Journal of Hypertension and Management is an international, open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes wide variety of clinical information in all the aspects of arterial blood pressure. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a platform for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and helps raise awareness among community on hypertension and its management. We aim to publish highest quality clinical content via open access platform providing the readers without charge, immediate and unlimited access.
Journal of Hypertension and Management is an open journal which accelerates research updates on Systolic Pressure, Diastolic Pressure, Primary Hypertension, Hypertension Pathophysiology, Hypertension in Pregnancy, Paediatric Hypertension, Hypertensive Crisis, Diagnosis, Prevention, Management, Lifestyle Modifications, Resistant Hypertension, Epidemiology, Genetic History, Hypertension Comorbidities, etc. The journal accepts articles in the form of Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. Authors can publish their experimental and theoretical results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510043
Evrim Kargin Cakici, Eda Didem Kurt Sukur, Fatma Yazilitaş, Gokce Gur, Tulin Gungor, Evra Celikkaya, Deniz Karakaya and Mehmet Bulbul
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 30, 2019
The clinical significance of white coat hypertension is still uncertain. We aimed to evaluate children with white coat hypertension regarding their clinical, laboratory characteristics, evidence of target organ damage and compare them to normotensive and hypertensive children. Fourty patients diagnosed with white coat hypertension, 40 patients with primary hypertension and 40 normotensive children of similar age, gender and body mass index were included in the study. Ambulatory blood pressure mo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510042
Abdulmecit Afsin, Ramazan Asoglu, Ertugrul Kurtoglu and Hakan Kaya
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 05, 2019
Concentric or eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent prognostic factor of major cardiovascular events in hypertension (HT). A high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is correlated with high mortality and poor prognosis in cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to investigate the associations between NLR and different left ventricular (LV) geometric patterns in patients with newly diagnosed HT....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510041
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 03, 2019
There has been virtually no change for three decades in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy and it's many namesakes: Pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, gestosis, etc. all of which shall be referred to in the rest of this article as PIH. In part this is because of an incomplete understanding of its physiology and pathophysiology, partly because the only widely accepted treatment, labetalol, does not work well and causes fetal growth restriction. This is a s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510040
Fernando Vazquez-Alaniz, Jose Manuel Salas-Pacheco, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, Osmel La-llave-Leon, Edna Madai-Mendez Hernandez, Marcelo Barraza-Salas, Eda Guadalupe Ramirez- Valles, Norma Urtiz-Estrada, Mario Lumbreras Marquez, Jose Miguel Montes-Herrera and Cesar Yhamel Sanchez-Bernal
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 06, 2019
Lactate dehydrogenase has had an exciting journey as a utility marker in different illnesses, but currently, its clinical utility has been relegated to confirm hemolysis, as a tumor marker, and as a diagnostic biomarker of preeclampsia. The findings of lactate dehydrogenase concentrations taking reference values to healthy persons are not consistent when these are related to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, mainly to begin symptoms or little severity presentation. The goal in this work was t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510039
Fernando Aguirre Palacios
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: May 11, 2019
This editorial is dedicated to obesity, overweight, and sedentarism in infants. The original work was published a few months ago in the Journal of Hypertension and Vascular Risk, with the intention of initiating a global campaign to address the pandemic of obesity from an early age, looking for measurement tools that allow monitoring of intervention programs aimed at reducing it. The intention of the present work was to find the simplest proposal, innovative, and novel, to screen, kids with a hi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510038
Kate Levenberg, David Proctor, Michael Flanagan, Yasina Somani and Faisal Aziz
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 11, 2019
Nearly half of patients diagnosed with hypertension are unable to keep their blood pressure under control despite pharmacologic intervention, indicating a need for adjunctive anti-hypertensive therapies. Nutraceuticals may be a promising option for intervention due to their ease of implementation and demonstrated efficacy. The use of nutraceuticals clinically has thus far been limited by a lack of guidelines, likely stemming from a history of poor regulatory standards that allow supplements to g...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510037
Quiara Lovatti Alves, Samuel Barbosa Camargo and DarIzy Flavia Silva
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 21, 2019
Hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, stoke, end-stage renal disease and erectile dysfunction. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide, and although their etiology were multifactorial, eating habits have been associated with its development. There has been a great deal of interest in studies associating the beneficial effects of food with prevention and tre...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510036
Aminu Ibrahim, Hadiza Babaye, Murtala Ya'u, Kamaluddeen Babagana, Salisu Maiwada Abubakar, Jamila Mashi Ahmad and Abba Babandi
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: September 12, 2018
Dyslipidemia and imbalance of electrolytes are among the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which cause morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. Consumption of fruits and their juices has been shown to be beneficial health wise by lowering risk of coronary artery/cardiovascular diseases, stroke and other degenerative diseases. The lowering effects and protective mechanism of these fruits are probably due to numerous beneficial nutrients and extra-nutrients found ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510035e
William J Rowe
Article Type: Editorial Article | First Published: August 08, 2018
The iron brake dust age began with the automobile in the 1890's. Until recently, although air pollution was considered a risk factor for hypertension, the studies lacked statistical significance and were considered controversial. However, a Japanese study, also published in the same year, 2016, showed that the key tracers of brake wear particles for example, iron and copper, were at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510034
Ana Correia de Oliveira and Paulo Santos
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 04, 2018
Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world, increasing significantly with aging. The treatment of arterial hypertension leads to the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular events, such as stroke and heart disease. In the adult population, the prevalence of hypertension is about 30 to 45%, varying between countries. In 2010, more than 1.3 billion adults age ≥ 20-years-old were hypertensive worldwide, representing an estimated global age-standardized prevalence o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510033
Adeel Pervez and Richard Keirn
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2018
The SPRINT trial was a landmark study and appeared to set new aggressive goals for the treatment of hypertension. It relied upon an average of multiple blood pressure measurements taken with an automated blood pressure cuff with a noted cool-down period beforehand. Our study was designed to see if the values obtained in common office practice differed from the so called "research grade" numbers achieved in the SPRINT trial. To accomplish this, we had participants screened with a manual cuff pres...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510032
FA do Vale, RAM de Sa, FC da Silva, CA de Oliveira and LGC Velarde
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 25, 2018
The reported prevalence of hypertension varies around the world. According to the World Health Organization, the percentage of the population aged 18 years and over with high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90) in 2014 was 26.4% in males and 20.4% in females. Chronic hypertension is estimated to be present in 3% to 5% of pregnancies and is being encountered with increasing frequency....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510031e
William J Rowe
Article Type: Editorial Article | First Published: June 09, 2018
Armstrong returned with extraordinary diastolic hypertension (160/135) and Irwin, after his Apollo 15 mission, with blood pressure of 275/125 after only 3 minutes of exercise. Having supervised over 5000 symptom-limited maximum, treadmill hospital based stress tests, I have never seen such extraordinary blood pressure levels. I have shown that the invariable magnesium (Mg) deficiencies of space flight and dehydration with angiotensin and catecholamine elevations, leaking of plasma through defect...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510030
Cosimo Marcello Bruno, Maria Domenica Amaradio, Gabriele Pricoco, Elisa Marino and Francesca Bruno
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 01, 2018
Emerging data suggest that lifestyle habits may affect blood pressure values. In this review, authors examine the more relevant clinical and epidemiological studies about the influence that multiple lifestyle factors play on development of hypertension. They conclude that there is clear evidence that lifestyle changes can have a favorable effect on prevention and treatment of hypertension, with emphasis on alcohol and sodium intake, smoking cessation, physical activity level and dietary pattern....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510029
William J Rowe
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 11, 2017
Neil Armstrong showed a significantly elevated stress test - diastolic Blood Pressure (BP) during a Bicycle (B) stress test on return from his historic lunar mission; use of a B, provided a considerable advantage over a treadmill for BP accuracy with the test, the day after splashdown....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510028
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 09, 2017
At present, Zika virus infection is a big public health problem. The infection can be seen worldwide and is still not successfully controlled. The disease can cause acute febrile illness but the important problems are the possible induction of neurological complication and teratogenic effect....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510027
