International Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases is a peer reviewed, open access journal focused on clinical areas of cardiovascular medicine. The Journal provides the authors a platform for publication of their work and for the exchange of their ideas. We aim to publish utmost quality clinical content via open access providing the readers to immediately access without charge. The journal publishes original communications of scientific excellence concerned with clinical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
International Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases focused to publish articles on topics, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest, cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiogenic shock, cardiomyopathy, cardiopulmonary bypass, carotid atherosclerotic plaques, congestive heart failure, endocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, interventional cardiology, ischemia, mitral valve stenosis, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, pericarditis, stroke, tachycardia, venous thrombosis, venous thrombus, etc. All articles published in the journal are subject to standard peer review process. The journal publishes the latest findings in cardiovascular medicine, cardiovascular diseases and observational studies.
All articles are published only after close scrutinizing by expert editors and reviewer recommendations being amended for improved flawless content. International Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases ensures the maintenance of international standards of open access publishing.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710040
Muhammad Zubair Khan, MD, Sona Franklin, MD and Richard Hyman, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2021
A Percutaneous assist device is commonly used in cardiogenic shock to improve hemodynamics. The Impella provided superior hemodynamic support in the ISARSHOCK study compared with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), with no change in clinical outcome. In this trial, the IABP was used in one group, and the Impella was placed in a comparator group. We present a case in which the hemodynamics of cardiogenic shock was assessed in the same patient after IABP and after Impella placement. In our case, ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710039
Ricardo J Villasmil, MD, Christian J Lorenzo, MD, Qassem K Abdelal, MD, Jorge I Conte, MD, Natalia Lattanzio, MD, Wilhelmine Wiese-Rometsch, MD and Henry G Cheng, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2021
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been reported to cause cardiac complications including myocarditis, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and various tachyarrhythmias. We present a 63-year-old male who developed nonreversible symptomatic bradycardia due to advanced atrioventricular block (AV) requiring pacemaker placement in the setting of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus identified as the pathogen responsible for causing th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710037
Muhammad O Zaman, MD, Luka Petrovic, MD, Scott Stewart, DNP and Bernard Kim, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 24, 2021
Patients with end stage heart failure often develop pulmonary hypertension which resolves after placement of left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Some patients develop persistent pulmonary hypertension despite LVAD implantation. This excludes them from being able to receive a heart transplant. High pulmonary vascular resistance is associated with poor prognosis in patients with LVAD. There are no treatment guidelines available for long term treatment of pulmonary hypertension in LVAD patients ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710036
Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás and Andres Llamas Nieves
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: February 06, 2021
Mitochondria are cellular organelles; whose function goes beyond generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP). They are part of the machinery involved in the production of substances related to iron, sulfur, and heme group, involved in lipid metabolism, calcium homeostasis, heat generation, cell signaling, stem cell pathway determination, and apoptotic processes. A vast variety of pathologies have been related to mitochondrial deficit, within these, cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710035
Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás and Andres Llamas Nieves
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: February 06, 2021
Homocysteine is a sulfurated amino acid, deriving out of methionine from the metabolism of the methyl group. It is a non-protein substance that has been associated with the dynamics of endothelial function, platelet activation, and leukocyte interaction, with the capacity to intensify the inflammatory response in the cardiovascular system, it is therefore considered a potential cardiovascular risk marker. Some studies have evaluated homocysteine in risk groups, where it has been found that the e...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710034
Rodriguez-Zuñiga Jorge, Garcia-Hernandez Jorge Alfredo, Lopez-Vilchis Lizeth Liliana, Ruiz-Mondragon Alberto and Sanchez-Martinez Fatima Alondra
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 23, 2021
