International Journal of Brain Disorders and Treatment is an international, open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes articles on causes, symptoms and diagnosis of various brain disorders, infections, trauma, stroke, seizures, and tumors of brain etc. The main objective of the journal is to disseminate the scientific work, publication, education, and exchange of ideas globally. The Journal provides authors with a platform to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among readers on brain diseases and management. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.

International Journal of Brain Disorders and Treatment focus on various aspects of brain disorders viz., ALS, Alzheimer's Disease, Bell's Palsy, Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord, Brain Aneurysm, Brain Injury, Brain Tumor, Cerebral Palsy, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Concussion, Dementia, Disk Disease of Neck and Lower Back, Dizziness, Epilepsy, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Headache - Cluster, Headache - Tension, Migraine Headaches, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscular Dystrophy, Neuralgia, Neuromuscular and Related Diseases, Neuropathy, Parkinson's Disease, Psychiatric Conditions (Severe Depression, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder), Scoliosis, Seizures, Spinal Cord Injury, Spinal Deformity, Spinal Disorder (Subacute Combined Degeneration), Spine Tumor, Stroke, Vertigo, etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Clinical Image, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are welcome for possible publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Brain Disorders and Treatment

ISSN: 2469-5866

Editor-in-chief: Terry Lichtor

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Brain Disord Treat

ICV: 83.68

ISO abbreviation: Int J Brain Disord Treat

Other titles: IJBDT

Category: Neuroscience

DOI: 10.23937/2469-5866

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410048

Cystic Vestibular Schwannomas: Clinical and Therapeutic Particularities

Lotfi Boublata, Oumaima Bouzerara, Imene Lekikot, Ahlem Laouar, Belkacem Boudjaja and Soumeya Amarouche

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2024/02/19

The tumor volume and the quality of the tumor resection were evaluated by MRI according to the Kenzaki classification. The facial nerve function was evaluated according to the House and Brackmann classification. The type of the cystic SV according to the position of the cyst and the thickness of the cystic wall was classified into type A and B according to the Piccirillo, et al. classification (PC)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410047

How Necessary is Duraplasty in the Treatment of Chiari Malformation?

Mahmut CAMLAR, Mustafa Eren YUNCU, Ali KARADAG, Merve OREN, Caglar TURK, Ozgur OZTEKİN and Fusun OZER

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 2024/02/08

In this study, 46 patients who were operated on for Type I Chiari malformation (CM) in our clinic since 2010 were included. The preoperative and postoperative cranial and spinal MRI examinations of all patients were compared between the two groups in terms of hydrocephalus, tonsillar herniation level, the presence and level of syringomyelia, osseous anomalies, postoperative cisterna magna formation, postoperative obex structure, and syringomyelia status....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410046

Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) Levels Are Higher in Individuals Taking Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

Mary Jo Kurth, Joanne Watt, Paul Innocenzi, Laura Mooney, John V. Lamont, Peter Fitzgerald and Mark W Ruddock

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2024/01/11

PTSD is a mental health condition that can develop in some individuals who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic or life-threatening event. Previously, we identified a combination of blood biomarkers to differentiate controls from a PTSD cohort. This biomarker model could be used to diagnose and monitor treatment of PTSD, both behavioural and pharmacological. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410045

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Sleep Disturbances and Biomarkers

Jason Armstrong, Mary Jo Kurth, Joanne Watt, Peter Fitzgerald and Mark W. Ruddock

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/10/05

The neurobiological features of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a debilitating psychiatric condition triggered by exposure to traumatic events, are associated with enigmatic pathological mechanisms which are becoming clearer as the library of associated literature increases. This article considers the clinical features of PTSD, the neural circuitry at work, and some of the genetic and epigenetic factors contributing to PTSD risk. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410043

Spreading of Trigeminal Neuralgia and Hemifacial Spasm to Blepharospasm: What the Role for Neurovascular Compression of the Vth Cranial Nerve?

