International Journal of Neurodegenerative Disorders is an open access peer-reviewed journal committed to promote the best standards of scientific discoveries and education. It covers all aspects of a range of conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain. International Journal of Neurodegenerative Disorders publishes basic, clinical, and translational research.

International Journal of Neurodegenerative Disorders is newly launched journal which provide author benefits along with reliable copy rights policy. All the articles pass through a dual review process in which two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. Editorial team ensures the maintenance of its standards by publishing the high quality, original and new advances in its field.

The journal welcome submissions in the form of original articles, research, reviews, cases, commentaries, reports, and short communications etc., covering the information on neurodegenerative disorders. The scope of the journal include but not limited to alzheimer's disease and other dementias, parkinson's disease and l.pd-related disorders, prion disease, motor neuron diseases, huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia, spinal muscular atrophy, etc.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Neurodegenerative Disorders

ISSN: 2643-4539

Editor-in-chief: Dr. Mohammed Rachidi

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Neurodegener Dis

ISO abbreviation: Int J Neurodegener Dis

Other titles: IJND

Category: General Medicine

DOI: 10.23937/2643-4539

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710025

Medium-Term Effect of Pedunculopontine Nucleus Neurotoxic Lesion on Motor Function and Gene Expression of Protein Related to Dopaminergic Homeostasis in Rat

Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, María Elena González-Fraguela, Guadalupe Zaldívar-Lelo de Larrea, Rosa Martha Pérez-Serrano, María Daniela Frade-Pérez, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez and Liliana Francis Turner

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/04/14

The hypothesis that early degeneration of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) may be related to nigral degeneration has opened new avenues of basic research for this disease. It is not known how the motor function and nigrostriatal gene expression of TH, VMAT2 and DAT behave in an intermediate term (30 days) following the pontine lesion....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710023

Dual‐Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation‐Regulated Kinase‐1A (DYRK1A), A Master Regulatory Protein Involved in Down Syndrome Brain Alterations and Mental Disability, A Key Contributor to Neurodegenerative Disorders of Alzheimer's Disease and A Potential Therapeutic Target

Mohammed Rachidi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2022

Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic disease characterized by several neuropathological features including alteration in neurogenesis, mental disability, cognitive impairments, learning-memory deficits and early onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Over expression of chromosome 21 genes, localized in Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR), is the main cause of DS neuropathological features. We studied herein one of DSCR genes, DYRK1A (Dual-Specificity Tyrosine-Phosphorylation-Regulated ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710022

Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease: Theories and Implications for Rehabilitation

Katherine A Brown, PhD, CCC-SLP, CBIS, Dale KL Summers, MS, CCC-SLP and Kristie A Spencer, PhD, CCC-SLP

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 30, 2022

Cognitive changes in Parkinson’s disease (PD) can occur at any stage of the disease and have been shown to significantly impact well-being and life participation. The nature and pattern of cognitive decline in PD remains unclear due to the heterogeneity of symptoms and lack of a clear explanatory model. This review aims to draw attention to several theoretical models of cognitive decline in PD to deepen our understanding of the complex milieu of symptoms and begin to offer clinical implication...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710021

Attitudes Toward People with Epilepsy in Libya, the Conundrum Continues!

Ashraf M Rajab

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 11, 2021

A close and contemplative look at the published neurology literature makes it clear to the reader that epilepsy research possesses more popularity and occupies a higher position in the plethora of scholarly medical writings. Perhaps the reason behind this is that epilepsy nowadays has become more than just transient seizures that are treated with drugs to put an end to seizure recurrence, but rather it is a disease that permeates all aspects of the patient's life. Epilepsy affects not only the p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710020

Fragmentation of Apolipoprotein E4 is Required for Differential Expression of Inflammation and Activation Related Genes in Microglia Cells

Troy T Rohn, James D Beck, Stephanie J Galla, Noail F Isho, Tanner B Pollock, Tarun Suresh, Arni Kulkarni, Tanya Sanghal and Eric J Hayden

