International Journal of Oncology Research is an open access, peer reviewed, multidisciplinary journal focused to publish articles on developments of all types of malignancies including pathology, diagnosis and therapy, including radiotherapy, and systemic treatment. Articles submitted to the journal will be subjected to standard peer review process to ensure the quality of submitted content.
The journal invites significant and up-to-date articles within the fields of experimental and clinical oncology. The articles on aspects covering apoptosis, biotherapeutics, bone marrow transplantation, cancer biology, cancer epidemiology, cancer etiology, cancer prevention, cancer rehabiliation medicine, cancer screening and diagnosis, cell differentiation & proliferation, chemotherapeutic agents, clinical imaging, cytogenetics, emerging therapeutics, flow cytometry, general hematology and oncology, medical oncology, molecular biology module, neoplasms, oncologic emergencies, oncology nursing, principals of endocrine therapy, principles of cancer pathology, psyco oncology, radiation oncology, societal oncology, surgical oncology, transfusion medicine, tumor immunology, etc.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710039
María Mercedes de la Torre-Bustamante, Juan Felipe Casabon-Pastrana, Diego Alejandro Largo- Cordoba, Diego Armando Gomajoa-Guerrero and Michael Gregorio Ortega-Sierra
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 24, 2022
The COVID-19 pandemic has been one of the worst global public health crises of the 21st century. Global health was strongly affected by the dynamics of nations in the face of measures to contain the SARS-Cov-2 infection, such as confinement and redistribution of resources, which delayed the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, negatively modifying the prognosis and quality of life of these patients. The burden of surgical and oncological diseases is currently very high, and its...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710038
Minh Phuong Vu, Thanh Vui Le and Van Oanh Kieu
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 24, 2022
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent lymphoma and is associated with a long survival time. However, there are patients who had an early progression after standard therapy. Our aim was to analyze the prognostic value of Ki67, CD10 and MUM1 expression in FL. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki67, CD10 and MUM1 was performed on formalin-fixed paraffinembedded biopsy tissues from 27 patients with FL. Patients were grouped according to the levels of the Ki67 proliferation index (PI). Survival time...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710037
Hafez Ahmed and Mohamed Hussein
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 16, 2022
Breast cancer (BC), a malignant proliferation of the epithelial cells that line the ducts or lobules of the breast, is the most common malignancy in women, accounting for approximately one-third of all cancers in women worldwide. According to its death rate, it is the second most frequent cancer causing mortality for women worldwide. Polymorphism involves one of two or more variants of a particular DNA sequence. The most common type of polymorphism involves variation at a single base pair. In re...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710034
Olakayode V Ekundina, Chiamaka C Ejelue, Ondokeyi P Apulu and Ore-oluwa O Ayodele
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 29, 2022
Monitoring and diagnosis of benign or premalignant breast lesions as it progresses to a malignant condition is very necessary for its ability to predict or curb the progression of a breast lesion to the malignant condition and Immunohistochemistry has been proven to be a useful tool in achieving this as immunohistochemical markers are corresponding and specific in nature. The primary objective of this case-control study is to study the expression of KI67, E-cadherin, and P53 in normal breast tis...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710036
Maryam Zaouit, Farida Marnissi, Hassan Jouhadi, Nadia Benchekroun, Asma Elkbir, Souha Sahraoui and Abdellatif Benider
Article Type: Case series | First Published: February 07, 2022
This is a retrospective descriptive study of five cases of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder collected at the Mohammed VI Center, between January 2017 and December 2020. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical study. The median age is 61 years (extremes: 36-73 years), all patients are male. The average delay of consultation is 7 months (extremes: 2-12 months). Chronic smoking was found in three patients. Hematuria was the cardinal sign in 4 cases. Irritative urinary disorders su...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710035
Yeliz VARIŞOĞLU, PhD and Pınar IRMAK VURAL, PhD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 31, 2022
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between awareness of healthy lifestyle and breast cancer perception among women of reproductive age. This descriptive co relational study was conducted on 642 women. Data were collected using the sociodemographic data form, the Healthy Lifestyle Awareness Scale (HLAS), and the Breast Cancer Perception Scale (BCPS). A moderate, significant, and positive correlation was found between the HLAS total score and the scores obtained from the BCPS ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710033
