutinizing molecular mechanisms in cell identity, and optimizing derivation methods, culture conditions and characterization methods to xenofree and chemically defined clinical-grade p...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410040

Generation of Antigen-Presenting Cells from Human Vascular Adventitia-Resident Progenitors

Mohamad Almoussa, Volha Stoll, Diana Klein and Suleyman Ergun

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 13, 2016

Macrophages and dendritic cells play a central role in the immune system. Here, we identify CD44(+) vascular wall-resident multipotent stem cells (VW-MPSCs) as progenitors for macrophages and dendritic cell-like cells. Using human internal thoracic artery (hITA) tissue specimens we performed ex vivo sprouting assays followed by immunohistochemistry....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410039

Adult Brain Neurogenesis, Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenic Niches

Lina Maria Delgado-Garcia and Rogerio Martins Amorim

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 28, 2016

During the late 60's, the experiments with brain lesions in rats, suggested the possibility of neurogenesis in the adult brain. Three decades later, the conceptual link between adult neurogenesis and stem cells was proposed. We now know that the adult mammalian brain may have the ability to regenerate through adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Here are briefly reviewed classical and current theories in adult neurogenesis, NSCs and neurogenic niches....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410038

Stem Cells in Adult Homeostasis, Regeneration and Tissue Development of the Digestive Tract Epithelium

Valeria Fernandez Vallone and Marie-Isabelle Garcia

Article Type: Mini-Review | First Published: July 01, 2016

The gastrointestinal epithelium is one of the tissues with highest self-renewing rates under steady-state conditions, and it thereby constitutes an excellent model to better understand how tissues maintain homeostasis. In the past decade, intense research in this field has allowed identifying stem cells responsible for this task and has contributed to uncover the main molecular mechanisms associated with self-renewal and differentiation propertie...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410037

Enteroendocrine Cells, A Potential Way to Control Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation

Rihab Loudhaief and Armel Gallet

Article Type: Perspective | First Published: July 01, 2016

Organisms are subjected during their lifespan to many environmental stresses such as starvation, temperature variations, chemicals, pathogens, injuries... In order to overcome the incoming stress and to yield an adapted answer, organisms have developed throughout evolution robust and conserved mechanisms such as immune response and tissue regeneration helping at maintaining their physiological equilibrium, i.e. their homeostasis. However, the mai...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410036

Kartogenin Induced Chondrogenesis of Stem Cells and Cartilage Repair

Fazal-Ur-Rehman Bhatti, Karen A Hasty and Hongsik Cho

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: July 01, 2016

Osteoarthritis (OA) is predicted to be the fourth leading cause of disability in the world by the year 2020. OA results in damage to cartilage tissue and underlying subchondral bone. Current therapeutic options for osteoarthritis (OA) are limited due to the unique nature of cartilage tissue. Alternatively, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been utilized for cartilage repair, but the formation of an intact neocartilage similar to hyaline cartilag...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410035

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Modulation of TH17 Cells

Justin D Glenn and Katharine A Whartenby

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: June 26, 2016

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-faceted cells capable of tissue regeneration, wound healing, and immunosuppression. Their immunosuppressive actions extend to most innate and adaptive immune cells, including TH17 cells, which have recently been discovered to be important pathogenic cells in a variety of disease settings, including many autoimmune diseases. As various long-standing treatments and therapies in autoimmune disease may face lim...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410034

Bone Marrow Cells Repair and Regenerate Acute and Chronic Injured Liver without Primary Evidence of Neoplastic Changes

Prakash Baligar, Veena Kochat, Snehasish Mukherjee, Abinaya Sundari T, Vikash Kumar, Zaffar Equbal and Asok Mukhopadhyay

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 28, 2016

All major metabolic and synthesis functions of liver are significantly perturbed in case of critical injury. Though liver regenerates by itself following acute injury, this process is impaired in case of chronic injury. In both cases, unless liver is allowed to regenerate by proving appropriate support, either internally or externally, depending up on the extent of injury it ceases to function and transplantation remains the only available treatm...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410033

Short-Course High-Dose Methylprednisolone Induces Differentiation and Apoptosis of Myeloid Leukemic Cells

