International Journal of Physiatry is an open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes wide variety of information in all the interdisciplinary aspects of physical medicine. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a podium for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community in various aspects of management of diseases, physical medicine and rehabilitation. We aim to publish highest quality clinical content via open access platform providing the readers without charge, immediate and unlimited access.

International Journal of Physiatry is an open journal accelerates the research updates, discovery and innovation in Musculo-skeletal system - Osteology and Myology, Functional Anatomy, Neuroanatomy - Brain, Spinal Cord, Peripheral Nerves, Autonomic Nervous System, Cardiovascular System, Respiratory System, Histology of Bones, Cartilage, Muscles, Nerves and Skin, Physiology, Biochemistry, Temperature Regulation, Physiology of Exercise, Biomechanics of Human Movement, Biophysics of Physical Medicine, Pathology, Clinical Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Nutrition in Sports, Use and Abuse of Drugs in Sports, Chronic and Overuse Injuries, Rehabilitation Management of Systemic Disorders, Neuromuscular Dystropy, Exercise Medicine etc. Original Articles, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Physiatry

ISSN: 2572-4215

Editor-in-chief: Ming Pei

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Physiatry

ISO abbreviation: Int J Physiatry

Other titles: IJP

Category: Physical Medicine

DOI: 10.23937/2572-4215

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510030

New Onset of Multiple Sclerosis Following Recent COVID-19 Infection

Adrian Oppong, MD, MS, Joe H Ghorayeb, DC, MHA and Anishinder Parkash, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/07/16

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system. There is evidence to support a link between herpesvirus infections and an associated increased risk of developing MS. Over the past two years, neurological complications associated with COVID-19 infection have been reported and are speculated to be caused by direct viral invasion. A relatively low connection between COVID-19 infection and MS development has been identified in the scientific literatur...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510029

Treatment of Refractory Chronic Gluteal Pain with Ultrasound Guided Botulinum Toxin A Injection to the Obturator Internus: A Case Report

Yeng F. Her, Jonathan Liang and Kristain E. Caldera

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/06/16

Chronic gluteal pain is challenging to treat due to the complex anatomy of the posterior hip and potential pain generators. This case report describes a noval approach of using ultrasound guided diagnostic injection targeting the most tender point on palpaiton in a 56-year-old female with chronic gluteal pain that was refractory to conservative therapies and interventional injections of the piriformis muscle, sciatic nerve branch, lumbar epidural, ischial tuberosity, sacroiliac joint, and right ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510028

Multimodal Approach to Manage Hemiballismus in a Newly Diagnosed Diabetic

Joe H. Ghorayeb, DC, MHA, Adrian Oppong, MD, MS, Anishinder Parkash, MD and Kelley Crozier, MD, MBA

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/05/31

A 67-year-old female with a complex medical history presented to the emergency department with severe right-sided hemiballismus after she was found on the floor by her son. Her initial blood glucose level was 727 mg/dL and her HbA1C level was 16.6. The patient was diagnosed with hemiballismus, a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by unilateral, rapid, and unpredictable high-amplitude movements. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510027

Treatment of Severe Trismus during Locked-In Syndrome Secondary to Central Pontine Myelinolysis Using Onabotulinum Toxin-A: Case Report

Wiaam Elkhatib, MD and Whitney Pratt, MD, PhD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 19, 2023

Trismus in adults has a wide range of known causes, though few cases have ever been reported secondary to central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). This report describes a case of severe trismus without clear etiology successfully treated with onabotulinum toxin-A following development of CPM. Patient was a female aged in her early thirties who presented to the hospital with ascending weakness five days following hyponatremia correction at rates within guideline recommendations. MRI revealed increased...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510026

Pure Motor Paraplegia Following Repair of a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: A Case Report

Peyton Miles and Jeffrey S Hecht, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 28, 2022

Paraplegia is common following thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA) repair. It results from ischemia of the anterior spinal cord in the distribution of the anterior spinal artery and causes anterior spinal cord syndrome. However, this young patient with asymptomatic idiopathic TAA developed pure motor incomplete paraplegia with elevated creatinine phosphokinase levels following repair....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510025

COVID-19 in Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation (CARE): Factors Affecting Recovering Patient Outcomes

Christopher Amen, DO, Claudia Echaide, MS, Bestin Kuriakose, DO, Mariyam Wasay, DO, Benjamin Birney, MD, Todd MacKenzie, PhD and Jennifer Gray, DO

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 19, 2022

Retrospective chart review which included patients admitted to an acute inpatient rehabilitation service at a single center from April 2020 to July 2021. Rehabilitation outcomes assessed included discharge disposition, functional efficiency, change in self-care and mobility, and length of stay (LOS)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510024

Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma: Importance of Neurological Examination

Sumer E Mohamed, DO, Dhara J Rana, MS and James W Bailey, DO

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: April 22, 2022

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a rare spinal pathology, which can result in serious morbidity and disability if not diagnosed promptly. The authors present a unique case of acute plegia in a patient with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma secondary to herniated disc hemorrhage. A 66-year-old male with a five-month history of progressive weakness in the upper and lower extremities with associated radiculopathy and numbness presented to the ED with physical exam significant for signs of...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510023

The “Giant” Median Nerve, a Rare Diagnosis Presenting as Routine Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Case Series and Literature Review

Jennifer Tram, BS and Kenneth Vitale, MD

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: April 07, 2022

Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the most common entrapment neuropathies and is caused by median nerve compression as it traverses the carpal tunnel. Marked enlargement of the median nerve in the setting of carpal tunnel syndrome, occasionally termed “giant” median nerve, is rare in the literature and typically seen only in conditions of tumorous growth or arteritis. Here we report two cases of a giant median nerve in the setting of carpal tunnel syndrome. One patient reported classic sensor...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510022

Ultrasound-Guided Intervention in a Sacroiliitis after Cancer Consequence or Coincidence? A Case Report and Review

Inês Ferro, Pedro Carvalho Sá, César Pires, Filipe Carvalho and João Constantino

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2020

The cancer population is exposed to exceptional factors that might favor sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain, including the cancer itself and therapy-related side effects. Yet, they are also subject to aging and structural changes. The diagnosis and treatment can be a challenge. We report a male with SIJ pain and functional repercussion after anal cancer treatment, without signs of recurrence or metastasis. The provocation tests were compatible with sacroiliitis. An ultrasound-guided injection was perfo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510021

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Enuresis among Children in Adama City, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Nuru Hassen Ibrahim, Daniel Tolessa and Ephrem Mannekhulihe, MSc

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 22, 2020

Enuresis is voluntary or involuntary voiding of urine, occurring at least twice a week for 3 consecutive months in a child at least five-years-old. It can occur either during the day or at night time. There are two types of enuresis called primary and secondary enuresis. The word enuresis is derived from a Greek word enourein that means “to void urine.” Community based cross sectional study was carried out in the Adama city in all 18 kebele. An interview questionnaire was completed voluntari...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510020

Footwear for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis: A Systematic Review

Hunter Loewen, BSc, Madeline S. Wilton-Clark, BSc, Shea Quilichini, BSc, Lauren C. Capozzi, MD, PhD and Ryan T. Lewinson, MD, PhD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 31, 2020

Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) can affect the skin and musculoskeletal structures of the feet, raising the consideration of whether footwear has a role in clinical management. We summarized available evidence on how footwear (shoes, orthotics, insoles, and socks) can be utilized to supplement control of clinical symptoms in patients with psoriasis and PsA. Four electronic databases were searched for articles reporting on patients with psoriasis or PsA and outcomes pertaining to the impa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510019

Prognostic Factors for Disability and Pain Outcomes in Patients with Axial Low Back Pain Undergoing a Multidisciplinary Spine Treatment Program

Nicholas K Donohue, Emily J Graf, Alexis M Visotcky, Sergey S Tarima and Andrew C Hsu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 11, 2020

Several studies in the past have examined factors impacting improvement in low back pain in the primary care context. However, there is limited evidence regarding prognostic factors for pain and disability scores in patients with axial low back pain entering a multidisciplinary spine program. The goal of this study was to assess which baseline demographic, disability, and pain-related characteristics may be prognostic for improvement in pain and disability scores entering a multidisciplinary spi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510018

Acute Lyme Arthritis Presenting in Bilateral Hips of an Elderly Patient: A Case Report

Lawrence M Asprec, Mitchell K Freedman, Jeffrey A Gehret and George W Young

Article Type: Case report | First Published: December 09, 2019

A 70-year-old male presented with a chief complaint of 10 days of lower back and bilateral lower extremity pain. He described sudden onset of intense, sharp bilateral anterior thigh pain radiating to the medial calves intermittently and without paresthesia, bowel or bladder incontinence, fevers, rashes or weight change. His gait was found to be antalgic and slow. Strength, sensation, and reflexes were intact in both legs. X-ray imaging of bilateral hips revealed mild osteoarthritis bilaterally. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510017

Isolated Neuropathy of the Motor Branch of the Ulnar Nerve Sparing the Hypothenar Muscle and Ulnar Intrinsic Groups due to Compressive Lesion: A Case Report