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 10, 2021

The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele represents the single greatest risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and accumulating evidence suggests that fragmentation with a toxic-gain of function may be a key molecular step associated with this risk. Recently, we demonstrated strong immunoreactivity of a 151 amino-terminal fragment of apoE4 (E4-fragment) within the nucleus of microglia in the human AD brain. In vitro, this fragment led to toxicity and activation of inflammatory process...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710019

Clinical and Pre-Clinical Evidence for Enteric α-Synuclein Involvement in Parkinson’s Disease

Eliyahu M Kochman, BS, Kainat Akhtar, BS, Ali Alelayawi, BS and Damian S Shin, MS, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 08, 2021

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, presenting with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and motor symptoms. Categorized as a synucleinopathy, the pathological hallmark of PD is intracellular filamentous Lewy bodies (LB), which are formed from protopathic aggregates. The most prevalent of these proteins is the presynaptic protein ɑ-synuclein (α-syn). While commonly attributed to neuronal death in SNpc, postmor...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710018

Alzheimer’s Disease: Beyond A Genetic Disease

Mostafa Showraki, MD, FRCPC

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2021

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common type of dementia or neurodegenerative diseases since the beginning of the past century when it was coined by the German psychiatrist, Alois Alzheimer in 1901 holds an allusive etiology, and as a result failed most treatment and prevention strategies. Despite the common belief among the experts of AD being a genetic disease, the genetic heritability of this disease has such a wide range of 50-80% in twin and family studies that questions the totality of...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710017

Immunomodulating, Neuroprotective and Regenerative Modalities in Multiple Sclerosis Management

Mike KS Chan, Michele Zocchi, Dina Tulina, Anam K Kour, Lau Cher Rene, Roni Moya and Michelle WB Fah

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 10, 2020

The phenomenon of “Westernization” in Asian countries which includes a specific choice of food and lifestyle was related to the higher prevalence of MS in Asia’s population which almost supports new findings on the great influence of gut and its microbiota in people worldwide. The current conventional therapy helps to prolong the periods between attacks and relapses, but in fact, does not slow down the disease progression and impact on physical activities which eventually leads to disabili...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710016

The Broader Role of Basal Ganglia in the Semantic Aspect of Language: an Interesting Finding in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Huntington's Disease

Omid Mohamadi and Farhad Torabinezhad

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 01, 2020

The patient was a 64-year-old man with movement disorder and dysarthria, which was referred to the Speech Therapy Clinic of Hazrat Rasoul Hospital affiliated with Iran University of Medical Sciences. The level of education of the patient was PhD in political science and his job was to teach part-time at the university as well as high school management. The onset of obvious symptoms in this patient dates back to about 4 years and 7 months ago. At that time, he was not able to keep the names of hi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710015

A Benchmark Study on the Correlation of CAG Trinucleotide Repeat Length with SARA Score, Age of Onset and Disease Duration of Genetically-positive Spinocerebellar Ataxia 2 Filipino Family

Jessica Leika R Matibag, MD , Eri Uematsu, MD, and Cid Czarina Diesta, MD, FPNA

Article Type: Original Researc h | First Published: April 11, 2020

Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by a complex neurological presentation of ataxia of adult onset with an autosomal dominant inheritance caused by an abnormal expansion of trinucleotide CAG repeat. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation of CAG trinucleotide repeat length with Scale for assessment and rating of ataxia score, age of onset and disease duration among genetically-positive individuals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710014

Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life and Communicative Participation in Individuals with Dysarthria from Parkinson’s Disease

Kristie A Spencer, Clare Friedlander and Katherine A Brown

Article Type: Researc h Article | First Published: January 03, 2020

The motor and non-motor deficits of Parkinson’s disease (PD) can cause daily challenges and have been associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HrQoL). A number of variables have been consistently, though not unequivocally, identified as important in influencing overall HrQoL in individuals with PD, such as demographic factors, cognitive decline, and level of motor impairment. However, the presence and severity of dysarthria is often overlooked, despite the potentially adverse in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710013