Gonul Hicsonmez

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 28, 2016

Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of immature myeloid cells, which lose their ability to differentiate into normal mature cells. The initial observations of the possibility of treatment with agents which induce terminal differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells were made by Leo Sachs and co-workers for more than 4 decades ago....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410032

Development of Better Treatments for Retinal Disease Using Stem Cell Therapies

Rachel Gater, Dan Nguyen, Alicia J El Haj and Ying Yang

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 28, 2016

The retina is a complex, light sensitive tissue layer on the inner surface of the eye, which functions to translate light stimuli into nerve impulses which travel to the brain via the optic nerve. Retinal diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa can lead to significant vision problems and even blindness. Although there are some existing treatments for retinal disease, current treatments are invasive, need to be reg...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410031

Epigenetic Loss of MLH1 Expression in Normal Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Clones is Defined by the Promoter CpG Methylation Pattern Observed by High-Throughput Methylation Specific Sequencing

Jonathan Kenyon, Gabrielle Nickel-Meester, Yulan Qing, Gabriela Santos-Guasch, Ellen Drake, PingfuFu, Shuying Sun, Xiaodong Bai, David Wald, Eric Arts and Stanton L. Gerson

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 24, 2016

Normal human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) lose expression of MLH1, an important mismatch repair (MMR) pathway gene, with age. Loss of MMR leads to replication dependent mutational events and microsatellite instability observed in secondary acute myelogenous leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. Epigenetic CpG methylation upstream of the MLH1 promoter is a contributing factor to acquired loss of MLH1 expression in tumors of...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410030

The Role of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Carlos Rio, Andreas Jahn, Amanda Iglesias, Luis A Ortiz and Ernest Sala-Llinas

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are adult multipotent cells capable of differentiating into a number of different cell lineages, which can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, amniotic membrane and other tissues, expanded in culture and, subsequently, administered by systemic or local routes into injured animals or ill patients. As a result of their proliferative potential, multipotency, immunomodulatory effects, migrator...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410029

Mesenchymal Stem Cell: Considerations for Manufacturing and Clinical Trials on Cell Therapy Product

Yen-Shun Chen, Yi-An Chen, Pei-Hsun Tsai, Chih-Ping Chen, Sheng-Wen Shaw and Yogi Hsuan

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell type, and they are the most widely used cell type in stem cell therapies. Designing a new MSC drug is an intricate process, considering the versatile nature of cells and the susceptibility to manufacturing processes. As the number of MSC-based clinical trials rapidly grows over the years, there is an urgent need to develop a more stringent method to cha...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410028

Prospect of Cell Therapy for Treating Perianal Fistula, Including Crohn's Disease

Guadalajara H, Garcia-Arranz M, Georgiev-Hristov T, Cortes D and Garcia-Olmo D

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016

Novel methods are needed for this condition, and cells appear to have potential to improve fistula healing. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used in several clinical trials, including phase-III studies. After an analysis of the published papers we can conclude that MSCs have evident anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties, MSCs are safe for clinical practice and have decent results considering the challenging conditions surro...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410027

Epigenetics, Ethnicity, Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology Opening Frontiers in Cardiac Medicine

Janet L. Paluh

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 30, 2016

Stem cell based therapy directed towards improving the long-term therapeutic outcome of heart disease in many regards remains in its infancy. Although strategies with bone marrow derived stem cells have been prevalent in clinical trials, other stem cell resources are less explored. The ability to use reprogrammed somatic cells for patient-optimized therapies, either from direct reprogramming to cardiac lineage or reprogramming first to pluripoten...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410026

Circulating Progenitor Cells in Regenerative Technologies: A Realistic Strategy in Bone Regeneration?