Sergio Altomare, Maria Stella Aniello, Ruggiero Leone and Maurizio Giorelli

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 30, 2022

Blepharospasm (BB) in an involuntary movement disorder characterized by stereotyped, bilateral, and synchronous spasms of the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscles. Spasms may be either brief or sustained and give rise either to narrowing or spasmodic closure of eyelids thus leading to functional blindness....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410042

Juvenile Stroke in a Patient with Severe Large Vessel Atherosclerosis of the Neck Decades after Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Are Iatrogenic Endocrinopathies Additional Risk Factors?

Ruggiero Leone, Sergio Altomare, Maria Stella Aniello, Daniele Liuzzi, Immacolata Plasmati, Michele Sardaro, Maria Superbo, Daniela Tato, Rosella Carpentiere, Giuseppe Guglielmi and Maurizio Giorelli

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 20, 2022

Juvenile Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare head and neck cancer in Western Countries. Neck radiotherapy (RT) is a routine procedure for treating or preventing the nodal metastasis in NPC patients. Ionizing radiation from RT has been associated with enhanced atherosclerotic process of large vessel arteries of the neck and brain which results in higher incidence of cerebrovascular events....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410040

Case Series: Chronic Pediatric Ischemic Stroke in Childs Successfully Treated with IAHF Procedure

Terawan A Putranto, Taruna Ikrar, Ardianto Pramono, Samuel Tandionugroho, Rachmanto HSA

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 17, 2021

Occlusion or rupture of cerebral blood vessel can cause a stroke. It can occur either on a child and adult even it unusual in children. Stroke in pediatric population is rare but it carries often long-term disability and mortality. We present two cases of pediatric stroke with metabolic disease as underlying disease. One of them admitted with weakness and clumsiness persisted of right hand and leg. The other one admitted with weakness in the left hand and leg. Both showed motor improvement and p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410041

Magnetic Particles in the Human Body: A Short Review on the Effects of these Particles on the Human Health

Manfred Fähnle

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 08, 2022

Magnetic particles in the human body have various effects on the human health, ranging from positive effects in the treatment of diseases, e.g., by a hyperthermia treatment, to negative effects, e.g., on Alzheimer’s disease. In the present manuscript a short review is given on these effects of magnetic particles in the human body. It is written that by exposing diseased tissue to elevated temperature for a period of time, called hyperthermia, is a promising treatment of human diseases. Cells a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410039

Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders Continue to Receive Lower Quality Health Services: A Call for “Quality Improvement” Programs

Luz Fernandez, MD, Jon Becker, MD and Philip May, MD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 15, 2021

Neurodevelopmental Disorders (also known as Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities-ID/DD) are associated with multiple-complex-health-conditions that, in contrast to children, are often not evaluated and/or managed properly as adults. The specialty of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics exists for children with ID/DD, but there is no equivalent specialty for the adults. Since Family Medicine has taken the lead in providing primary care for adults with ID/DD, we propose that Family Medic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410038

Long-Term Survival (23 Years) in a 26-Year-old Male after Antineoplaston Therapy for a Progressive, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Case Report

Stanislaw R. Burzynski, Gregory S. Burzynski, Tomasz Janicki and Samuel Beenken

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 08, 2021

Individuals suffering from diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) face a dismal prognosis with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months, and a 2-year survival rate of 10%. Long-term survival is very rare. To date, radiotherapy remains the standard of care at diagnosis, but offers a survival benefit of approximately 3 months. Chemotherapy has not shown to be effective. There is no Standard of Care for progressive DIPG after radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this case report is t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410037

Effective Treatment of Dystonia with Deep Brain Stimulation and Tetrabenazine in Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration: A Case Report

Isabel C Londoño, Luz Miriam Leiva and Hamilton Delgado Argote

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 31, 2021

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is a rare disease, difficult to diagnose and treat. It is characterized by a progressive extrapyramidal dysfunction with typical onset in the first two decades of life and by a set of clinical manifestations such as speech disturbance, focal or generalized dystonia, pigmentary retinopathy associated with mild cognitive impairment. 10-year-old male patient, who until this age was managed under a diagnosis of cerebral palsy sequelae with poor respon...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410034