Madli Tamm, Mart Kals, Tarmo Annilo, Kersti Oselin, Katrin Keerma, Paula Ann Kivistik, Miriam Nurm, Margot Saare, Jana Jaal and Neeme Tõnisson
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 23, 2022
Cancer burden is a globally growing problem. Early diagnosis and targeted treatment decrease patients’ death rate, pain, and treatment expenses. Liquid biopsy can be used for early cancer detection, treatment selection, and progression and treatment response monitoring. We evaluated the performance of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue DNA analyses using a commonly employed targeted therapeutic pathway in predicting the outcomes of patients wit...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710032
Unnati Bhatia, MD, Suryansh Bajaj, MD, Darshan Gandhi, MD, Divyansh Bajaj, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 05, 2021
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel treatment modality that is quickly becoming the standard of care for the management of a multitude of neoplasms. While immunomodulation is a promising approach, it also carries a risk of immune-related adverse effects (irAEs). Nivolumab is an FDA-approved anti-programmed death-1 (anti-PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor. Nivolumab-induced, immune-related pancreatitis, and hyperbilirubinemia are rare but clinically significant examples of irAEs. Early recogn...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710031
Gama R, Oliveira P, Teixeira M, Castro F and Condé A
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 10, 2021
The authors aim to review the available literature regarding incidentally found thyroid carcinoma during lymph node dissection for primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in order to potentially support clinical decision about management of this unexpected entity. 2 clinical cases are described and a systematic review of the relevant literature on the subject is performed based on Pubmed® database. We reviewed a total of 102 cases. The primary SCCs sites were larynx, oral cavity, a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710030
Suresh Singh, Bhalgat Bhushan Sanjay, Pravin Kumar, Kamal Kishore Lakhera, Phanindra Kumar Swain and Raj Govind Sharma
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 24, 2021
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent diagnosis of female malignancy and the second most common female gynecologic malignancy after breast cancer. The 5-year prevalence is 213 cases per million with 2.1 percent deaths as per GLOBOCON 2020 data. Clinical manifestations commonly include abdominal and pelvic pain with bloating, distention, urinary urgency and frequency, and unintended weight loss in the presence of tenderness to palpation and an adnexal mass on bimanual examination. Risk factor...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710029
W. Robert Liu, PhD and David E. Fisher, MD, PhD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 28, 2021
Therapeutic antibodies that target immune checkpoints have revolutionized cancer therapy. While these checkpoints restrain T cell activation in response to antigen engagement, checkpoint inhibitors de-repress such tumor-associated T cells, and have generated major clinical responses in multiple tumor types. Nonetheless, the vast majority of cancers remain resistant to this therapeutic approach as currently deployed, either through intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms. One key question inv...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710028
Heidrun Männle, Karsten Münstedt, Felix Momm and Jan Willem Siebers
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 15, 2021
Some breast cancer patients receive a recommendation for adjuvant chemotherapy if necessary. In some cases, patients refuse this recommendation. In other cases, they start with chemotherapy, but then discontinue it. The question raised here are the effects of patients’ rejection or premature termination of recommended chemotherapies. 1916 patients, who received a recommendation for chemotherapy, were analyzed between 1997 and 2017. The analyses included descriptive analyses and Kaplan- Meier s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710027
Heidrun Männle, Birthe Osorio, Felix Momm and Karsten Münstedt
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 13, 2021
Primary vaginal cancer represents a rare disease. The main risk factor for vaginal carcinoma is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, chronic mechanic irritation of the vagina, have long been suspected to contribute to the development of vaginal cancer. This study examined to assess possible associations between genital prolapse and the incidence of vaginal cancer. We conducted a systematic literature search regarding the association between vaginal cancer and genital prola...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710026
Cynthia Epskamp, Susanne M Huijts, Peter AHM van der Lubbe and Debbie G.J. Robbrecht
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 10, 2021
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment is an integral part of second line treatment of patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC) as well as in first line in cisplatin-ineligible patients with PD-L1 positive tumours. A substantial proportion of patients with bladder cancer have been treated with intravesical Mycobacterium bovis BCG in the past. Although it is rare, disseminated infections with Mycobacterium bovis have been described, but not in association with ICI treatment. We herein report ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710025
