Breast Metastases from Ovarian Primary: A Rare Entity and Review of Literature
Suresh Singh, Bhalgat Bhushan Sanjay, Pravin Kumar, Kamal Kishore Lakhera, Phanindra Kumar Swain and Raj Govind Sharma
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 24, 2021
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent diagnosis of female malignancy and the second most common female gynecologic malignancy after breast cancer. The 5-year prevalence is 213 cases per million with 2.1 percent deaths as per GLOBOCON 2020 data. Clinical manifestations commonly include abdominal and pelvic pain with bloating, distention, urinary urgency and frequency, and unintended weight loss in the presence of tenderness to palpation and an adnexal mass on bimanual examination. Risk factor...
Epitope Spreading and the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Cancer
W. Robert Liu, PhD and David E. Fisher, MD, PhD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 28, 2021
Therapeutic antibodies that target immune checkpoints have revolutionized cancer therapy. While these checkpoints restrain T cell activation in response to antigen engagement, checkpoint inhibitors de-repress such tumor-associated T cells, and have generated major clinical responses in multiple tumor types. Nonetheless, the vast majority of cancers remain resistant to this therapeutic approach as currently deployed, either through intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms. One key question inv...
On the Impact of Premature Termination of Chemotherapy on Relapse of Breast Cancer
Heidrun Männle, Karsten Münstedt, Felix Momm and Jan Willem Siebers
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 15, 2021
Some breast cancer patients receive a recommendation for adjuvant chemotherapy if necessary. In some cases, patients refuse this recommendation. In other cases, they start with chemotherapy, but then discontinue it. The question raised here are the effects of patients’ rejection or premature termination of recommended chemotherapies. 1916 patients, who received a recommendation for chemotherapy, were analyzed between 1997 and 2017. The analyses included descriptive analyses and Kaplan- Meier s...
Is there an Association between Vaginal Cancer and Genital Prolapse? A Data-Analysis and Review of Literature
Heidrun Männle, Birthe Osorio, Felix Momm and Karsten Münstedt
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 13, 2021
Primary vaginal cancer represents a rare disease. The main risk factor for vaginal carcinoma is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, chronic mechanic irritation of the vagina, have long been suspected to contribute to the development of vaginal cancer. This study examined to assess possible associations between genital prolapse and the incidence of vaginal cancer. We conducted a systematic literature search regarding the association between vaginal cancer and genital prola...