Hypertensive crisis is one of the main complications of systemic arterial hypertension, which is defined as severe elevation of blood pressure, with figures of more than 220/130 mmHg, these in turn are divided into urgency and emergency, which occurs when there is damage to a target organ. According to the literature, the majority of hypertensive crises that occur are of an urgency type, reported in up to 80% of cases, the latter do not require a rapid decrease in blood pressure, taking up to 72...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710033
Ahmed Khamis AlShamakhi, MSc, Rakesh Malhari Jamkhandikar, MD, Yahya Mohammed AlWahshi, MD and Sathiya Murthi Panchatcharam, MSc
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 23, 2021
This study was performed in a single center and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-one consecutive patients (26 men/5 women) underwent CT calcium score to rule out CAC. Image data were reconstructed with both; filtered back projection (FBP) and different levels of IR algorithms. Both the qualitative and quantitative image quality and subjective diagnostic performance were compared; Agatston scores and calcium density were measured for a total of 100 coronary arteries...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710032
Vinay Mehta, MD and Timothy E Paterick, MD, JD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 12, 2020
A practical approach to determining risk in sedentary and active patients for coronary artery disease. Identify how personal/family history, atherogenic risk factors, and coronary calcium are essential to determining and predicting risk potential. A comprehensive personal/family history, risk factor assessment and comprehensive physical examination are the foundation of risk assessment. Understanding the cognitive process of risk potential is critical to management strategies. Stress testing and...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710031
Shingo Watanabe and Michio Usui
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 12, 2020
The beneficial effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been well established. PCI for ACS, especially for thrombotic lesions, is difficult to treat due to distal embolization or residual thrombus. We experienced a case in which long balloon inflation was effective in PCI for ACS due to thrombotic lesions. Here we introduce the case that long inflation balloon angioplasty using a perfusion balloon was useful in PCI for thrombus lesion....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710030
Thilina Gunawardena, MBBS, MD, MRCS, Balasubramanium Saseekaran, MBBS, MD, MRCS, Gayan Bandara, MBBS, MD, MRCS, Rezni Cassim, MBBS, MS and Mandika Wijeyaratne, MBBS, MS, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 11, 2020
Pacemaker lead associated venous thrombosis is common. However, due to collateral venous drainage those who are affected rarely become symptomatic. Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms that occurs as a result of obstruction to flow in the superior vena cava. In this case report we present a patient who developed this complication following multiple transvenous pacemaker wires. After failed percutaneous venoplasty he was treated successfully with a right inte...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710029
M EL Mourid, A Drighil, FZ Talhi, I Nouamou and K Bouayed
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 15, 2020
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), defined by the onset of arthritis evolving for more than 6 months, before the age of 16-years-old, with no evident etiology. It is the most common type of arthritis in children under the age of 16. The polyarticular form is characterized by more destructive joint and less systemic impairment. Cardiac involvement is not a usual presentation and varies from pericardial to myocardial involvement to heart failure. It is more seen in systemic form of AJI. Valvular...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710028
Moustafa Kamal Eldin Ibrahim Khalil Saad, Khalid A El-khashab and Tamer M Ragab
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 11, 2020
Adverse left ventricular remodelling (LVR), defined as progressive ventricular dilatation, distortion of chamber shape, myocardial hypertrophy and deteriorating function, begins in some patients who suffered from acute myocardial infarction (AMI), sometimes even after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). If uninterrupted, it could lead to congestive heart failure (CHF) and a poor clinical outcome. This study aims at evaluating the value of speckle tracking echocardiography in pre...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710027
Edroso Jarne Paloma Eugenia, Arche Banzo Maria Jose, Pascual Bielsa Ana and Obon Azuara Blanca
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 16, 2019
We describe the case of a 61-year-old female who was admitted to our tertiary centre with 15-day of dyspnea and whitish expectoration. The patient had a history of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism a year ago, anticoagulated until a few months ago with acenocumarol. The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism by CT-scan and deep vein thrombosis in the proximal segment of the left femoral vein....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710026
Mohammad Alsalaldeh and AVefa Ozcan
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 18, 2019