Berfin Uysal, Osman Donmez and Fahrettin Uysal
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 31, 2017
Hypertension (HTN) in childhood is a serious cause of mortality and morbidity Hypertension during childhood is diagnosed more than past as a consequence of increasing awareness about childhood hypertension, measuring blood pressure by the accurate technique and childhood obesity epidemic....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510026
Imen Lassoued, Rim Nasri, Jridi Mourad and Moncef Nasri
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 07, 2017
Bioactive peptides from collagen and gelatin with antioxidant and antihypertensive properties have become a topic of great interest for health and food preservation industries. Thornback Ray Skin Gelatin Hydrolysate with an hydrolysis degree of 9.23% was prepared by treatment with Alcalase (TRGH-Alcalase)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510025
Anh N Do, Wei Zhao, Vinodh Srinivasasainagendra, Stella Aslibekyan, Hemant K Tiwari, Nita Limdi, Sanjiv J Shah, Degui Zhi, Uli Broeckel, C Charles Gu, DC Rao, Karen Schwander, Jennifer A Smith, Sharon LR Kardia, Donna K Arnett and Marguerite R Irvin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 20, 2017
Left Ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, highest in prevalence among African Americans, is an established risk factor heart failure. Several genome wide association studies have identified common variants associated with LV-related quantitative-traits in African Americans. To date, however, the effect of rare variants on these traits has not been extensively studied, especially in minority groups....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510024
Gibran Khalil and Afshan Hameed
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 25, 2017
Preeclampsia complicates about 5% of all pregnancies worldwide and is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and even mortality. The disorder is specific to pregnancy characterized by new onset of hypertension and end-organ dysfunction including proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510023
Tracey Keteepe-Arachi and Sanjay Sharma
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 14, 2017
Myocardial fibrosis is the hallmark of myocardial remodelling found in hypertensive individuals. This process adversely affects the outcomes of such patients and results in diastolic and systolic cardiac dysfunction, electrical dysrhythmia and potentially sudden death. Collagen metabolism has been highlighted as the primary mechanism by which fibrosis is regulated. However, there are many other facets to the pathophysiology of myocardial fibrosis including mechanical, cellular and hormonal influ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510022
C Bosco, M Parra-Cordero and E Diaz
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 21, 2016
Recently preeclampsia (PE) has been linked throught molecular evidence to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the placenta. In this organ ER stress is generated due to placental oxidative stress as a consequence of malperfusion secondary to deficient spiral artery remodeling. Immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural analysis were used to study tissue specimens from 14 term placentas: 4 normal, 4 PE, 3 intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and 3 PE+IUGR....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510021
Nicolas F Renna, Jesica M Ramirez, Rodrigo D Garcia, Emiliano A Diez and Roberto M Miatello
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 17, 2016
Increasing evidence suggests that immune activation and inflammatory mediators may play a role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Several studies have shown that patients with some diseases characterized by inflammatory mediator activation, which rheumatoid arthritis (RA), presented accelerate atherosclerosis. RA is a systemic inflammatory disease and the most common cause of death is due to accelerated atherosclerosis, especially coronary artery disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510020
Eysenck W and Sulke N
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 26, 2016
In recent years, there has been great interest in non-pharmacological methods to manage uncontrolled and resistant hypertension. Renal denervation and formation of a central iliac anastomosis are examples. In addition, renal denervation has yielded promising results in the prevention and treatment of AF. We have analysed the potential explanations for this in detail. A central iliac arteriovenous anastomosis, meanwhile, reduces arterial stiffness which is not targeted by sympathomodulation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510019
Neal Shah, Nicolle M Siegart, Joshua De Leon and Allison B Reiss
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 19, 2016
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for premature death and disability. It can be controlled through lifestyle changes and use of antihypertensive medication. This review looks at intensive blood pressure reduction trials in non-diabetic, diabetic, and mixed patients' populations. The primary hypothesis for the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) is that treating to a systolic blood pressure target of < 120 mmHg (the intensive intervention) compared to a systolic blood pressu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510018