Part Two: Habit and Customs, Obesity and Parkinson's Disease

Muslimat Kehinde Adebisi, Li Xuezhong, Ehianeta Teddy and Liuyi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 21, 2019

Keyword used in searching for similar articles on PubMed were, Obesity, hyperlipidemia, Metabolic syndrome (MetS), Neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson’s diseases (PD). Papers from 2014-2019 related were compiled. Cases at Zhenjiang First people’s hospital similar was compiled to draw conclusions. I evaluated the association between years of diagnosis (YOD) of PD and BMI for both male and female patients and compared to controlled groups. There was a statistically significance between YOD ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710012

Obesity may Increase the Prevalence of Parkinson’s Disease while Parkinson's may Reduce Obesity Index in Patients

Muslimat Kehinde Adebisi, Ehianeta Teddy, Mzee Said Abdulraman Salim, Liuyi, Abdul Nazif Mahmud, Aaron Gia Kanton and Abdullateef Taiye Mustapha

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 14, 2019

Currently Parkinson's disease is becoming more common among younger people of ages from 30-40 years. The incidence is higher among patients with higher BMI, some reports has it that Obesity is a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease while some reported that there is no relationship between obesity and Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease patient at the time of diagnosis has a above normal BMI but this goes below normal as the disease progresses. Therefore, it is important to explore the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710011

Endogenous Adaptation to Chronic Mild Hypoxia Shifts the Balance towards Anti-Inflammatory Milieu in Progressive Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Induced EAE

Nilufer Esen, Rakhi Sharma, James P Malleis and Paula Dore-Duffy, Ph.D

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 18, 2019

The mammalian brain depends on a continuous supply of oxygen and glucose to meet metabolic demand. Adaptive mechanisms allow brain cells to exist under conditions of moderately low oxygen when ‘idling’ or exposure to high altitude as well as elevated oxygen delivery when activated. Regulation involves numerous intrinsic and extrinsic adaptive mechanisms that serve to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Under conditions of chronic low oxygen (10%) endogenous changes in CNS angiodynamics help prom...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710010

A Review on Alzheimer Disease

Deeksha Kaloni and Abhishek Negi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 18, 2019

Alzheimer is one of the most common causes of dementia that influence nerve cells in various parts of the brain. Pathologically it is caused because of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein and results in the deposition of plaques which obstruct the communication between the nerve cells resulting in this neurodegenerative disease. The genetic risk factor found to be associated with this disease is mutation in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes. Also, the diet and nutr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710009

Acute Cognitive Effects of Physical Activity for People who have Dementia

Jordan Elliott-King, Elizabeth Peel and Eef Hogervorst

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 01, 2019

Physical activity has the potential to improve cognition for those with dementia, as demonstrated by randomised controlled trials lasting at least 6 weeks. Research is yet to explore the acute cognitive effects of physical activity for people with dementia. Acute resistance physical activity with healthy late-middle aged individuals has been shown to facilitate general cognition, as well as benefit executive function specifically. This study therefore aimed to establish if people with dementia e...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4539/1710008

Parkinson's Disease, Diabetes, Functional Decline and Cognitive Impairment: A Comparative Study of Elderly Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites

Peter L Heller, PhD, David F Briones, MD, James A Wilcox, MD, PhD and Jose Manuel de la Rosa, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 11, 2019

We report logistic regression analyses findings from a community sample of elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites demonstrating that degrees of associations between diabetes and PD with CImp persist after controlling for effects of functional decline. However, after adding effects of a number of control variables (including ethnicity) to the equation, association between diabetes and CImp is no longer significant. We suggest that these findings may well be an artifact of the high prev...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJND-2017/1710007

Identification of PSEN1 and PSEN2 Gene Variants and Clinical Findings with the Literature

Nadide Cemre Randa, Elçin Bora, Esra Ataman, Ozlem Oz, Gorsev Yener and Ayfer Ulgenalp

