International Archives of Clinical Pharmacology (IACP) is an international peer-reviewed journal committed to promoting the best standards of scientific discoveries and scientific knowledge in the field of Clinical Pharmacology. IACP cover major areas of Pharmacogenetics, Drug Delivery & Metabolism, Drug Interactions, Nephrotoxic & Neurotoxic Agents, Immunopharmacology & Immunotoxicology, Pedagogy in Pharmacology, Pharamacokinetics: Validation, Metabolism, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacoeconomics, Pharmacoepidemiology, Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacology and its Therapeutics, Pharmacology for Health Sciences, Pharmacology of the Central Nervous System, Pharmacovigilance, Practical Problems in Biometry, Proteomics & Metabolomics, Radio Chemicals and Radiopharmaceuticals, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, etc.

We consider to publish original research articles, reviews, clinical studies and commentaries, short communications, reports, opinions, editorials etc., on all aspects of pharmacology. IACP ensures the faster publication of high quality articles and is a permanent archive of pharmacology information.

Journal Information

Title: International Archives of Clinical Pharmacology

ISSN: 2572-3987

Editor-in-chief: Dayue Darrel Duan

NLM title abbreviation: Int Arch Clin Pharmacol

ISO abbreviation: Int Arch Clin Pharmacol

Other titles: IACP

Category: Drug Delivery & Metabolism

DOI: 10.23937/2572-3987

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510030

Alternative Uses of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Luqman A Bandagi, Sabiha S Bandagi, Muhammad Haseeb ul Rasool, Sanna Salam and Issac Sachmechi

Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: 2023/09/17

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are typically indicated for management of pain and fever, relieving inflammation and for prevention of blood clots formation. Aspirin, and particularly low dose aspirin (LDA), has potential therapeutic role beyond the well established indications including the prevention of several diseases such as myocardial infarction, strokes, atherothrombotic events and pulmonary embolism. Many studies have been conducted in recent years in order to recognize the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510029

Effect of Overlapping Insulin Glargine Administration in Decreasing Incidence of Hyperglycemia after Discontinuation of Intravenous Insulin Infusion

Jillian B Searle, PharmD, Veronika Latawiec, PharmD, Micaela Carroll Powner, PharmD, BCPS, Andrea Winston, PharmD, BCACP and Dorothy Wakefield, M.S., PStat

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/08/06

The study purpose was to assess the incidence of hyperglycemia in patients being transitioned from an IV infusion to subcutaneous (SC) insulin. Study staff evaluated whether overlapping SC with IV insulin decreased the incidence of hyperglycemia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510028

Audit of Venous Thromboembolic Prophylaxis in Medical Ward in Patients Admitted to Goulburn Base Hospital, New South Wales, Australia in the Month of December 2022

Rahul Banerjee

Article Type: Audit/Quality Improvement | First Published: March 29, 2023

Venous thromboembolism being a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Australia, an audit conducted over a period of one month in a rural hospital setting in NSW, demonstrated that high risk cases did not all receive adequate VTE prophylaxis and fell short of achieving national standards of VTE assessments of all patients admitted to the medical ward. Timing of administration of VTE prophylaxis was also not in sync with the surgical ward....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510027

Effect of Various Activation of the Skin TRPA1 Ion Channel on Cardiovascular Systemic Parameters in Hypertensive Rats

TV Kozyreva and ES Meyta

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 16, 2021

The effect of different activation of the skin TRPA1 ion channel on the parameters of the cardiovascular system was studied in rats with hereditary stress-induced hypertension while recovery from anesthesia. The activation of the TRPA1 ion channel was performed by application to skin its agonist - allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in two concentrations 2.5% and 0.5%. The following parameters were measured that characterize the work of the cardiovascular system: Blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510026

Analytical Validation of Quantitative Pharmacodynamic Methods used in Clinical Cancer Studies

Dick Pluim and Jos H Beijnen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 20, 2021

Quantitative pharmacodynamic (PD) methods are used to assess the effect of a drug on its target. The use of these methods in clinical cancer studies has increased enormously with the advent of targeted therapies in the past years. To ensure that quantitative PD methods meet their expectations, methods need to be validated according to internationally recognized standards for amongst others specificity, accuracy, sensitivity, precision and stability. We show that 87% of our selected clinical canc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510025

Antimalarial Drug Prescription: Evaluation of the Healthcare Professionals based on the Malian National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) Guidelines

Karim Traoré, Seidina AS Diakité, Drissa Konaté, Sory I Diawara, Modibo Sangaré, Moussa S Maiga, Fatoumata Daou, Boubacar Fomba, Mahamadou Diakité and Sekou Bah