Danielle GA Ezequiel, Frida Liane Plavnik, Monica B Costa, Julio CM Lovisi, Fernando AB Colugnati, Juliana Machado Saraiva and Rogerio B de Paula
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 17, 2016
Introduction: Aldosterone has been implicated in the pathophysiology of both metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS-associated arterial hypertension, despite the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in these scenarios has been little studied. Objectives: To assess the effects of mineralocorticoid blockade on blood pressure as well as metabolic and renal parameters in mild hypertensive subjects with MS compared with an active control group....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510017
S Malatos, A Raptis and M Xenos
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 22, 2016
The mathematical modeling of blood flow in the cardiovascular system has long history. Zero-dimensional (0D) and one-dimensional (1D) models contribute actively to the study of the human cardiovascular system. Usually, low-dimensional models consist of a system of time dependent equations that do not involve spatial derivatives, thus reducing the computational complexity compared to multi-dimensional models. Despite that more complex 3D cardiovascular models are available, there is a tendency of...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510016
Heather M Johnson, Jamie N LaMantia, Ryan C Warner, Nancy Pandhi, Christie M Bartels, Maureen A Smith and Diane R Lauver
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 12, 2016
In the United States, young adults (18-39 year-olds) have the lowest hypertension control rates (35%) compared to middle-aged (58%) and older (54%) adults. Ambulatory care for hypertension management often focuses on medication with little time for self-management and behavioral counseling. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of MyHEART, a telephone-based health coach self-management intervention for young adults....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510015
Andre Nascimento Publio Pereira, Roque Aras Junior, Cristiano Ricardo Bastos Macedo, Ricardo Ribeiro do Nascimento Teixeira, Iuri Reseda Magalhaes, Diego Sant'ana Sondre, Bianca de Almeida Nunes and Juliana Queiroz Vasconcelos Muniz
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 18, 2016
Refractory Arterial Hypertension (RAH) is characterized by persistently high blood pressure values. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in combination with other antihypertensive drugs are effective for RAH and have good clinical tolerance. According to the literature, the adverse effect of cough in patients using ACE inhibitors occurs in 5 to 20% of them. However, in clinical practice, the incidence appears to be higher, making it difficult the therapeutic adherence....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510014
Altnji HE, Mbodj C, Bou-Said B and Walter-Le Berre H
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 08, 2016
Models of the mechanical behaviour of arterial walls are required for mechanical applications in cardiovascular disease treatments, such as Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) in particular, to contribute to the ability to predict type IA endoleak. In this work, an explicit ﬁnite-element in-house code was used to evaluate the stresses generated by the blood ﬂow in a whole system consisting of the endograft, plaque, and aneurysmal aorta. The developed numerical model was modified to...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510013
Pascal Colson and Philippe Gaudard
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 16, 2016
Hypertension is a very common disease, the first etiology of chronic cardiovascular disease in adult patients who undergo surgery. Improvement in HTA management is undeniable, but some concerns remain for the perioperative period. This article makes a short review of the state of the art regarding the anesthesia management of hypertensive patient during the perioperative period, with a special focus on anesthesia-hypertension interference....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510012
Seth J Baum and Casey Peavler
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: April 20, 2016
The scientific literature is burgeoning at an alarming rate, making it impossible for physicians to integrate, let alone read even a miniscule portion of publications. The STM, a global organization whose aim is to disseminate results of high-level research and publications, recently assessed the magnitude of the literature boom. In 2012 they reported that 1.8 to 1.9 million papers were published in 28,100 active scholarly journals. With regulatory demands equally explosive, how are physicians t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510011
William J. Rowe
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: April 18, 2016
As a member of a North American Fitness Delegation to China in 1988, with an invitation to present a paper in Guangzhou, I chose as a role model Sy Mah, holder of the Guinness Book of Records for having completed 524 marathons. Mah, a professor of physical education at the University of Toledo, was on a sabbatical in Boston and drove all night for his stress test in the morning; it was very abnormal with evidence of severe ischemia. Because of time constraints, I took him to the Medical College ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510010
Sumitra Piyanuttapull and Jaruboot Angsanakul
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 09, 2016