Intraventricular Pilocytic Astrocytoma in an Adult Patient

Joshua Hendrix and Zhenggang Xiong

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 10, 2020

Pilocytic astrocytomas are tumors of the central nervous system mostly during the first two decades of life. Although they are mostly common in the midline structures of children, pilocytic astrocytoma within the ventricular system of an adult is rare. To our knowledge, only one single histologically and molecularly confirmed case was documented in the literature up to this time. We report a case of a 38-yearold woman with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a brain tumor within the third ven...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410035

SARS-Cov-2 Neurological Infection: Implications and Possible Mechanisms

Marco Antônio Machado Schlindwein, Letícia Caroline Breis, Isabelle Pastor Bandeira and Marcus Vinicius Magno Gonçalves, MD, PhD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: April 16, 2020

COVID-19 is an emergent disease with reported neurotropism and neuroinvasion, although its pathophysiology is not yet understood. We present the newly discoveries and hypothesis for SARS-Cov-2 neurological infection. Recently, the first case of encephalopathy associated with SARS-COV2 infection described was published. The patient rapidly progressed from fever and cough to an altered mental status, headache and unresponsive to verbal commands, with no alterations in the liquor, suggesting that t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410033

Late-Life Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Detection Using Pruned Decision Trees

Gopi Battineni, Nalini Chintalapudi and Francesco Amenta

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 08, 2020

Machine Learning (ML) is a contemporary technique of artificial intelligence. These methods are exponentially rising in the medical field, especially in diagnosis and disease predictions. The present study was aimed to develop a decision tree model to predict late-life Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A dataset of 150 subjects along with 373 MRI sessions demographic values were considered in this paper. Pruned decision trees (J48) were employed to do predictive analysis on AD subjects. Model validati...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410032

Assessment of the Topographic Memory in Epileptic Patients

BAKOU Niangoran Francois, KPI-N'DIH Annabelle, BA Abdoulaye and ADOU Kobenan Fieni

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 04, 2019

The method used is that of named Route Learning Task (RLT). It is a path learning task (topographic memory) that is based solely on learning a route composed of visual but non-verbal cues so that there is no influence of Examiner language or signposts on patient behavior. At a normal walking pace, the subjects had to travel a 10-minute loop in the cocody university hospital. The route (approximately 200 m) included 7 crossings that required an orientation decision. The examiner showed the route ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410031

Optic Perineuritis Secondary to Sjogreen’s Syndrome: Case Report

Juliana Emy Tolachinski Oikawa, Julia Gomes Leite de Souza, Vitoria Caroline Cardoso Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Wille, MD, PhD, Laura Fiuza Parolin, MD and Marcus Vinícius Magno Goncalves, MD, PhD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 04, 2019

Optic perineuritis (OPN) is a rare inflammatory disease involving the optic nerve sheath, causing pain and disc edema and is often bilateral. The diagnosis of OPN is commonly based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features. In MRI it is possible to visualize a circumferential enhancement around the intraorbital optic nerve with preservation of the nerve itself (doughnut sign). This is better seen in contrast-enhanced and suppressed coronal MRI sequences with fat. Magneti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410030

A Case of Postural Instability with Unusual Aetiology in a Elderly Patient

Valerio Massimo Magro, MD, Carla Coppola, MD, Giovanni Scala, MD and Walter Verrusio, MD, PhD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 28, 2019

Pneumocephalus or air within the cranial vault is usually associated with a series of symptoms caused by head trauma, the presence of neoplasms or after craniofacial surgical interventions or other causes. We report a case report of an elderly patient who presented with postural instability with an anamnestic history that didn’t talk about traumatic events. We review briefly the literature for nontraumatic causes causes of pneumocephalus, its symptoms and clinical manifestations and finally th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410029

The Role of Prolyl Oligopeptidase in Microtubule-Associated Processes and Cognitive Impairment

Nuria Trallero, Ariadna Anunciacion-Llunell, Roger Prades and Teresa Tarrago

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2019

Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a cytosolic serine protease with prominent expression in the brain. Inhibition of this enzyme leads to cognition-enhancing and neuroprotective effects in animal models with cognitive deficits. However, the biological function of POP remains unknown. Although in the past it was though that its catalytic activity was responsible for its physiological role, lately it has been hypothesized that POP is involved in the inositol pathway and that it interacts with several ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410028

Pressure Pain Threshold in Depression: Is There a Difference between Unipolar and Bipolar Depressed Patients?