Infective endocarditis (IE) is one of the cardiac inflammation diseases with high mortality and morbidity mainly affects the inner liner of the endocardium and the valves. The majority of the infective endocarditis is caused by infectious agents. Here in our case, we had a patient with IE associated with multiple cerebral hemorrhagic and infarct areas, brain abscess, pleural effusion, ARDS (Acute respiratory distress syndrome) and bicytopenia, with history of one attack pancreatitis and addictio...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710025
Tumwebaze Hilda, Ndagiire Emma, Namuyonga Judith, Twalib Aliku, Lwabi Peter and Lubega Sulaiman
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 07, 2019
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis which progresses to cause coronary artery abnormalities as a complication. Echocardiographic and cardiac angiographic data indicate that 20-40% of untreated KD patients develop coronary artery abnormalities. However, majority of the lesions regress over time. Timely treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and high dose of aspirin has been found reduce the incidence of developing coronary artery aneurysms to 2%-3%. Data on ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710024
Ramazan Asoglu and Emin Asoglu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2019
Atherosclerosis plays an essential role in the etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE). The mean platelet volume/platelet count (MPV/PLT) ratio is a new biomarker, and increased MPV/PLT ratio was a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in patients with the acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to assess the association between the CAE and MPV/PLT ratio. The present study included 50 patients with CAE and 45 healthy subjects prospectively. The CAE was defined as dilation of the coronary art...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710023
Victor Rodrigues Ribeiro Ferreira, Maria Christiane Valeria Braga Braile-Sternieri, Eliana Migliorini Mustafa, Giovanni Braile Sternieri, Sofia Braile Sabino, Cibele Olegário Vianna Queiroz, Bethina Canaroli Sbardellini, Luiza Braile Verdi, Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho and Domingo Marcolino Braile
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 28, 2019
Despite a general reduction in the number of myocardial revascularization surgeries in recent decades, more than 150,000 are still performed annually in the United States. Early complications of venous graft use include an occlusion rate of up to 25% in the first year. The aneurysmal dilatation of the great saphenous vein, when used in aorto- coronary venous bridges, is rare and requires important care by the cardiology team. This study aimed to present a case report on saphenous vein aneurysm i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710022
Philippe N Muller, Christine H Attenhofer Jost, MD, Osmund Bertel, MD, Barbara Naegeli, MD, Edwin Straumann, MD, Pierre Levis, MD, Burkhardt Seifert, Dominik Maurer, MD, Christoph Scharf, MD, Olaf Franzen, MD and Franz Wolfgang Amann, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 28, 2019
The database at our center from 2005-2014 was searched for all percutaneous cardiac procedures, including coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), percutaneous mitral valve repair by MitraClip (PMVR), balloon valvuloplasty of the aortic valve (ABVP) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Age at procedure, clinical data, type and findings at procedure, in-hospital outcome, survival and predictors for survival were an...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710021
Alawni O, Almusaad A and Eyaid W
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2019
A 13-years-old boy. He was born at home at 30 weeks of gestation. He stayed in nursery for 3 months. He sat independently at the age of one year, walked at around 3 years and started to run around 4 years of age. Currently, he can walk, and run well. He wears his clothes, button, and unbutton his shirts. He copies letters, scripts and shapes however; he usually does not follow lines. He spoke at the age of 2 years it was single words like mama and dada....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710020
Brock M, Sanchorawala V, Berk JL, Cui H, Gopal DM, O'Hara C, Ruberg FL and Siddiqi OK
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2019
A 62-year-old woman with newly diagnosed systemic AL amyloidosis was evaluated for severely increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness. Her echocardiographic, cardiac MRI, and genetic findings led to a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Five years after achieving relative a partial hematologic response with chemotherapy, the patient died after developing rapidly progressive heart failure and cardiogenic shock. A full autopsy diagnosed both cardiac amyloidosis and HCM. The overla...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710018
Timothy E Paterick MD, JD, MBA
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 31, 2019
Recurrent stress-induced cardiomyopathy with variable regional location of left ventricular dyssynergy is an unusual clinical presentation and may allow potential insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development of the variable subtypes of stress induced cardiomyopathy. This case report reveals a patient with reverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and apical Takotsubo cardiomyopathy within a three-week period. The discussion explores the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms re...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710017
Dorah Nampijja, Aliku Twalib, Kumbakumba Elias and Sulaiman Lubega