Lawrence M Asprec, MD, Mitchell K Freedman, Pedro K Beredjiklian and George W Young

Article Type: Case report | First Published: December 09, 2019

A 57-year-old man developed progressive weakness over 3 months in his right hand without sensory abnormalities. Clinical and electrodiagnostic examination revealed abnormalities in the FDIO. Clinical examination supported an abnormal AdP. Hypothenar muscle groups were intact, suggestive of an ulnar nerve lesion in the palm, an uncommon area of entrapment. MRI confirmed a ganglion cyst between the third and fourth metacarpal bases, compressing the deep palmar branch of the ulnar nerve. After remo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510016

Repercussions of Smoking Habit on Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Dysfunction: Integrative Review

Oliveira-Souza AIS, Oliveira Ferro JK, Santana da Silva TP, Vasconcelos SC, Costa Lima, MD, and Oliveira DA

Article Type: Integrative Review | First Published: August 21, 2019

Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) can be triggered by several factors, such as parafunctional habits, among them: smoking. However, the relationship between these two conditions is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the repercussions of smoke habits in patients with TMD. This is an integrating review with a guiding question considered Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcomes (PICO). The search strategy was conducted following some Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic R...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510015

Fractional Anisotropy Brain Changes in Spasticity after Peripheral Injections of Botulin

Miguel Angel Bertoni, Mohammed Sakel and Ali Hojjatoleslami

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 22, 2018

Seven subjects with spasticity that developed 2-22 years after cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) were studied with 3T MRI of the brain including diffusion tractography (DTI) and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of the white matter of the corticospinal tracts (CST), corpus callosum (CC) and cerebral lobes of the affected and contralateral sides prior and after the injection of botulin toxin at the contours of peripheral nerves of the affected side....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510014

The Role of Early Mobilization in the Intensive Care

Ana Zao

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2018

Amyotrophy, muscle strength deficit, sarcopenia, pain, contractures and osteoporosis are some of the musculoskeletal complications frequently observed in critically ill patients. However, the negative effects of immobility are rarely limited to a single system....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510013

Muscle Activation Patterns in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes with and without Physical Disability

Matthew Hanks and Gretchen Oliver

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 12, 2018

Wheelchair basketball is a highly competitive sport that uses primarily upper extremity and lumbo-pelvic musculature to accomplish all tasks of the sport (i.e., wheelchair propulsion, dribbling, passing, shooting, and rebounding). Free throw execution is one of the basic skills first introduced when learning the sport of wheelchair basketball, and the mechanics utilized during a free throw attempt are similar to overall shooting mechanics. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510012

Segmental Muscle Vibration Reduces Knee Contractures in Patients with Transtibial Amputation: 5 Case Reports

Rosanna Izzo, C Razzano, F Porcelli, V Santilli and A Battaglia

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 28, 2017

Objective: To assess the improvement of knee contractures in five patients with transtibial amputation, after treatment with Segmental Muscle Vibration (SMV), added to general physical therapy. Materials and methods: Ten patients, with restrictive knee contractures, were divided in two groups: group A, with 5 patients, received physical therapy and SMV; group B received only physical therapy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510011

Characterization of Brazilian Children with Joint Hypermobility

Neuseli Marino Lamari and Mateus Marino Lamari

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 25, 2016

To investigate JH in a Brazilian sample of school children using the variables of the Beighton score and possible correlations between these variables and with selected variables of the Brighton score. Additionally, to study the effect of gender, ethnicity, playing of musical instruments such as the piano, and regular physical activity on each of the analyzed parameters....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510010

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as a Therapy Option in the Early Phase of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head

Jure Aljinovic, Dinko Pivalica, Ivanka Marinovic, Ana Poljicanin, Tonko Vlak, Hrvoje Stipancevic, Dusanka Martinovic-Kaliterna and Davor Caric

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2016

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a progressive disease characterized by bone ischemia which evolves to subchondral collapse in more than 85% of patients. We describe a case of an early stage idiopathic avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a female patient that was characterized by bone marrow edema involving the whole femoral head and the majority of the femoral neck with a small subchondral fracture and slight applanation of the femoral head. This condition was suspected by physia...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510009

A Piriformis Syndrome Diagnosed with Lomber Disc Herniation: 3 Cases Report

Burcu Metin Okmen and Korgun Okmen

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: July 23, 2016

The piriformis syndrome is an entrapment neuropathy emerging with the compression of sciatic nerve by a muscle due to its close proximity with piriformis muscle. However its pathophysiology hasn't been understood clearly, it is thought that it arises from the oedema and inflammation in the piriformis muscle. This syndrome, which we meet with sciatica table clinically, is often likened to lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Multidisciplinary, the treatment of piriformis syndrome may include the adminis...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510008