Jessica B. Chang and Justine C. Lee

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 26, 2016

The regeneration of bone is a complex physiological process involved in fracture healing as well as defects created by trauma, infection, tumor resection, congenital abnormalities, and impaired or insufficient regeneration. Various bone regeneration and repair strategies exist to augment surgical reconstructive procedures, including use of alloplastic and allogenic materials, distraction osteogenesis, osteoconductive scaffolds, and bone morphogen...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410025

CD271 Negative Human Dental Pulp Cells Yield Significantly More Adherent Colony Forming Cells than the Positive Phenotype

Matthew J Tomlinson, Elena A Jones, Peter V Giannoudis, Xuebin B Yang and Jennifer Kirkham

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 08, 2016

Cell surface markers for isolating proliferative human dental pulp stromal cells are currently lacking. Other tissues containing mesenchymal stromal cells have been studied in greater depth and candidate markers for cell isolation identified, one such marker being CD271. Previous reports suggest CD271 as a marker for isolating dental pulp stromal cells from rat incisors. We aimed to study the utility of CD271 as a marker for isolating human denta...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410024

Function of Sirtuins in Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Dong and Hongjuan Cui

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 08, 2016

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are self-renewing cancer cells in tumors that are suggested to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression and relapse. The molecular mechanisms of CSCs biology could provide some novel managements for cancer treatment. Sirtuins, as a family of class III deacetylases, are recently found to play essential roles in the maintenance and differentiation of various cancer stem cells, including glioma stem cells (GSCs), col...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410023

Cell-based Therapy for Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: Can the Agonists of Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone Make a Contribution?

Xianyang Zhang, Norman L. Block and Andrew V Schally

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 04, 2016

Beta cell replacement, to supply the body with cells producing insulin, is considered as one of the most important alternative approaches to the treatment of diabetes. Transplantation of human islets and the resulting progressive improvement of clinical results confirm the approach as a positive trend in this field. Recent progress in beta cell differentiation, deriving from many types of pluripotent stem cells, has potentially provided an unlimi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410022

Stem Cell Approach to Generate Cancer Specific Immune Effectors Cells

Sylvie Shen, Ning Xu, Geoff Symonds and Alla Dolnikov

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 04, 2016

The ability to target cancer cells using genetically enhanced immune effector cells armed with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) capable of recognising tumour associated antigen is a novel approach to the treatment of cancer. Remarkable success in early phase clinical trials has demonstrated a potent anti-cancer effect of T cells modified to express CAR (CART cells) targeting CD19+ B-cell malignancies....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410021

A Conceptual Integration of Extra-, Intra- and Gap Junctional- Intercellular Communication in the Evolution of Multi-cellularity and Stem Cells: How Disrupted Cell-Cell Communication during Development can Affect Diseases later in Life

James E Trosko

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 29, 2016

An attempt will be made to provide a short conceptual review to integrate, from an evolutionary perspective, how the emergence of gap junctional intercellular communication helped to bring about multi-cellularity and new adaptive phenotypes. This new fundamental biological function of the metazoans was needed to provide homeostatic control of new cellular functions of an interacting society of different cell types existing in a 3-dimensional unit...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410020

Hypophosphatasia and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Therapeutic Promise

Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare and Monica Mottes

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 29, 2016

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is due to mutations in ALPL gene which encodes the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase isozyme (TNSALP). Defective/inactive TNSALP causes an increased concentration of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in bone matrix that impairs bone mineralization. The accumulation of extracellular PPi observed in HPP causes impairment in bone mineralization process and leads to a disturbance of calcium and Pi homeostasis. The pathogenes...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410019

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cardiovascular Disease

May Al-Nbaheen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 13, 2016

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different adult tissues and can be differentiated along stromal lineages (i.e. osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes). Recent data in the literature provided evidence that MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into additional cell types, such as endothelial cells. In our studies we showed the endothelial differentiation and angiogenic potential of human neonatal foreskin derived stromal ce...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410018

Mammary Epithelial Cell Lineage Analysis via the Lyon's Hypothesis

Andrea L. George and Gilbert H. Smith

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 03, 2016

Implants of mammary glands from a single mammary fat pad in a H253 transgenic female mouse heterozygous for a lacZ-labeled X chromosome were analyzed at various time points following transplantation into the epithelium-cleared mammary fat pads of immune-compromised mice. The results show that the lacZ-marked X chromosome, demonstrated by nuclear-associated X-gal staining, was confined to a single epithelial clone that gave rise to the cap cells o...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410017

Ex-Vivo Expansion of Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy Products for Clinical Use: The Importance of Moving towards the Optimization of Process Development