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 05, 2021

Since 2005, an artemisinin-based combination therapy has been recommended by the WHO and implemented by the National Malaria Control Program in Mali. The success of such strategy depends on the commitment of all stakeholders (patients and healthcare professionals). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the correct application of this recommendation. We carried out the analysis of the prescription of antimalarial molecules based on the NMCP’s guidelines in Kangaba and Bougouni Health Centers dur...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510024

Antiplasmodial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) in Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

Afolabi Olajide Joseph, Simon-Oke Iyabo Adepeju and Oladokun Oluwatobiloba I

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 29, 2021

Malaria is a major public health problem in the world, particularly in the developing countries where the disease is difficult to manage due to multi-drug resistant parasites. The study aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of Azadirachta indica in the treatment of malaria disease. Fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica were air-dried at room temperature for six weeks and pulverized into powder using electric blender. Two hundred and fifty grams (250g) of the crushed powder was weighed with ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510023

Chronic Use of Azithromycin Might Explain the Low Prevalence of COVID-19 in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

Sara Galimberti

Article Type: Opinion | First Published: June 29, 2020

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the pandemic that in the first months of 2020 caused worldwide more than 8 millions of infected subjects and 436,000 deaths. It has been reported that only few individuals affected by cystic fibrosis (CF) developed the clinical manifestations of the often dramatic SARS-CoV-2 related disease, now known as Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510022

Serum Copeptin Levels in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Ebru Sengul Parlak, MD, Habibe Hezer, MD, Emine Arguder, MD, Hatice Kilic, MD, Murat Alisik, MD, Gokhan Yalciner, MD, Mehmet Ali Babademez, MD, Ozcan Erel, MD and Hatice Canan Hasanoglu, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 08, 2020

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important public health concern with numerous consequences at the societal level, including motor vehicle accidents, increased cardiovascular morbidity, metabolic dysfunction, and behavioral and cognitive deficit. OSA is characterized by a decrease in, or complete cessation of, airflow despite ongoing efforts to breathe, and is related to oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation. The prevalence of OSA has been estimated at 14% in men and 5% in women...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510021

Strategic Framework to Promote Rationale Use of Medicine in Lmics: A Policy Perspective

Sathyanarayana Tamysetty

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 06, 2020

Through the application of a strategic framework, the paper attempts to sharpen the focus, coordination and dissemination of promotion of rational use of medicines (PRUM) framework. The purpose of this strategic framework is to guide and organize the systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation of irrational use of medicines and other efforts aimed at improving rational use of medicines and reducing and, ultimately, eliminating irrational use of medicines. The suggested framework efforts ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510020

Oncolytic Viruses and Their Application to Cancer Treatment

Xie FZ and Zheng LL

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 24, 2019

Early in the 20th Century, a case was reported in The Lancet, that a notable decline in abnormal leucocyte of a female chronic-leukemia suffer was seen, and resulted in her unexpectedly improved condition, after her accidental infection of influenza virus. In 1912, Italian doctor Deface found that tumors of patients with cervical cancer would spontaneously shrink or regress if inoculated attenuated rabies vaccines. And this has raised the curtain on oncolytic virus therapy for tumors. Several mo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510019

Effect of the Peripheral Trpm8 Ion Channel Activation on the Cardiovascular Parameters

TV Kozyreva, VP Kozaruk and ES Meyta

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 06, 2019

The role of TRP ion channels in the physiological processes is far from clear. In this work we studied the effect of the activation of the peripheral TRPM8 ion channel by its agonist menthol on the cardiovascular parameters in normotensive and hypertensive rats when animals were coming out of anesthesia. The role of the TRPM8 ion channel in the regulation of blood pressure was clearly seen in normotensive animals: Activation of this channel by application of 1% menthol (agonist of TRPM8 ion chan...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510018

Incidence of Hypoglycemia in Patients with Renal Dysfunction Treated for Hyperkalemia with Regular Insulin: A Single Center, Retrospective Cohort Study

Dannielle R Brown, PharmD, BCPS, Chase C Brown, Tracie A Delay, Genevieve L Hayes and Ruth C Campbell

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 03, 2019

The primary outcome was the incidence of hypoglycemia during the hospitalization after the administration of insulin for hyperkalemia. Key secondary outcomes included incidence of hypoglycemia within 24 hours of insulin administration and identification of risk factors associated with hypoglycemia. Data collected included patient age, sex, race, history of diabetes, stage of CKD, weight, body mass index (BMI), baseline blood glucose, inciting serum potassium concentration, units of regular insul...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510017

Kambo and its Multitude of Biological Effects: Adverse Events or Pharmacological Effects?