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 15, 2019
Cardiac involvement in metastatic tumors is not widely investigated. Commonest site of cardiac involvement is the pericardium. However, diffuse metastasis to the myocardium and endocardium is uncommon. Striated cardiac muscle, fast blood flow within the heart and unique lymphatic drainage make malignant metastasis to the heart rare. Cardiac metastasis is a late manifestation of malignancy and most of the cases are diagnosed on Post-mortem. We describe a case of metastatic Pre B-Lymphoblastic Lym...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710016
Degena Bahrey, Tekleweyni Mariye, Gebreamlak Gebremedh, Ayehu Kassa, Alem Girmay, Girmay Teklay, Hagos Tasew, Hagos Berihu and Yohannes Ashebir
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 10, 2019
A total of 578 hypertensive patients were taken from cardiac follow-up. Among the hypertensive patients the magnitude of cardiovascular risk factors was 212 (36.7%). The magnitude of each cardiovascular risk factor was high. Magnitude of overweight and obesity was 33.7%. Concurrently 30.4% had habit of taking high salt diet and 27.3% were patients with dyslipidaemia. Patients with less physically active were 89.1% and 23.5% were consuming alcohol regularly. Whereas 15.9% was smoker. This study a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IACVD-2017/1710015
Murat Surucu, MD, Hazım Alper Gursu and I Ilker Cetin
Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: February 25, 2019
Central venous catheters are commonly used in clinical practice. Right atrial thrombosis is a relatively common complication associated with indwelling catheter use. Thrombosis can be in different locations and forms within vascular and intracardiac structures. Echocardiographic images may mimic some anatomic and pathologic variants. We describe a case of a two-months-old girl with a thrombus which cor triatriatum dexter-like appearance in the right atrium due to the central venous catheter....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IACVD-2017/1710014
Liliane Mfeukeu Kuate, Helene Ornella Bongha Ondoa, Jean-Claude Katte, Aurel Tiakouang Tankeu, Mireille Claudia Abeng Bokam, Andre Michel Bimbai, Ahmadou Musa Jingi, Chris Nadege Nganou-Gnindjio, Mesmin Yefou Dehayem, Francois Folefack Kaze, Jean Claude Mbanya, Andre Pascal Kengne and Eugene Sobngwi
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 25, 2019
Renin-angiotensin system antagonists are the mainstays of blood pressure (BP) lowering strategies in people with diabetes. Perindopril a long half-life Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor offers the advantage of a single daily dose, usually empirically taken in the morning. We therefore aimed to assess the influence of time of administration on the effect of Perindopril on circadian BP in type 2 diabetes (T2D) individuals with previously untreated stage 1 hypertension. Twenty T2D patie...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710013
Melike Bayram, David Perkowski, JA St Cyr and William T Abraham
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 15, 2018
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide. Myocardial ischemia, a common etiological factor in cardiovascular disease, lowers cellular high-energy phosphate levels, i.e. adenosine triphosphate (ATP), with an accompanying impairment in myocardial function. Furthermore, scientists have argued for the importance of ATP levels in supporting both systolic and diastolic function in heart failure. The magnitude of ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure is generally we...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710012
Gregory D Sloop, Gheorghe Pop, Joseph J Weidman and John A St Cyr
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2018
The authors hypothesize that thrombosis causes both the complications of atherosclerosis as well as the underlying lesion, the atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerotic plaques develop from the organization of mural thrombi. In this process, circulating progenitor cells trapped within the thrombus differentiate into myofibroblasts which synthesize collagen, and endothelial cells which form granulation tissue. Eventually, all or most of the thrombus is replaced by collagen. Thus, conditions and dru...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710011
Mohammad Reza Dayer, Vahideh-Sadat Nazemi, Mohammad Saaid Dayer and Sayed Mohammad Reza Alavi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 19, 2018
Cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction comprise the leading causes of more than half of the total death often among elderly people. Psychological stresses, imbalanced diet, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, tobacco, alcohol, and metabolic diseases such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus are the main risk factors for the disease. In order to better understand the underlying risk factor for the disease we performed complete analyses of biochemical factors in sera of obese, non-diabetic ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710010
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 19, 2018
In this report, we describe a patient who presented with transient acute abdomen before the onset of an acute myocardial ischemic event. Chest pain, dyspnea, and hypotension requiring vasopressors developed 2 days after the patient presented with paralytic ileus. Transient left-bundle-branch block and mildly elevated troponin and brain-natriuretic peptide levels occurred. Echocardiography and left ventricular angiography revealed extensive periapical akinesia and a left ventricular ejection frac...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710009
