Effects of Fumes Inhaled from Cooked Meat
Shivam Joshi, MD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 14, 2019
Since 2015, the World Health Organization has regarded the ingestion of processed meat as a definite carcinogen and red meat as a probable carcinogen, basing their recommendations on studies showing an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The findings have led many to limit their ingestion of red and processed meat. Over the past several decades, a growing body of literature has formed regarding the possible harmful, if not carcinogenic, effects of fumes emanating from cooked meat on humans. In ...
Current Metal Pollution Status and Ecological Risk Impacts on Ologe and Badagry Lagoons In Lagos, Nigeria
Bassey O Bassey, Chibuisi G Alimba and Obinna L Chukwu
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 15, 2019
Contamination of aquatic environment is increasing and has been associated with indiscriminate discharge of solid wastes and effluents generated from industrial, domestic and agricultural activities. These wastes and effluents contain harmful substances, such as metals, which constitute a major problem on the quality of the Nigerian coastal water. This study evaluated the impacts of heavy metals on the water and sediment quality of Ologe and Badagry Lagoons, South-West Nigeria. The heavy metals ...
Evaluation of Lung Cell Toxicity of Surfactants for Inhalation Route
Lindenberg F, Sichel F, Lechevrel M , Respaud R and Saint-Lorant G
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: May 15, 2019
Few data are available for excipients administered by inhalation route. This study evaluated the in vitro potential toxicity of three surfactants (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80 and Poloxamer 188) by using an original air-liquid interface (ALI) method of exposure compared to liquid/liquid (L/L) model. Two cell toxicity tests were conducted on BEAS-2B cells, a human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell lines; measurement of Lactate Dehydrogenase activity and XTT cell proliferation assay. We fou...
Public and Environmental Health Effects of Plastic Wastes Disposal: A Review
Okunola A Alabi, Kehinde I Ologbonjaye, Oluwaseun Awosolu and Olufiropo E Alalade
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 12, 2019
Since 1950 to 2018, about 6.3 billion tonnes of plastics have been produced worldwide, 9% and 12% of which have been recycled and incinerated, respectively. Human population increase and consistent demand for plastics and plastic products are responsible for continuous increase in the production of plastics, generation of plastic waste and its accompanied environmental pollution. We have reviewed in this paper, the most relevant literatures on the different types of plastics in production, the h...
Repeated Intravenous Dose Toxicity of Di-Isononyl Phthalate in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats
Yanping Xue, Ning Chen, Tao Jiang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 22, 2019
The systemic toxic effects of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were evaluated in a 4-wk study in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were administered DINP intravenously at dosages of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg every other day for 4 wk. The control and the positive control group were administered vehicle (egg yolk phosphatides plus glycerol solutions) and 500 mg/kg di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), respectively. Clinical signs were observed immediately after administration and consumption of food, a...
Heavy Metals Contents and Risk Assessment of Farmland on the Edge of Sichuan Basin
Mengling Yang, Dan Zhang, Lu Xu, Shamshad Khan, Fan Chen and Hao Jiang
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: March 04, 2019
This study features a survey of the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, Se) in surface soils (0-30 cm), carried out in edge of Sichuan Basin (Pingdi, Puan, Xingwen, Gulin). The contamination of heavy metals in soil was assessed with single-factor pollution index method and Nemerow comprehensive pollution index method. The results showed that Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co were main risk factors of soil heavy metal pollution. In Gulin, the concentrations of Cd, Mn and Se were higher t...
Plastic Additive Bisphenol A: Toxicity in Surface- and Groundwater Crustaceans
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019
Bisphenol A (BPA) is being considered by the European Union as a substance of very high concern, occurring worldwide due to its wide application in many plastic products, building materials, coatings and epoxy resins. The toxicity of BPA in groundwater invertebrates is insufficiently understood. Both acute (24 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity was compared in Daphnia magna and ecologically important crustaceans in surface water (Gammarus fossarum, Eucyclops serrulatus) and groundwater (Niphargopsis...
A New QSAR Model for Acute Fish Toxicity based on Mined Structural Alerts
Giuseppina Gini, Thomas Ferrari, Anna Lombardo, Antonio Cassano and Emilio Benfenati
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 14, 2019
In this paper we discuss the problem of predicting the fish toxicity property of chemical compounds, and show how this can be approached using a computational intelligence method. There are two views on assessing toxicities: One says that such properties can be derived from the whole molecular structure, the other that some specific functional substructures, called Structural Alerts (SA), are able to explain the toxicity. In this work, a new Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) approach is prop...