Silvana Bardelli and Marco Moccetti

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: January 03, 2016

Preliminary studies based on stem cells were initially applied to the clinical setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with the purpose of delivering a cardioprotective effect. The field has then rapidly expanded to embrace chronic heart failure as a cardiorestorative therapy. For the easiness of collection as hematologic tissue, Bone Marrow (BM)-derived stem cells were utilized as the primary source of these applied therapies. Specifically,...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410016

Regulation of Normal Somatic Cell and Cancer Cell Reprogramming by p53

Jie Yuan and Qin Yang

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 24, 2015

Reprogramming healthy somatic cells into disease-relevant cell types through cellular reprogramming has been intensively investigated. The discovery of reprogramming methods holds the promise of generating desired cells for disease modeling, drug screening studies and treatment of numerous diseases. Recently studies also focus on different disease cell reprogramming, including cancer cell reprogramming. Reprogramming and tumorigenesis share many ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410015

Neural Stem Cells and their Niches in Neuroregeneration

Jong-Hang Chen, Mei-Shu Chen, Su-Liang Chen and Ing-Ming Chiu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 21, 2015

Stem cell-based therapies in alleviating symptoms or reversing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and nerve injuries have been investigated extensively. In this review, we first summarize our current understanding of the ontogeny of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their mobilization in vivo. We then focus on the cellular reprogramming in generation of iP-NSCs, iNeurons and iNSCs, and applications of NSCs and iNeurons in cell-based therapy...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410014

Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 2 Regulates the Migration, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

S Tucker Price, Thomas H Beckham, Joseph C Cheng, Ping Lu, Xiang Liu and James S Norris

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 02, 2015

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell population acquired most prominently from bone marrow with the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and others. MSCs demonstrate the capacity to home to sites of injury and contribute to tissue repair. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid impacting proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis with changes in S1P concent...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410013

Enhancing the Potency of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Tissue Regeneration

Sylvia Muller, Kenny Dalgarno, Anne Dickinson, Xiao-nong Wang and Lindsay Nicholson

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: November 27, 2015

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stromal cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential and immunomodulatory properties. They can be isolated relatively easily from several tissues, including bone marrow and adipose tissue and can be expanded ex vivo to yield the large numbers required for a therapeutic dose. As such, MSCs are considered a promising cell source that can be used in cellular therapy for a wide range of diseases, includin...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410012

Advantage in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Research of X-Linked Genetic Diseases for Drug Screening

Takeo Kubota

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: October 22, 2015

Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology has widely been used for modeling of various genetic diseases. In the disease-modeling iPSC studies, it is necessary to generate hiPSC lines from peripheral tissues of multiple patients and of multiple age- and sex-matched control individuals in order to minimize the differences in genetic background that can affect the results. However, we can generate disease model-hiPSC line with mutant al...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410011

Potential Immune Modulatory Action of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Type 1 Diabetes

Andrea Carpanetto, Chiara Gai, Enrica Favaro, Maria Maddalena Zanone and Giovanni Camussi

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: September 28, 2015

Several preclinical studies have shown potential immune-modulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in type 1 diabetes leading to phase I/II clinical trials. Immune-modulatory properties of MSC have been mainly ascribed to their secretome. The extracellular vesicles (EV) have emerged as paracrine mediators of MSC actions. In fact, MSC-derived EV have been shown to carry proteins and nucleic acids capable to mimic the effect of originati...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410010

The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Diabetes Mellitus

Negar Azarpira, Maryam Kaviani and Saeede Salehi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 02, 2015

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by progressive destruction of the beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The current primary treatment is changing the life style and insulin injection. However, this therapy cannot provide sustained physiological glycemic control. Pancreas or islet cell transplantation would be the preferred treatment options. However, the lack of donor tissue immunoincompatibility, cell rejection and usin...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410009

Dental Stem Cells Characterization and Bone Regenerative Potential in Oral Medicine

Ricardo Rodrigues, Barbara Viana, Ivo Vieira, Joao Tavares, Renato Lobo, Ana Portela and Mario Vasconcelos

