Review Article 

A Review of the Benefits, Challenges and the Future for Interfaces for Long Term Non-Invasive Ventilation in Children

Nicki Barker, Matt Willox and Heather Elphick
Abstract

Long Term Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) is increasingly common and is benefitting children with a wider range of conditions. It improves quality of life and life expectancy and reduces hospital admissions and length of stay. Children are at risk however of adverse effects caused by NIV interfaces such as skin injury, facial flattening and eye problems.

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Case Report 

Case Report of Lipoid Pneumonia: An Unusual Etiology of a Lung Cavity

Sravanthi Nandavaram and Dragos Manta
Abstract

Lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon non-infectious condition that results from the accumulation of lipids of animal, vegetable or mineral origin, in the lungs. Most often it is a result of aspiration from altered swallowing or cough mechanism. Children with palatal abnormalities debilitated older adults or adults with neurological or gastrointestinal disorders are commonly affected.

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Review Article 

Infections in Invasive Pleural Procedures: A Single Centre Experience

Anna Duffy and Avinash Aujayeb
Abstract

We are an established pleural centre offering medical thoracoscopy and indwelling pleural catheters. Our infection rates with prophylactic antibiotics were lower than the national average and given the era of antibiotic stewardship and lack of evidence to support the administration, we stopped giving them.

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Research Article 

Antiplatelet Exposure and Bleeding Events in Patients Undergoing EBUS-TBNA

Kevin Swiatek, Rachel Guthrie, John O Elliott and Kim Jordan
Abstract

Periprocedural management of aspirin and clopidogrel, antiplatelet agents, for Endobronchial Ultrasound with Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) remains unclear. Discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy has been questioned given the low risk of hemorrhagic complications reported with this procedure.

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Review Article 

Pulmonary Complications of Sickle Cell Disease in the Pregnant Patient

Kevin G Lazo, Joanna B Eldredge, Anne Press and Bushra A Mina
Abstract

Respiratory complaints are common symptoms in pregnancy, and it is important to delineate whether the causative factor is cardiac, pulmonary, or physiologic in origin. The pathophysiology of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) can further complicate the differential diagnosis.

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Original Article 

Impact of Adopting 2014 Guidance for Palivizumab Prophylaxis for Children Previously Considered at High Risk for Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease

Rachel D Quick, Kathryn Merkel, Don K Murphey, Marisol Fernandez and Sarmistha B Hauger
Abstract

This is a report of pediatric patients hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) during the season prior to, and 2 seasons following the 2014 palivizumab prophylaxis guidance release. The primary aim was to determine the effect of the 2014 guidance on children no longer considered eligible for prophylaxis.

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Case Report 

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: What Do We Know about Pulmonary Injury? A Compilation of Evidence

Francisco X Leon-Roman Ismael Carrillo-Martin, Gema Fernandez-Plana and Salvador Diaz-Lobato
Abstract

Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a lethal vector-borne viral infection produced by a Nairo virus, a genus of the Bunyan viridae family. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three segments (large, medium, and small), two envelope proteins (Gn and Gc) and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

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Clinical Image 

Pleural Lipoma

Pankaj Mathur, Vinod Namana, Sushilkumar S Gupta, Barbara Berger and Elliott Bondi
Abstract

A 31-year-old male presented with complaints of a mild non-productive cough for 2 months. He had no history of smoking, fever, chills, rigors, weight loss, dyspnea, chest pain and hemoptysis. There was no history of exposure to occupational hazards or medications use. He was hemodynamically stable and had no significant findings on physical examination.

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Case Report 

Left Hemi-Diaphragmatic Hydatid Cyst - A Rare Presentation and Diagnostic Challenge

Haris Hakeem, Ghulam Fareed, Muhammad Irfan and Saulat Fatmi
Abstract

Echinococcosis or hydatid cyst disease is among the oldest diseases known to man. Common presentations include involvement of liver and lungs. Hydatid cyst in diaphragm without hepatic involvement is rare and less than 100 cases are reported in literature. We are describing a case of a young female who presented with cough anddyspnea secondary to large cysts that appeared to involve the right lung and spleen on initial imaging studies. Peroperatively, however, the presumed spleenic cystwas surprisingly found to be lying within left hemidiaphragm. Complete surgical resection of the cysts was performed with uneventful post-operative recovery.

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Case Report 

A Case Report: What is the Real Cause of Death from Acute Chlorine Exposure in an Asthmatic Patient?

Toprak S and Kalkan EA
Abstract

This case report presents an acute and chronic inflammation process at the same time and resulted in death following exposure to chlorine gas. A 65-years-old woman died shortly after cleaning her bathroom with a mixture of various chemicals including bleach and an acid containing product. She was declared dead when she arrives to hospital. She is a non-smoker and has no significant medical history other than asthma. Toxicological analysis showed that paracetamol, methylprednisolone, venlafaxine and its metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine were detected in blood.

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Original Research 

Prevalence of Depression/Anxiety among Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Association with Acute Exacerbations

Christopher M. Blanchette, Melissa Roberts, Hans Petersen and Anne Fuhlbrigge
Abstract

A prevalent cohort of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65+ with COPD (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis, chronic airway obstruction) was constructed from a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Existence of depression/anxiety was identified via healthcare services or prescription drug claims. Baseline characteristics were assessed (1/1/2006-6/31/2006) and patients followed from first depression/anxiety claim until 12/31/2007 for all-cause and respiratory-related healthcare cost and utilization. Prevalence estimates of co-occurring COPD and depression/anxiety were approximated.

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Original Article 

Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio as a Novel Prognostic Marker in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Sezgi Sahin Duyar, Yalcin Solak, Dilek Tekis, Jale Karakaya, Ferit Kuscu and Asuman Erarslan
Abstract

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR) and platalet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are recently defined novel inflammatory markers which are readily available. Their prognostic signifigance has been shown for a number of inflammatory diseases. A recent study evaluated the role of NLR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Thus, we aimed to investigate the relations between NLR, PLR and severity of COPD in male patients who had stable disease.

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Review Article 

Respiratory Allergy as a Contributory Factor in the Development of Vocal Fold Nodules

Anica Jokic, Gordana Mumovic, Maja Buljcik-Cupic and Olga Popov-Dragin
Abstract

Increasing evidence in the literature indicates that respiratory allergies are often a hidden contributory factor in vocal dysfunction. Although the precise allergic pathophysiological process within the vocal folds is not yet determined, modern understanding suggests that allergic changes in the lining of the larynx are an integral part of a systemic respiratory allergic reaction.

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Review Article 

Palliation of Refractory Dyspnea in a Patient with End Stage COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Sidra Anwar and Amy Case
Abstract

Mr. M was a 74-year-old male Korean War veteran who presented to the hospital with an acute exacerbation of his Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The patient had a 50 pack-year history of smoking and continued to smoke one-and-a-half packs of cigarettes per day. He was frail with barrel chest and pursed lip breathing, tachypnea, and dyspneic at rest. He was on Albuterol, Ipratropium bromide, and Fluticasone propionate, in addition to home oxygen 3 liters, 24 hours per day. Recent pulmonary function test revealed a FEV1 of 26%, air trapping and markedly diminished diffusion capacity.

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