Ozlem Kazan Kizilkurt, Buket Niflioglu, Fusun Mayda Domac and Sermin Kesebir

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 06, 2019

complex relationship exists between mood and pain, which is supported by different pain tolerance in clinically depressed patients compared to healthy people. In the present study we aimed to investigate pressure pain threshold (PPT) in unipolar and bipolar depressed patients and assess any differences between these two diagnoses. This study included 40 patients diagnosed with unipolar depression and 89 patients diagnosed with bipolar depression according to DSM-IV criteria, also 40 healthy, age...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410027

Recurrent Agressive Brain Radionecrosis or High-Grade Glioma: How to Treat?

Rascon-Ramirez Fernando Jose Salazar-Asencio OA and Trondin A

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 15, 2019

Brain radiation necrosis (BRN) is a side effect of radiotherapy (RT), affecting mainly the white matter and can appear from a few weeks to several years after RT. It's incidence of 3-9% is increasing as survival increases. Histopathology (HP) shows avascular damage, demyelination and direct necrosis. Brain radiation radionecrosis and the tumor progression are difficult to differentiate as both entities are presented with similar radiological and clinical characteristics, such as neurological def...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410026

Interleukin 31 and Mast Cells: A New Piece in the Puzzle of the Pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis?

Andre Eduardo de Almeida Franzoi, Marcus Vinicius Magno Goncalves, Osvaldo Nascimento and Jefferson Becker

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: November 30, 2018

During development, they enter the brain by way of penetrating blood vessels, with which they remain associated. MCs can move through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of normal brain, but may also traverse the blood-spinal cord barrier and BBB when compromised by disease. They are capable of phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and can also modulate the adaptive immune response....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410025

Cognitive Rehabilitation Improves Performance of Individuals with Mild to Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Comprehensive Neuropsychological Services as a Model Approach

Cheryl A Frye, Anton Hardy and Maria Lifrak

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 22, 2018

Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) can result in physical, cognitive and emotional symptoms and the constellation of sequelae that can linger for years and is termed post-concussion syndrome (PCS). For these ailments, therapy is available to help individuals recover; however, it is controversial whether cognitive rehabilitation can improve or forestall lost or damaged abilities. It is important to clarify this because insurances companies can be reluctant to pay for this treatment. To test the effic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410024

Neuregulin in Health and Disease

Juan Carlos Cespedes, Mingli Liu, Adriana Harbuzariu, Annette Nti, John Onyekaba, Hanna Watson Cespedes, Praveen K Bharti, Wesley Solomon, Precious Anyaoha, Sri Krishna, Andrew Adjei, Felix Botchway, Byron Ford and Jonathan K Stiles

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 10, 2018

Neuregulins, a family of EGF-like signaling molecules, are involved in cell-cell crosstalk and play an important role in development, maintenance and repair of the nervous system, heart, breast and other organs. Independent studies described a ligand for the oncogene ErbB2 (neu, Her2) and factors that stimulated proliferation of Schwann cells, as well as synthesis of receptors for acetylcholine by muscle. These ligands and factors are essentially products of the same gene, referred to by Marchio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510023

Case Report: Paired/Dual Colloid Cysts in the Third Ventricle - A Discussion of Embryological Origin

SM Jay and MR MacFarlane

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2018

A 31-year-old male presented with a 4-month history of rising intracranial pressure. Initial computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed moderate dilatation of the lateral ventricles with periventricular signal change, an indistinct third ventricle with an ill-defined lesion in the anterosuperior part of the third ventricle. At time of operation two paired/dual colloid cysts were found lying side-by-side in the third ventricle and obstructing both foramena of Munro....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510022

Concomitant Behavioral, Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Study in Real Time on the Role of CRF and CRF Antagonist(S) in Anxiety and Depression: Possible Association CRF + 5-HT Receptor Antagonists?