An Innovative Technique for Refractory Plantar Fasciitis in Ipsilateral Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Mihir M Patel, Sahvan M Patel, Sia S Patel and David I Steinberg

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 03, 2016

This is a case report of utilizing a technique to help a patient resolve refractory plantar fasciitis in the ipsilateral limb that she had a blunt force work place injury that led to complex regional pain syndrome Type I. Complex regional pain syndrome can be very difficult to treat. When a patient develops orthopedic pathology in the same area as the complex regional pain syndrome, the patient can have devastating outcomes. Additionally, many solutions to the orthopedic pathology can lead to in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510007

New Therapeutıc Aproach in Rheumatoıd Arthrıtıs: Ozone

Gulnur Tasci Bozbas and Omer Faruk Sendur

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 16, 2016

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder, which leads to progressive articular destruction and disability. There are numerous agents used for treatment of the disease. However, since these agents may not provide remission or lead to serious complications, search for new treatments continues today. Ozone is a complementary therapy applied successfully for long years in treatment of treatment of circulatory disorders, cancer, inflammatory diseases and various metabolic diseases and anti-agin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510006

The Disconnect between Treatment Outcome Data and Reimbursement for the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa

David M. Garner, Meggan Desmond, Julie Desai and Jan Lockert

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 06, 2016

A major problem plaguing the discussion of insurance reimbursement for the treatment of anorexia nervosa is the apparent gap between research on variables associated with outcome and the formulas used for reimbursement. Outside of the mental health world, insurance coverage is driven by advanced analytics and actuarial data. However, in calculating insurance reimbursement for the treatment of anorexia nervosa, actuarial data associated with short-term and long-term outcomes are not utilized. Ins...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510005

Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures and Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Approach

Daniele Vanni , Andrea Pantalone, Matteo Guelfi and Vincenzo Salini

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 16, 2016

Osteoporotic vertebral fractures and related surgical approach are more frequent due to increased average life. In most cases these fractures are atraumatic or associated with a minimal trauma but high-energy trauma are increasing in patients with osteoporotic vertebrae. In addition to the conservative treatment, several surgical procedures are available. Minimally invasive percutaneous approach is a good option for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures; it is a rapidly developing fi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510004

Improvement of the Muscle Strength, Gait, and Functional Parameters with Rehabilitation Program in a Patient with Type-IV Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Mustafa Turgut Yildizgoren, Timur Ekiz, Kasim Osmanoglu, Onur Velioglu and Hayal Guler

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: March 09, 2016

A 52-year-old man was seen due to weakness and gait disorder. The patient declared that symptoms started eight years ago and worsened over time. The medical and family history was otherwise unremarkable. Physical examination revealed weakness (4/5) bilaterally of both upper and lower extremity muscles (prominent in the proximal group muscles). He was able to walk with a lofstrand crutch on level surfaces, but not on stairs....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510003

Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Quantification of Fat Mass

Cuisle Forde, Niamh Murphy, James Meaney, Paul Kennedy, Gerard Boyle and John Gormley

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: August 17, 2015

Body composition is a key determinant of health. Many methods, including bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), are available to estimate body composition; however the validity of such methods varies greatly. The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate the accuracy of the Tanita MC-180MA BIA machine in the quantification of fat mass through comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510002

Ectopic Ventricular Activity in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program: Significance and Prognosis

Jose Esteves da Costa, Afonso Rocha and Fernando Parada

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: August 07, 2015

Ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) are a frequent finding, even in patients without heart disease. There is an age-dependent increase in prevalence, and might be present in many structural heart diseases. VPCs are present in about 1% of routine ECGs, in up to 80% of 24-hour Holters and might be transiently present in 80 to 90% of patients after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The mechanisms by which they are generated include reentry, enhanced automaticity and triggered activity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4215.1510001

Gross Motor Function Improvement in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Series of Single-Event Multi-Level Chemoneurolysis Using Botulinum Toxin-A and/or Phenol Injections

Teerada Ploypetch, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Hilary F. Armstrong, Amanda C. Ayala and Heakyung Kim

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 17, 2015

Toxin injection has been a common option to manage spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Multi-level injections are recommended based on the fact that most patients have diffuse spasticity rather than focal spasticity. In order to achieve optimal limb alignment, a number of muscle groups are targeted. Bakheit et al. reported that multi-level Botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injections resulted in a better overall response than single level treatments. Other researchers have reported that the...


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021


International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021