Rukmini Bezbaruah and Biren Parikh
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 22, 2020
This was a retrospective study where cases of FL were collected from the department of Oncopathology, at a tertiary care centre over 3 years from January 2017 to December 2019. Statistical analysis was done using the Software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. Age range was from 35 to 84 years. Out of 69 cases, 18 cases (26%) were grade I, 32 cases (46%) were grade II, and 19 cases (27%) were grade III. Ki67 showed significant correlation in case of grade, stage, FLIP...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710024
Hussam Almasri, MD, Mahir Petkar, MBBS, MD, FRCPath, Abdulaziz Zafar, MBBS, MRCP, Mohammed Abuwahed, MBBS, Mohammad Altermanini, MBBCH, Rita Ahmad, MD and Mouhammad Sharaf Eldean, MD, FCAP
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 19, 2020
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSGDTL) is a rare variant of T-cell lymphoma with few reported cases in literature. It usually presents with hepatosplenomegaly and constitutional symptoms, primarily in young to middle aged patients. The prognosis is generally poor, with maximum reported survival periods of 2-3 years. There is a link to immunodeficiency and some biological treatments. Liver biopsy with flow cytometry is required to confirm the diagnosis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710022
Shekhar Kumar Keshri, MBBS, DMRT, MD, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, MBBS, DNB and Mitali Dandekar Lall, MBBS, MS, DNB
Article Type: Original article | First Published: May 20, 2020
Head and neck cancers pose a significant healthcare burden in India and more than two third of these patients present in advance stage. Multimodality treatment is recommended and often has detrimental impact on quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February-May 2019 among radically treated 73 head and neck cancer patients attending OPD for follow up using EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ H&N-35 questionnaires in Hindi language....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710020
Geun-Jeon Kim, MD, Dong-Hyun Lee, MD, Chul-Woo Yang, MD, PhD and Dong-Il Sun, MD, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 22, 2020
We report the co-occurrence of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the parotid gland. A 33-year-old male presented with a parotid gland tumor of benign appearance. After surgery, the patient’s serum creatine kinase level exceeded 20,000 IU/L (normal, 50-200 IU/L); his potassium level was also high (7.2 mEq/L), as were his aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Genetic testing revealed the deletion of exons 10-...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710019
Alberto Garcia, MD, PhD, Angel Velarde, MD, MSCE, Francisco Quereda, MD, PhD, Jaume Ordi, MD, PhD, Orlando Rodas, MD, PhD, Erick Soch, MD, H Arturo Morales, MD, Federico Nave and Carlos Lopez, MD
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: October 18, 2019
Conventional cytology is an economic method for screening abnormalities in cervical smears, but with implications in false positive and false negative as compared to better detection of transformed cells with the Dual staining P16/KI67 proteins in cervical smears, therefore, we evaluate the validity and reproducibility of cytology with double staining of P16 and KI67 as compared to conventional cytology in cervical smears. Participants were 210 Guatemalan women with abnormalities in conventional...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710018
Hugo Ramiro Segura-Puello, Juan Sebastian Segura Charry, Diana Milena Munoz-Forero, Diana Lorena Nieto Mosquera and Andrea Catalina Villamil-Ballesteros
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 16, 2019
At Cancer Research Laboratory of Manuela Beltran University (UMB), research was carried out with the design and development of the CIMT-54 biological vaccine: A combination of oncotropic virus + amino acids as adjuvants, which act directly on the tumor cell, preventing the reproduction of metastases to other organs and preventing the attack on healthy cells of the organism. The results at preclinical level suggested that the CIMT-54 vaccine is not cytotoxic; and on the other hand, in the studies...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710017
Yoshiaki Nagatani, Yoshinori Imamura, Tsutomu Nakamura, Kazuhiko Yamashita, Mamoru Okuno, Hiroyuki Yasui, Jun Hiraoka, Riho Niigata, Keiji Kono, Yasuko Hyogo, Hirotaka Suto, Kei Takenaka, Yohei Funakoshi, Masanori Toyoda, Naomi Kiyota and Hironobu Minami
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 16, 2019
Although oxaliplatin is one of the main anticancer agents used against colorectal cancer, data on the pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin in patients on hemodialysis are limited. In this case study, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety of oxaliplatin in a patient on hemodialysis treated for colon cancer. A 68-year-old Japanese woman receiving chronic hemodialysis was treated for metastatic colon cancer with modified FOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab every 2 weeks. Initial oxaliplatin dose was reduc...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710016