Francesco Crespi

Article Type: Research Proposal | First Published: February 08, 2018

Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is involved in conditions of anxiety and stress: It stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). Also, catecholamines increase ACTH release, while serotonin (5-HT) increases both ACTH and CRF. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510021

The Effect of a Functional Intensive Intervention Program on Self-Care in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Study

Rosanne Roelofsma and Eugene Rameckers

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 29, 2017

Former studies have shown that usual care in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) often lacks effectiveness. Task-oriented functional intensive therapies have been shown to be promising for CP patients. The present case study aimed to examine the effect of a task-oriented functional intensive therapy program....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510020

Specific Effects of Antipsychotic Chlorpromazine on Glutamatergic Ionotropic Mechanisms. Novel Targets for Treatment Schizophrenia

Anatoly A Mokrushin

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 25, 2017

Chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) refers to antipsychotic drugs. CPZ is drug of first choice for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, its impact on the main excitatory neurotransmitter system, glutamatergic, is unclear. This issue is the aim of our study....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510019

Microglial NLRP3 Activity in Alzheimer's Disease

Bruno Cabral de Lima Oliveira

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 11, 2017

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the major disease leading to dementia. This disease is characterized by the presence of β-Amyloid (Aβ) extracellular deposits and neurofibrillary tangles, which induce senile plaques formation. Furthermore, inflammation in AD is mainly mediated by innate immunity-related cells, especially microglia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510018

Evaluation of Seizures in Patients with Chronic Subdural Hematoma Treated by Burr-Hole Surgery and Risk Factors for Seizures

Tetsuhisa Yamada and Yoshihiro Natori

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 27, 2017

Chronic subdural hematoma is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in neurosurgery. The treatment method is well established, but seizures develop as a complication in 2.3% to 20.4% of patients. We studied patients with seizures to clarify the status of patients at the onset of seizures and define risk factors for seizures....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510017

Headache Attributed to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder of Mastication

Mianwang He, Xiaolin Wang and Shengyuan Yu

Article Type: Editorial Letter | First Published: December 23, 2016

A 51-years-old man who had developed severe phobia, anxiety since took illicit drugs twice 10 years ago, subsequently palpitation and shortness of breath appeared, having a continuous feeling that someone would attack him and he would die soon. Only mastication can partially relieve phobia and anxiety, and continuous involuntary mastication habit with left side teeth was developed. Anxiety and depression diagnosis was made by local clinic, but he didn't take the prescribed drugs....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510016

Meta-analysis of Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Epilepsy

Gang Yao, Ping Wang, Xiang-Dan Luo and Ting-Min Yu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 06, 2016

Despite recent research focus on the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and epilepsy there is no consensus about the findings. To obtain a more comprehensive estimate of the association we conducted a meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection in epilepsy patients and healthy controls. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar and CINAHL were searched to identify eligible studies. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510015

Hyperintentionality Hypothesis of Major Depression. Disordered Emotional and Cognitive Self-Observation in Tripartite Synapses and the Glial Networks

Bernhard J Mitterauer

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 03, 2016

Major depressive disorder is basically a disorder of the integration of distinct time periods generated in tripartite synapses and the astroglial networks. If the sequence of time periods is dysregulated, the patient does not only suffer from emotional impairment but also from cognitive deficits dependent on the brain region affected. Since the synaptic interactions operate on feedforward and feedback mechanisms, I speak of synaptic locations of self-observation in real time periods, information...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510014

Predictive Factors of Brain Death in Acute Neurocritical Patients Identified as Potential Organ Donors

Guixing Xu, Ping Xu, Jing Zhao, Zhiyong Guo and Xiaoshun He

Article Type: Prospective Observational Study | First Published: August 25, 2016

In this prospective observational study, we collected clinical data of acute neurocritical patients with a potential progression to BD, who was admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yet-sen University from May 2015 to April 2016. Final endpoint was adjudicated brain death (BD). The clinical data were compared between patients who identified as BD within 7 days and those who identified beyond 7 days, the time of spontaneous respiratory arrest as start point. Neurological examination, l...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510013