Jan M Keppel Hesselink

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2018

Kambo is the name of a secretion of a tropical frog, the Phyllomedusa bicolor or giant leaf frog from the Amazonian forest, which has been used for centuries by local tribes to enhance their hunter skills. Its first tribal use was described in 1925, and included the first effects after administration of the secretion: nausea and vomiting. Since the end of last century Kambo is introduced in Europe and the USA as a 'healing' intervention to cleanse the bodily systems, it is regarded as a 'detox' ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510016

Use of Dapsone for Difficult to Treat Stricturing Esophageal Crohn's Disease: A Difficult Pill to Swallow

Eran Zittan* and Mark S Silverberg

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 19, 2018

Crohn's disease (CD) can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Although esophageal involvement is rare, it can lead to debilitating complications such as tracheobronchial fistulation. Although current guidelines recommend early, advanced therapy with acid suppression, immunosuppressants and biologics, there are a lack of specific clinical trial data demonstrating efficacy for this phenotype. Despite aggressive management, CD of the esophagus is often refractory to conventional therapy. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510015

New Therapeutic Strategy for the Neurodegenerative Diseases: Pharmacological Modulation of Ca2+/Camp Signaling Interaction

Afonso Caricati-Neto and Leandro Bueno Bergantin

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 09, 2018

Due to the involvement of the imbalance of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, the use of drugs to prevent or attenuate this imbalance emerged as a new therapeutic strategy for treating these diseases....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510014

Assessment of Iron Overload and Chelation Therapy in Adult Inpatients with Sickle Cell Disease

Nicole Bohm, Brittany Toussaint, Stefanie Sarratt, Leigh Vaughan and Ashley Duckett

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: March 24, 2018

There is no consensus for the role of iron chelation therapy in patients with sickle cell disease receiving blood transfusions while hospitalized. The primary objective of this study was to assess the frequency of iron overload in adult inpatients with sickle cell disease and characterize the use of inpatient intravenous iron chelation therapy at the time of red blood cell transfusion....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510013

Novel Concepts for Clinical Pharmacology from

Leandro Bueno Bergantin and Afonso Caricati-Neto

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: November 24, 2017

The solution for the so-called "calcium paradox" has been revealed 4 years ago, when we demonstrated the involvement of the interaction between Ca2+ and cAMP signalling pathways (Ca2+/cAMP signalling interaction) in this enigma....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510012

Dietary Flavonoids and Colorectal Cancer: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

Katrin Sak

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 11, 2017

Identification of dietary agents related to colorectal carcinogenesis is of high importance to decrease the global burden of this severe disorder. As flavonoids abundantly present in plant-based food items are suggested to exert various anticancer activities in numerous experimental models, evidence from epidemiological studies about association....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510011

Prolonged Coagulopathy Following Rattlesnake Envenomation Responsive to Antivenom: A Case Report

Megan Z Roberts, Brian P McKinzie, Stuart M Leon, Stephen A Fann and Nicole M Bohm

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 19, 2017

Venom-specific immunoglobulin G fragments are used for the management of patients with North American crotalid envenomation. In this case, ongoing coagulopathy and clinically significant sequelae required a protracted course of antivenom therapy in a patient experiencing severe rattlesnake envenomation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510010

Pharmaceutical Characterization and Detection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

Tawfik A Saleh

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 07, 2017

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a surface sensitive method that results in the enhancement of Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces. The enhancement factor can be as much as 107 -1015, which allows the technique to be sensitive enough to detect single molecules....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510009

Levothyroxine for Hypothyroidism: Current Status of Biowaiver and Bioequivalence Studies

Nunez-Guzman NA, Munoz-Ibarra AI, Ruiz-Molina D, Figueroa-Nunez B and Garcia-Perez ME

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 24, 2017

Hypothyroidism is a common disease that needs to be closely treated, in order to reduce adverse symptoms and pathophysiological effects. For thyroid hormone replacement is preferred a therapy with a synthetic form of thyroxine (levothyroxine), a drug recognized by its Narrow Therapeutic Index. Generic levothyroxine can be an economic alternative for Hypothyroidism treatment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510008

Increase in Carbamazepine Serum Levels in Patient Treated with Voriconazole

Alberto Sanchez-Romero, Ana Valladolid-Walsh, Rafael Garcia-Delgado and Esperanza Lopez-Rubio

