The C. Elegans Gscs: A Powerful Model for In Vivo Study of Adult Stem Cell Regulation
Patrick Narbonne, Abigail R Gerhold, Jean-Claude Labbe and Paul S Maddox
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 10, 2016
Adult stem cells hold tremendous potential for regenerative medicine. Harnessing their therapeutic benefits requires that we gain fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which stem cells function and divide in vivo. This is hampered by the fact that stem cells often reside in compartments that remain difficult to access using imaging approaches....
Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible-Revisiting Pathogenesis of Benign Tumor of the Jaw
Qilin Xu, Qunzhou Zhang, Steven Wang, Brian P Ford, Prem Pate, Lee R Carrasco, Anh D Le and Faizan Alawi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 07, 2016
Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an uncommon benign tumor of the jaw, which clinically presents as a slow-growing neoplasm with cortical bony expansion. It has been postulated that COF might be derived from the inactive-like small nests or islands of odontogenic epithelium. However, the pathophysiology of this rare benign tumor remains largely unknown. Herein, we reported a case of simple type of COF in the mandible in a 24-year-old man who presented with progressive mandibular swelling and ...
Progress towards Clinical Use of iPS Cell Derived Therapies
Malin Kele and Anna Falk
Article Type: Mini-Review | First Published: August 17, 2016
A decade has passed since Shinya Yamanaka published his landmarking publication on how to produce pluripotent stem-cell-like cells and the term induced pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells, was coined. This past decade has been a decade devoted to pluripotent cells, scrutinizing molecular mechanisms in cell identity, and optimizing derivation methods, culture conditions and characterization methods to xenofree and chemically defined clinical-grade pluripotent stem cells....
Generation of Antigen-Presenting Cells from Human Vascular Adventitia-Resident Progenitors
Mohamad Almoussa, Volha Stoll, Diana Klein and Suleyman Ergun
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 13, 2016
Macrophages and dendritic cells play a central role in the immune system. Here, we identify CD44(+) vascular wall-resident multipotent stem cells (VW-MPSCs) as progenitors for macrophages and dendritic cell-like cells. Using human internal thoracic artery (hITA) tissue specimens we performed ex vivo sprouting assays followed by immunohistochemistry....
Adult Brain Neurogenesis, Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenic Niches
Lina Maria Delgado-Garcia and Rogerio Martins Amorim
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 28, 2016
During the late 60's, the experiments with brain lesions in rats, suggested the possibility of neurogenesis in the adult brain. Three decades later, the conceptual link between adult neurogenesis and stem cells was proposed. We now know that the adult mammalian brain may have the ability to regenerate through adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Here are briefly reviewed classical and current theories in adult neurogenesis, NSCs and neurogenic niches....
Stem Cells in Adult Homeostasis, Regeneration and Tissue Development of the Digestive Tract Epithelium
Valeria Fernandez Vallone and Marie-Isabelle Garcia
Article Type: Mini-Review | First Published: July 01, 2016
The gastrointestinal epithelium is one of the tissues with highest self-renewing rates under steady-state conditions, and it thereby constitutes an excellent model to better understand how tissues maintain homeostasis. In the past decade, intense research in this field has allowed identifying stem cells responsible for this task and has contributed to uncover the main molecular mechanisms associated with self-renewal and differentiation properties of these cells....
Enteroendocrine Cells, A Potential Way to Control Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation
Rihab Loudhaief and Armel Gallet
Article Type: Perspective | First Published: July 01, 2016
Organisms are subjected during their lifespan to many environmental stresses such as starvation, temperature variations, chemicals, pathogens, injuries... In order to overcome the incoming stress and to yield an adapted answer, organisms have developed throughout evolution robust and conserved mechanisms such as immune response and tissue regeneration helping at maintaining their physiological equilibrium, i.e. their homeostasis. However, the maintenance of the homeostasis can be compromised in ...
Kartogenin Induced Chondrogenesis of Stem Cells and Cartilage Repair
Fazal-Ur-Rehman Bhatti, Karen A Hasty and Hongsik Cho
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: July 01, 2016
Osteoarthritis (OA) is predicted to be the fourth leading cause of disability in the world by the year 2020. OA results in damage to cartilage tissue and underlying subchondral bone. Current therapeutic options for osteoarthritis (OA) are limited due to the unique nature of cartilage tissue. Alternatively, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been utilized for cartilage repair, but the formation of an intact neocartilage similar to hyaline cartilage is still a challenge. Kartogenin (KGN), a small ...