Maternal Undernutrition in Rats Affects Hippocampal Development through Inhibition of Neurogenin 1

Marquis L Jessie, Lili C Kudo, Nancy Vi, Kimbley Lau, Mina Desai, Michael G Ross and Stanislav L Karsten

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 11, 2016

Maternal undernutrition (UN) in rats inhibits neurologic development in offspring. To investigate these alterations we compared hippocampal global gene expression profiles of UN and control newborn pups. Whole transcriptome microarray analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of several genes including Neurogenin1 (Ngn1), a known neuro developmental regulatory factor. Expression of Ngn1 in the UN hippocampus was nearly 70% reduced. Western blot analysis using antibodies against Ngn...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510012

Decreased Hippocampal Volume is Related to White Matter Abnormalities in Treatment-Resistant Depression

Christina B Young, Philip van Eijndhoven, Robin Nusslock, Guillen Fernandez, Aart Schene, Christian F Beckmann and Indira Tendolkar

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 22, 2016

Despite considerable research on the pathophysiology of unipolar depression, relationships between gray and white matter brain changes associated with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have been sparsely investigated. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics to examine differences in fronto-limbic gray matter volume and their connecting white matter tracts, respectively....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510011

Executive Dysfunction and Processing Speed Predict Nonverbal Problem Solving Deficits in a Substance Use Disorder Population

Gerald T Voelbel, Zijin Wu, Cristina Tortarolo and Marsha E Bates

Article Type: Empirical Research | First Published: May 26, 2016

Individuals with chronic substance use disorders have demonstrated various types of executive dysfunction, including nonverbal planning and problem solving. Prior studies that have examined the cognitive abilities that support performance of the Tower of Hanoi, a measure of nonverbal planning and problem solving task, have predominately been investigated in healthy adult populations. The present study examined how executive functions such as concept formation and cognitive flexibility, as well a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510010

Congenital Marin-Amat Syndrome and Asymmetric Crying Face: A Case Report

Arzu Ekici, Kursat Bora Carman, Ozlem Ozdemir, Aynur Kucukcongar and Mehmet Ali Ekici

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 18, 2016

Marin-Amat syndrome is a rare facial synkinesis and is characterized by the eyelid drooping on jaw opening. It is mostly an acquired phenomenon occurring after peripheral facial paralysis and very rarely congenital. Asymmetrical crying face is a rare minor congenital anomaly, that is the result of unilateral agenesis or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle. Our case is the second one in which the onset of Marin-Amat Syndrome is congenital and the first case with asymmetric crying face....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510009

Diagnostic Challenge of Ovarian Teratoma Related Anti N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in a Patient with Giant Arachnoid Cyst

Kilinc O, Gulatar B, Gonul O, Yildizhan B and Midi I

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 26, 2016

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis is well-characterized and treatable subtype of inflammatory encephalitis. This type of encephalitis is often associated with ovarian teratoma in young women and characterized by memory deficits, seizures, confusion and psychological disturbances. In this report, we presented a case of anti-NMDAr encephalitis in a woman with a previously asymptomatic, giant posterior fossa arachnoid cyst (AC). With our report, we present our clinical approac...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510008

Pathological Changes of Astrocytes under Seizure

Shanshan Lu, Fushun Wang and Jason H. Huang

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 09, 2016

Multiple lines of studies support the view that defective functions of astrocytes contribute to neuronal hyper-excitability in the epileptic brain. Autopsy and surgical resection specimens find that post-traumatic seizures and chronic temporal lobe epilepsy may originate from glial scars. Astrogliosis, a component of glial scar, which involves structural and metabolic changes in astrocytes, is often a prominent feature of temporal epilepsy and most animal models of recurrent seizures. Although g...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510007

Speech Disorder and Behavioral Involvement in a Thalamic Stroke: A Case Report

Paola Caruso, Moretti R and Manganotti P

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2015

Data from literature on clinical manifestation of thalamic strokes have been published for ages. First in 1906 Dejerine e Roussy has spoken about sensory motor disturbances and have opened the door to new pathologic disorders that may occur after thalamic lesions. From 1925 behavior and speech disorders related with thalamic injury were described. Since then a classification of thalamic syndromes into four groups based on the four main arterial territories was accepted. As we know thalamic strok...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510006

Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in Patient with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg and Strauss): A Probable Central Nervous Localisation of Vasculitis

Lescuyer Sylvain, Rondeau-Lutz Murielle, Martinez Camille, Rakotoarivelo Hanta-Nirina and Weber Jean-Christophe

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 22, 2015

We report the case of a 43 year-old patient with Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). He was diagnosed with EGPA because of asthma, naso-sinusal polyposis, asymmetrical peroneal neuritis, general signs, eosinophilic count at 4000/mm3, CRP at 50 mg/l and positive pANCA with anti-MPO specificity at 74 U/ml. Arteriography was normal. He was treated by methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Remission was complete. EGPA is a rare primary vasculitis. Only seventeen cases of central nervous haemorrhages h...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510005

Guillain-Barre Syndrome with Lymphocytic Pleocytosis of the CSF

Sneha Padidam, Jacqueline Kraft and M Kamran Athar

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 8, 2015

60-year-old man presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness that progressed to involve respiratory failure and are flexia over several weeks. Electromyography showed both demyelinating and axonal features. Lumbar puncture revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis. Given the abnormalities on these tests with a clinical picture of Guillain-Barre the patient underwent extensive paraneoplastic testing and full neuro-axis imaging. Imaging revealed abnormal enhancement of ventral and dorsal nerve roo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510004

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) in Neuropsychiatry: Definition & Insights from Electric Learning Paradigms

Naisberg Yakov

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 10, 2015

The main point here is that CES method employ at both practices systematic applications of non-invasive, harmless electric currents in the range of 50 micro-to 2 milliamper, varying from 10 Hz to 100 kHz frequencies. They inject from 10 ms to 250 ms by each scalp pair out of an array of EEG electrodes transporting to regions of interest. Such electromagnetic forces induce equivalent number of ionic oscillatory streams crossing the brain in calibrated coulombs. Optimal control regulates by number...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510003

Benefits of Temporary Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy: Management of Tone and Spasticity

Melissa Ann Eppinger, Thomas J. Sernas and Catherine Anne Mazzola

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: September 9, 2015

Spasticity and dystonia may develop as a consequence of brain or spinal cord injury (SCI). Central nervous system (CNS) injury may be permanent or temporary, depending on the etiology of brain or spinal cord injury. In anoxic brain injury, there may be transient or reactive demyelination due to cell death or cell dysfunction. If there is ischemia without true infarction, or cell death, there may be some ability of the brain to repair itself or reconstitute the myelination of axons within the whi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510002

MicroRNA in Brain Neoplasia: A Review

Michela Visani, Giorgia Acquaviva, Gianluca Marucci, Moira Ragazzi, Enrico Fraceschi, Alba A Brandes, Giovanni Tallini, Annalisa Pession and Dario de Biase

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 27, 2015

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs involved in regulation of several cellular processes and are involved in the silencing of cell's message in a variety of ways. In cancer, miRNAs can be involved in the regulation of important genes involved in tumorigenesis, tumor development, and angiogenesis. For these reasons, miRNAs could have considered oncogenic-miR (miRNA with oncogenic roles) or oncosuppressor-miR (miRNA with tumor suppressor roles). MiRNAs may alter the expression of genes involved in c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1510001

External Carotid Artery Steal Syndrome via Occipital-Vertebral Anastomosis

Menarvia Nixon, Anil Nanda and Hugo Cuellar-Saenz

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2015

We describe a case of ECA steal syndrome due to occipital- vertebral anastamosis in an 81 y/o female patient who presented with gait ataxia and dizziness. She was referred to Neuro-interventional Radiology after discovery of carotid bruits on her physical examination. A digital subtraction angiogram confirmed mild internal carotid artery stenosis, however, more concerning was the discovery of retrograde flow of the right vertebral artery with filling of the right external carotid artery via anas...


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24



Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42



Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69



International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97



Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55