Murat KERKUTLUOGLU and Mahmut Tuna KATIRCIBASI
Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: August 29, 2018
Congenital anomalies of the heart may generate difficulties for cardiac invasive procedures. Dextrocardia is a rare congenital heart disease in which the apex of the heart is located on the right side of the chest. Patients with transposition of great arteries (TGA) abnormalities are at risk for complete cardiac block and usually require a permanent cardiac pacemaker in long-term follow-up. The persistent left superior vena cava (PLSCV) is a rare venous anomaly, often associated with abnormaliti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710008
Lopes Cardoso I
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 27, 2018
Homocysteine is an amino acid with an SH group, metabolised by the remethylation and transsulfuration pathways. Several genetic and environmental factors (like deficient nutrition status, systemic disease or consumption of certain drugs), can lead to changes in the levels of plasma homocysteine. Nowadays, hyperhomocysteinemia is considered an important and independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710007
Matthew Schmidt and Timothy E Paterick
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 28, 2018
Coronary artery ectasia is defined as a localized, or diffuse dilation of a coronary artery lumen. Coronary artery ectasia is well recognized, but a rare finding encountered during diagnostic coronary angiography. Coronary artery ectasia represents a form of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, seen in 1.4-4.9% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. It may be an isolated finding, or in combination with stenotic lesions. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710006
Marc Lubitz and Vaskar Mukerji
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 25, 2018
A 61-year-old man presented with central chest and vague left shoulder pain precipitated by a brisk walk up a steep hill. His pain resolved with rest. He has never had this pain before and had no associated symptoms. He has no other medical problems. He is known to have three vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) based on two previous cardiac catheterizations. His initial catheterization was conducted to evaluate the cause reversibility on an exercise stress test using radioisotope technetium 99M...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710005
Carolina Espejo-Paeres, Carmen Olmos, Pedro Martinez-Losas, Fabian Islas, Javier Higueras-Nafria, David Vivas and Isidre Vilacosta
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 30, 2018
An anomalous origin of a coronary artery is a rare congenital condition in which a coronary artery arises from the opposite coronary sinus. Most coronary artery anomalies are an incidental finding without clinical significance, although some cases may be potentially life threatening, depending on the origin, course and termination of the anomalous vessel. Anatomical features of risk are an aortic intramural course or inter-arterial course....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710004
Chee Kiang Teoh, Kah Leng Ho, Louis Teo, David Sim, Ka Lee Kerk, Jia Lin Soon, Teing Ee Tan, Sivathasan Cumaraswamy and Choon Pin Lim
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 02, 2018
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is designed primarily for circulatory support in left ventricular failure and its function relies heavily on intrinsic right ventricular function. We report, to our knowledge, the longest reported case of ventricular electrical standstill from progressive cardiomyopathy who was successfully managed on LVAD. A 51-year-old man, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy who had been on HeartMate II LVAD support for three years, presented with frequent intermittent low pump ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710003
Ines Lopes Cardoso and Ana Teresa Paulos
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 11, 2017
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the first cause of death in developed countries, therefore it is of interest to reduce this public health problem. The development of atherosclerosis is the main cause of CVD. This pathology results from the accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall, that leads to a complex inflammatory process....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710002
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 18, 2017
Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO) is the second cause of unilateral visual loss, and can have ischemic or non-ischemic aetiology. The causes inducing RVO may be due to thrombophilia induced by acquired or inherited risk factors....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710001
Fulvio Cacciapuoti, Valerio Langella, Paolo Tirelli MD and Federico Cacciapuoti
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 25, 2017
Anaphylactic reaction rarely manifests such as acute coronary syndrome induced by coronary vasospasm or atheromatous plaque rupture due to some chemical mediators, such as histamine, platelet activating factors, cytokines and others, derived from mast cells degranulation....
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