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 11, 2019

Alzheimer's disease is an age-related and irreversible disease and characterized progressively decline in cognitive functions such as memory, speech, executive functions and visual-spatial skills. Currently, there is no a simple and definitive diagnosis method for clinical management. It is possible to diagnose with 85-90% accuracy with clinical assesment and neuropsychological tests. The precisely-known risk factors associated with Alzheimer's disease are aging, family history, and the presence...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJND-2017/1710006

A Clinicopathologic Case Report of a Female with Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP) Gene Mutation Related Disease

Abhilasha Surampalli, Angele Nalbandian, Sandra Donkervoort, Manaswitha Khare, Annabel Wang, Rudolph Castellani, Hong Yin, Ana Rubio, Payal Patel, John Weiss, Tahseen Mozaffar and Virginia E Kimonis

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 19, 2018

Valosin Containing Protein (VCP) gene mutations have been reported in ~1-2% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report a case of clinically defined and neuropathologically confirmed ALS in a 48-year-old, emaciated female with a p.R155C (c.463 C > T) mutation in VCP gene. She presented with progressive generalized muscular weakness, weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, combined nasal and spastic dysarthria, positive jaw jerk and exaggerated gag reflex. Electrodiagnostic studies revea...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijnd-2017/1710005

Rare and Hereditary Causes of Stroke-A Literature Review

Eyisi CS, Onwuekwe IO, Eyisi IG and Ekenze O

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 19, 2018

A stroke is a Focal (or global) neurological impairment of sudden onset, lasting more than 24 hrs and usually from a vascular cause. Clinical presentation span through a myriad of motor deficits, sensory deficits, seizures, personality/behavioral anomalies, dementia, brainstem stroke syndromes and herniation syndromes. Traditionally stokes are classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic, the former more common than the latter in a ratio of 6:1. Conventional risk factors for stroke occurrence have al...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJND-2017/1710004

Multiple Episodes of Full-Body Tremors: An Unexpected Adverse Effect during an Alzheimer's Disease Investigational Drug Study

Jeffrey T Apter, Ivy A Billones and Kaylee White

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 16, 2018

A 69-year-old Caucasian female experienced multiple episodes of full-body tremors during the extension phase of the clinical study. The investigational drug was taken in the mornings. The patient reported that the AE started six months prior with episodes occurring 1-2 times per week eventually escalating almost daily and was more apparent during midnight hours and upon waking up. Further review of previous progress notes states that the patient denied the AE and even stated full compliance and ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijnd-2017/1710003

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Linked to Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis & Systemic Microbial Infection in Human Patients: A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study

David A Steenblock, Taruna Ikrar, Andrew S San Antonio, Elfi Wardaningsih and Masoud J Azizi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 12, 2018

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig's disease is a neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorder characterized by a progressive death of motor neurons & motor paralysis that culminates in death, usually within 3-5 years of diagnosis from respiratory failure due to paralysis. Currently approved ALS therapies are not curative and fail to increase healthy lifespan. The worldwide prevalence of ALS is expected to increase by 69% over the next 25 years, yet its etiology remains scientific...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijnd-2017/1710002

Apolipoprotein E Fragmentation within Lewy Bodies of the Human Parkinson's Disease Brain

Troy T Rohn and Jacob M Mack

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 23, 2018

Although harboring the Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele is a well-known risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), whether a similar risk holds true for Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently not known. To investigate whether apoE pathology is present in PD, an immunohistochemical study was undertaken with fixed, human PD brain sections from the substantia nigra utilizing a recently characterized antibody that detects an amino-terminal fragment of apoE. This antibody, termed the apoE cleavage fragm...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijnd-2017/1710001

The Impact of Rehabilitation Interventions on Quality of Life in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

Ammarah Y Soofi, Michelle E Kho, Vanina Dal Bello-Haas and Lori Letts

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 28, 2017

Many factors can affect a person's outlook on his/her life; rehabilitation interventions vary greatly and little is known about the effect of rehabilitation to maintain and/or enhance Quality of Life (QoL) in people with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)....


ClinMed Archive


Articles Published

All articles are fully peer reviewed, free to access and can be downloaded from our ClinMed archive.

Contact our editorial office

ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021


International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021