Hypertensive crisis is common among patients visiting emergency room (ER). Majority of these patients can be treated on an outpatient basis (hypertensive urgency). Other patients have acute end-organ damage and higher morbidity and mortality (hypertensive emergency). However, no study on the prevalence of hypertensive emergency in ER in Thailand was found. We aim to evaluate the prevalence and also potential predictors of hypertensive emergency....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510009
Martyna Zaleska, Olga Mozenska, Katarzyna Nikelewska, Magdalena Chrabaszcz, Weronika Rygier, Jan Gieraltowski, Monika Petelczyc and Dariusz A Kosior
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: April 02, 2016
Hypertension affects currently around 1 billion people worldwide and cardiovascular disease remains the most frequent cause of mortality worldwide. Hypertension societies publish cyclically recommendations how to diagnose and manage this illness. Some of them describes tools used to diagnose this disease, others do not. However nowadays many new methods are introduced to assess blood pressure (BP) values. Some of them allow only to obtain central or systolic BP, others are used currently only in...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510008
XM Wang and JKC Yee
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 02, 2016
Arterial hypertension is a risk factor for atherosclerosis of whose pathogenesis is unknown but had been reported as associated with H. pylori infection. Growing evidence underscores the causative role of endothelial dysfunction with infection. A possible association between H. pylori infection and cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders has been found....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510007
Kimberly Souffront, Deborah Chyun, Christine Kovner and Olubenga Ogedegbe
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: March 24, 2016
Despite the magnitude of hypertension (HTN)-associated morbidity and mortality, HTN remains under diagnosed and poorly controlled, making elevated blood pressure (BP) a problem frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Nearly 44% of patients in the ED have elevated BP, compared to 27% of those who visit their primary care provider (PCP), and this disproportionately affects ethnic minorities and the elderly....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510006
Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 23, 2016
Pressocardiogram is a very old noninvasive technique that has been used widely in noninvasive laboratories in and out of hospitals by applying transthoracically an optimal pressure sensor over the maximal LV impulse. It has been proved that this pulse pressure tracing obtained over the maximal LV impulse reflects LVP curve in time and slopes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510005
Raheel Khan, Taimur Abbasi, Roberto F. Machado and Jiwang Chen
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 02, 2016
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a deadly cardiovascular disease that follows a progressive and symptomatic course. This disease presents in approximately 15 cases per million each year and is categorized into five different groups based on established or presumed etiology. The poorly understood role of BMPR II mutation, early onset and severity of symptoms and increased fatality rate associated with IPAH make treatment a challenge for physicians. Current treatment options focus on the three main ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510004
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 05, 2015
It was demonstrated that home blood pressure (HBP) has a stronger predictive power for death, micro- and macrovascular complications than clinic blood pressure (CBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated which of these measurements offers predicatively stronger power for outcomes over 10 years in non-obese and obese patients with T2DM....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510003
Krause N and Arias OE
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 07, 2015
Objective: To identify disparities in hypertension prevalence, treatment and control among female hotel room cleaners (HRC) compared to the U.S. population that may persist beyond health insurance coverage. Methods: A community-based participatory research project obtained resting blood pressure readings and information on antihypertensive medication from 866 Las Vegas HRCs....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510002
Ming Fan, Mahmoud M. El-Mas, and Abdel A. Abdel-Rahman
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: August 29, 2015
Chronic LV pressure overload, e.g. in hypertension, leads to cardiac hypertrophy and ultimately heart failure. However, it is not clear if cardiac performance is compromised during early stages of LV hypertrophy before the development of heart failure. Studies in animals with LV hypertrophy revealed conflicting results due to differences in the magnitude, duration, and method of induction of cardiac hypertrophy as well as in the ventricular chamber involved....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3690/1510001
Wilbert S. Aronow
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2015
Patients with coronary artery disease should have their modifiable coronary risk factors intensively treated. Dietary sodium should be reduced. Hypertension should be treated with beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Long-acting nitrates are effective antianginal and antiischemic drugs. Calcium channel blockers may be added if angina persists despite beta blockers and long-acting nitrates....
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