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 05, 2016

The addition of voriconazole to chronic treatment with carbamazepine 400 mg twice a day was associated with increased carbamazepine serum levels (14.1 mg/l) and serum concentration dose ratios. Three days after the voriconazole was started, this ratio doubled its value to 1. Carbamazepine concentration as well as serum concentration dose ratio gradually decreased after treatment with voriconazole was discontinued, suggesting a probable interaction between the two drugs, according to the drug int...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510007

Insight from 'Calcium Paradox' due to Ca2+ / cAMP Interaction: Novel Pharmacological Strategies for the Treatment of Depression

Leandro Bueno Bergantin and Afonso Caricati-Neto

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 12, 2016

Depression is a psychiatric disease resulting mainly by dysfunction of monoaminergic neurotransmission in central nervous system. Depression is a severe global illness, becoming more and more common each decade. Because of specific symptoms, it is considered as a leading cause of disability all over the world with a high death factor due to suicides. There are many antidepressants used in the therapy, but still more than one-third of patients do not respond to the current therapy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510006

Unacceptable Intravenous Administration of Chloral Hydrate Oral Solution

Turgay Cokyaman, Omer Ertugrul, Haydar Ali Tasdemir and Ayhan Dagdemir

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 04, 2016

Chloral hydrate is very frequently used in medical procedures with the purpose of sedation. After oral or rectal administration, central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmia and gastric irritation are known as classical adverse effects. Although the adverse effects developing after enteral usage are well known, there are limited data in literature about the misuse of chloral hydrate oral solution intravenously and the adverse effects that may be seen after this usa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510005

Mass Dose Effects of Carfentanil and Raclopride on Venous Plasma Cortisol and Prolactin after Tobacco Smoking during PET Scanning

Edward F Domino, Lisong Ni and Mika Hirasawa-Fujita

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 09, 2016

Peak cortisol levels after average nicotine (avnic) tobacco smoking were decreased with greater carfentanil doses (p = 0.03). The change in plasma cortisol levels after avnic smoking compared to before avnic smoking was also decreased with greater carfentanil doses (p = 0.003). Unexpectedly the changes in cortisol levels after denicitinized (denic) tobacco smoking compared to before denic smoking were increased with greater carfentanil doses (p = 0.04). No dose effects of raclopride were found o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510004

Case Report: Addition of Naltrexone and Bupropion to Lorcaserin to Manage Olanzapine-induced Weight Gain

Kevin Bera, Eric Tran and Charles T. Nguyen

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 25, 2016

Antipsychotic medications, both typical and atypical, share the potential side effect of weight gain with atypical agents carrying a greater risk. Atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine and olanzapine, which antagonize the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) subtype 5-HT2C receptor, have been associated with a higher likelihood to induce weight gain....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510003

A Review: Are All Inhaled Fibres, Such as Asbestos, Toxic?

Sumayah Abdul-Jabbar and Luigi G Martini

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 05, 2015

Exposure to asbestos is well known to have a causal relationship with the development of lung cancer. In order to understand the mechanism of this toxicity an extensive review was undertaken. Findings were able to show that the morphology of the asbestos (which is fibrous) has a marked correlation with its toxicity. It is this morphology that mutually contributes to enhanced aerodynamic properties making asbestos ideal for deposition in the lungs as well as giving it mutagenic properties. Theref...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510002

Evaluation of Empirical Antibiotic Therapy for the Treatment of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections (CA-UTI)

Joao Pedro Aguiar, Filipa Alves da Costa and Patricia Cavaco Silva

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 28, 2015

Objectives: To characterize the pattern of indication of antibiotic regimens for CA-UTI; to evaluate the adequacy of antibiotic empirical therapy in CA-UTI and the resistance profile of the bacterial isolates. Methods: An observational study was conducted, where the prevalence and resistance profiles of the microorganisms involved and the pattern of antibiotic indication were investigated through a cross-sectional approach. Patients presenting with UTI symptomatology and antibiotic indication we...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3987.1510001

Amitriptyline Therapy in Chronic Pain

Min Su, Liang Liang and Shengyuan Yu

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 26, 2015

Rodent evidence has confirmed the analgesic effect of tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of chronic pain, which amitriptyline is rigorously verified. The analgesic effect of amitriptyline, whose mechanisms are complex and unclear, is different from its antidepressant effect. This article reviewed the mechanisms behind amitriptyline's analgesic properties to further understanding of this drug. Additionally, this article reviewed the clinical evidence of the effectiveness of amitriptyline ...


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021


International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021