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 02, 2015

The oral cavity has proven to be an important reservoir of stem cells with the advantage of being a non-invasive source. These cells potential for maxillo-facial bone regeneration has been well documented throughout the last five years. This article aims at reviewing and discussing the different types of dental stem cells available in the oral cavity, their lineage characterization and potential applications in oral medicine; cell collection, iso...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410008

The Decision for Regenerative Endodontic Therapy

Anastasia Agrafioti, Maria Deimezi and Evangelos G. Kontakiotis

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 19, 2015

Regenerative endodontics is described as biologically based procedures designed to replace damaged structures, including dentin and root structures, as well as cells of the pulp-dentin complex, and is considered as an optimal approach for treating the immature permanent tooth with a necrotic pulp....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410007

Enhancement of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Expansion and Stability for Clinical use

Swenn Maxence Krähenbuhl, Anthony Grognuz, Murielle Michetti, Wassim Raffoul and Lee Ann Applegate

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 06, 2015

Co-culture techniques associating both dermal firoblasts and epidermal keratinocytes have shown to have better clinical outcome than keratinocyte culture alone for the treatment of severe burns. Since fat grafting has been shown to improve scar remodelling, new techniques such as cell-therapy-assisted surgical reconstruction with isolated and expanded autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) would be of benefit to increase graft acceptation.....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410006

Mechanical Loading Promoted Discogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Incorporated in 3D-PEG Scaffolds with rhGDF5 and RGD

S. Guggisberg, L. M. Benneker, M. J. Keel and B. Gantenbein

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28, 2015

Synthesized polyethyleneglycol (PEG) hydrogels are appealing with regard to potential for cell therapy or as vehicles for drug delivery or even to regenerate tissue with similar hydrogel-like properties such as the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc (IVD)....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410005

Comparative Characterization of Canine and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow

Bertolo A, Schlaefli P, Malonzo-Marty C, Baur M, Potzel T, Steffen F and Stoyanov J

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 19, 2015

Bone marrow is a major source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC), which are used in tissue engineering and other autologous stem cell therapies. Studies designed to use large canine models and translate the results to human practice must take into account the ex vivo and in vitro differences in the bone marrow samples. A set of morphological and physiological markers was used to compare MSC derived from canine and human bone marrow. Despite anticlot...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410004

Murine CD133+CD49flow/+ Cells Derived from ESCs Differentiate into Insulin Producing Cells in vivo

Jesus Ciriza, Christa Caneda, Bryce McLelland and Jennifer O. Manilay

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2014

Pancreatic progenitors have been identified and isolated during embryonic development showing their potential to differentiate into insulin producing cells after transplantation. Subsequently, they have been proposed as an alternative to the treatment of Type I diabetes. However, fetal pancreata represent a limited donor supply and we proposed that ESC-derived pancreatic progenitors are another possible option....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410003

Functionalized Nanoscaffolds to Promote Osteogenic Differentiation in Adipose Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Venu Polineni, Chi-Shuo Chen, Wei-Chun Chin and Anand Gadre

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2014

Biocompatible polymers have been successfully implemented to generate nanofibers for bone tissue engineering. This work focused on generating and functionalizing Poly-l-Lactic-coGlycolic Acid (PLGA) nanofiber scaffolds in the range of 700 nm using the electrospinning technique. Our specific objective is to design synthetic biodegradable scaffolds comprising electrospun nanofibers that will not only be osteoconductive but also contain porosity for...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410002

Impact of New Genome Editing Tools on iPS Cell Based Therapies

Jianbo Wu and Radbod Darabi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 14, 2014

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) have unique differentiation and self- renewal potential which makes them a potential candidate for cell therapy in degenerative disorders. However, the limitation of deriving ES cells from embryos and their immune-incompatibility hinder their clinical applications. Fortunately, by introduction of somatic cell reprogramming technology into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), the limitations of ES cells have ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410001

Heterogeneity and Diversity of Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma

N. Sumru Bayin and Dimitris G. Placantonakis

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 13, 2014

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly primary brain malignancy, with an annual incidence of over 10,000 new cases in the US and a median survival of 14-16 months. The current standard of care includes surgical resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy and treatment with the alkylating agent temozolamide. Sadly, prognosis for GBM patients has increased only incrementally and rather marginally over the past half century. The fact ...

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