Raiza Ruiz Lorente, Sayly Alfonso, Yamilka Sanchez, Carmen Elena Viada, Ramon Ortiz, Mayelin Troche, Meylan Cepeda, Ana Rosa Vals, Leticia Cabrera, Annia Gorte, Delmis Maira Batista, Milagros Domenech, Jessica Garcia Viamontes, Conrado Ramos Mico and Mayra Ramos Suzarte
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 29, 2019
The EGF receptor is over expressed in tumors of epithelial origin and is associated with a poor prognosis of the disease. An Expanded Clinical Access Program was carried out, in which patients with cervical uterine cancer in advanced stages of the disease without another therapeutic alternative were treated with nimotuzumab, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor humanized monoclonal antibody to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this therapy. Seventy-five patients with confirmed histological di...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710015
Emad Eldin Nabil, Ahmed M Maklad, Ashraf Elyamany, Emad Gomaa and Moamen M Ali
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 05, 2019
For patients with breast cancer, axillary dissection was a standard treatment, especially with patient with positive metastases in the sentinel nodes. For some patients axillary dissection might be over-treatment, including those who have had a mastectomy. Especially with the new trend of many radiation-therapy centers, provide radiation-therapy for any number of positive lymph nodes. The aim of our work is to evaluate the impact of number of dissected axillary Lymph Nodes (LN), on Overall Survi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710014
Romeo V Porlas Jr, MD, Scott Riley K Ong, MD, Gerard Raimon Saranza, MD, FPNA and Jose Paciano B Reyes, MD, FPNA
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 01, 2019
Paraneoplastic subacute sensory Denny-Brown neuronopathy affects the peripheral nervous system and commonly associated with small cell lung carcinoma and with other tumor types in 14.4% of cases. Presented is a case of 23, female with progressive numbness of extremities and ataxia. Investigations showed diffuse sensory neuronopathy and elevated CSF IgG on CSF studies. Paraneoplastic autoantibodies revealed negative results yet imaging showed an anterior mediastinal mass, which turned B-c...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710013
Dinesh Kumar, MBBS, MS and John Lobo, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2019
Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DAP) is defined as malignant epithelial cells filling large prostatic acini ducts, with preservation of basal cells forming either solid or dense cribriform patterns or a loose cribriform or micropapillary pattern with either marked nuclear atypia (nuclear size six times normal or larger) or Nonfocal comedonecrosis. DAP is a rare variant of prostate cancer, and has poorly-identified clinical characteristics....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4563/1710012
Nakamura Yasuhiro, MD
Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: May 13, 2019
Hydropnemopericardium is a very rare condition, which arises from penetrating trauma or blunt chest injury, development secondary to procedures, fistulization from adjacent structures and pericardial infections. This patient was 60-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presented to outpatients clinic with stomach pain, fatigue and anorexia. The patient was afebrile but laboratory profile manifested an excessive inflammatory response and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We detec...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710011
Abdul Waheed, David Kossor, William Collins and Amy Camie
Article Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE | First Published: December 31, 2018
A pilot study was done to measure quantitative EEG (qEEG) brainwave frequencies and behavioral indices of five women undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer, before and after listening to specific music (The Magic Mirror-Inspired Reflections solo harp CD written, performed and recorded by Amy Camie) once a day for ten days. Following treatments, the EEG profile for all five participants improved and subjective reports from daily questionnaires confirmed a positive effect of the music....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710010
Tahani Nageeti, Mohamed Mahfouz, Mazen Al Gaod and Reem Zatar
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 19, 2018
Radiation exposure to the thyroid gland is unavoidable in breast cancer (BC) radiotherapy (RT). This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of using different supraclavicular (SCV) field angles on the percentage volume of the dose absorbed by the thyroid relative to the maximum dose absorbed by the spinal cord. A total of 50 consecutive BC patients undergoing planning computed tomography (CT) were evaluated. The thyroid gland, spinal cord, and SCV nodal volumes were contoured on the planning...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710009
Fadi Nasr, Ahmad Al Ghoche, Saada Diab, Janah Maddah, Layal Mansour, Ali kassem and Abd El Karim Gheith
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 12, 2018
Despite of the high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), treatment strategies stays restrained. New treatment aspects remain a necessity to improve overall survival of patients. Here, we report for the first time a 2 years complete remission of hepatocellular carcinoma with pembrolizumab after failure of sorafenib and progression after liver transplantation. Immunotherapy became a field of interest in HCC for researchers and clinicians in order to establish new immunotherapy modalities t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJOR-2017/1710008
Andrew Octavian Sasmita and Ying Pei Wong
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 06, 2018
Having been identified for centuries, breast cancer still remains one of the leading causes of death in women. Within the United States of America (USA) alone, it is estimated that over 60,000 women would have developed new cases of malignant breast cancer in 2017 alone; thus, calling an attention for the development of a reliable and effective breast cancer model for drug discovery to combat the disease or diagnostics to predict the progression of the disease. Current breast cancer models invol...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJOR-2017/1710007
Shaoyu Fan, Zhengzhong Mao, Anita H Lee and Teh-wei Hu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2018
The estimated total national medical cost of treating lung cancer patients in China was 64.21 billion RMB (US$ 10.31 billion), about 2% of total medical costs in 2015. Total lung cancer costs in 2015 were 488.53 billion RMB (US$ 78.42 billion), about 75% of which can be attributed to mortality costs. Two-thirds of the lung cancer patients in the sample were either current or former smokers. The major economic costs of lung cancer among smokers are preventable. China has a relatively low cigarett...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710006
Ashraf Farrag, Arif Shaukat, Muhammad Ali and Magdy Kandil
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 28, 2018
Oral cancer is the most common head and neck cancer (HNC). Its global incidence in 2015 was 410,000 cases with 146,000 deaths. In USA, 41,380 patients were diagnosed with HNC in 2013, and oral cavity cancers accounted for almost 30,000 of new cases. In Saudi Arabia, a total number of 211 oral cancer cases were reported in 2014, representing about 1.8% of the total cancer cases....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710005
J Bisnath, R Ramkissoon and J Ali
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 11, 2018
Treatment of Stage Four Breast Cancer has traditionally excluded locoregional surgery, with the focus being on control of the distant disease. Much of what is applied in clinical practice is extrapolated from chemotherapy trials in the adjuvant setting, with taxanes and anthracyclines incorporated early on in the treatment course....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710004
Yoshiomi Hatayama, Masahiko Aoki, Hideo Kawaguchi, Katsumi Hirose, Mariko Sato, Ichitaro Fujioka, Mitsuki Tanaka, Koji Ichise, Shuichi Ono and Yoshihiro Takai
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 31, 2018
Fifteen patients with locally advanced stage III pancreatic cancer underwent radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy between July 2006 and April 2014. We used 10 MV X-rays and multiple coplanar (two to four) fields. The number of fractions ranged between 20 and 28 with a fraction size of 1.8Gy. A total dose of 36-50.4Gy at the isocenter of the planning target volume (PTV) was administered to each patient. Fourteen patients received chemotherapy during radiotherapy. The cumulative su...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710003
Kazutaka Otsuji, Takeshi Sasaki, Keiichiro Tada, Masashi Fukayama and Yasuyuki Seto
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 26, 2018
A new immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using fluorescence-emitting phosphor-integrated dot (PID) nanoparticles as a fluorescent dye was developed to accurately detect proteins that are expressed by cancer cells. This technique localizes proteins and quantitates their levels of expression in cancer lesions, which facilitates objective analysis of protein levels. We used the PID nanoparticle assay to measure HER2 expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from patients with pr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710002
Joseph Brandt, Jack Morgani, Alan Heimann and Edna Kapenhas
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 16, 2017
Since first being noted in the literature in 1966, Secretory Breast Carcinoma (SBC) continues to be better defined in terms of its clinical, histologic, and genetic features. However, its unique presentation can elude seasoned practitioners from making a clinical diagnosis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijor-2017/1710001
Yasuhiro Nakmaura and Uch Somary
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 01, 2017
Cambodia is considered to be endemic to chronic gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori (HP). Prevalence of HP is more than 70% inferred from the literature of neighboring countries. However, Cambodia, being a developing nation, doesn’t have enough resources for the screening of HP. On the other hand, after the Kyoto Global Consensus in 2015, risk evaluation of gastric carcinoma based on endoscopic findings with image-enhanced modalities and magnification allows diagnosis of gastritis with a high...
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