International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine ( Index Copernicus Value: 91.84 ) is an open access peer-reviewed journal, publishing original research, reviews, case reports, commentaries etc., in the field of sports and exercise medication. IJSEM is a database for physicians, physical therapists, sports trainers, orthopedic surgeons specialized in exercise medicine. It focuses on the health-and-fitness information, psychology, sports nutrition, causes and effects of damage caused by athletic injury, its medication and rehabilitation.

International Journal of Sports and Exercise medicine allows faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. All the articles pass through a dual review process in which two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. IJSME ensures the maintenance of its standards by publishing the high quality, original and new advances in its field.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine

ISSN: 2469-5718

Editor-in-chief: J.David Prologo, Dale Ding

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Sports Exerc Med

ICV: 91.84

ISO abbreviation: Int J Sports Exerc Med

Other titles: IJSEM

Category: Sports Medicine

DOI: 10.23937/2469-5718

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510262

Exercise Induced Changes in the Appearance of Circulating Microvesicles

Amit Bandyopadhyay and Nabanita Ghosh

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2024/02/05

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane bound vesicles which are capable of delivering biomolecules to neighbouring recipient cells or more distant cells, where they induce various signalling cascades and subsequently alter their metabolism. These EVs may include apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes, which have emerged as important mediators of cell to cell communication in normal physiology and pathological status. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510261

The Relationship between VO2 max and 1200m Shuttle Run Performance in Elite Academy Football Players

Ronan Kavanagh, Kevin McDaid, David Rhodes, Mark Connor, Rafael Oliveira, Ian Varley and Ryland Morgans

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/12/08

Seventeen male professional outfield football players completed a laboratory based incremental treadmill test to establish vVO2max and a field based 1200m shuttle test to estimate velocity at MAS. During the pre-season period a linear speed phase consisting of twice weekly PS exposures were conducted and each player’s PS reached during this period was established. Body composition was measured using DEXA....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510260

Impact of the Prophylactic Brace on Knee Kinematics and Stability in Dynamic Situations

Romain Julien, Arfaoui A and William Bertucci

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/12/07

Prophylactic braces are commonly utilized protective devices in sports to reduce the risk of knee injuries. Despite their widespread use, there exists a divergence of opinions regarding their effectiveness. Several studies have investigated the efficacy of prophylactic brace in athletes, revealing enhancements in biomechanical factors linked to the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, such as knee range of motion, flexion angles, or angular velocity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510259

The Effect of Short-Term Hyperbaric Treatment on Long COVID Symptoms: A Pilot Study

Quinn O'Malley, BA, Rami Mizher, BS and Martin J. O'Malley, MD

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: 2023/11/19

Long COVID has recently been recognized by the World Health Organization as a syndrome occurring two months after infection with Covid-19 with various physical, neurocognitive, and psychiatric symptoms that cannot be explained by another diagnosis. It is estimated that between six and twenty million patients in the United States alone are affected by this condition....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510258

Comparison of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among Brazilian Preschool Children during the COVID-19 Physical Distancing Period

Ehrika V.A. Menezes, Milton A. Danziato-Neto, Felipe Q. Serpa, Soraia P.M. Arruda and Marcia M.T. Machado

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/10/14

A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted with 286 mothers of preschool children aged 2-6 years. Data were collected via a Google Forms questionnaire, distributed through WhatsApp groups and social networks, following a Snowball sampling model. The questionnaire addressed socioeconomic data, daily physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB), particularly screen time (ST). Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA SE with the t-test for the means of two samples with equal v...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510246

Injury Incidence and Burden in 979 Player Seasons of an Elite Dutch Soccer Academy

Danny Holtus, BSc, Johannes L Tol, MD, PhD, Bastiaan Bruning, PT, Lotte Jagtman, MSc, Vosse de Boode, PT, MSc and Gustaaf Reurink, MD, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/04/05

The epidemiology of injuries in youth soccer is ambiguous. Most studies are based on the consensus statement of Fuller, et al. where pediatric-specific injuries are not included. As a result, this type of injury is often neglected or categorized inconsistently. A consequence may be adhering an incorrect focus in injury prevention. This study aimed to describe injury incidence, severity and burden by age group in an elite soccer academy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510256

HIIT vs. MICT to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Capacity in Older Adult

Yang Yang, Cao Youxiang, Chen Jiacheng, Hu Guangxuan, Chang Bo and Yi Xuejie

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/07/19

Previous studies have shown that High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is effective in improving maximal oxygen uptake, blood pressure, and physical health-related indicators in older adults. However, whether HIIT is more effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity in older adults compared with Moderate-Intensity Continuous Exercise (MICT) remains controversial. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510257

Screening for Relative Energy Deficiency in Male Volleyball Players and the Usefulness of Accelerometers

Fujii Takako, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/07/27

The subjects were 10 males who belonged to a working volleyball team. Their height, weight, body fat percentage, lean body mass, basal metabolic rate, hemoglobin concentration, and bone density were measured before early morning practice. To measure activity, players were asked to wear an activity meter during practice time....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510255

Detraining in Older Women: Influence of Previous Resistance Training with Different Exercise Orders on Muscular Strength, Flexibility and Functional Capacity

Rodrigo Garcia Fiorillo, Ágatha Graça, Alex Silva Ribeiro, Higor Santos Fonseca, Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, Jerry L Mayhew, Edílson Serpeloni Cyrino and Matheus Amarante do Nascimento

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/07/15

Twenty-three older women (61.6 ± 6.7 years; 74.2 ± 12.6 kg; 156.2 ± 5.9 cm) were randomized to a group that performed the exercises from multi- to single-joint order (MJ-SJ, n = 10) or a group that performed the exercises from single- to multi-joint order (SJ-MJ, n = 13). Both performed the same RT program (7 exercises, 3 sets of 10-15 maximum repetitions, twice a week, 16 weeks). Following the RT program, participants detrained for 16 weeks....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510254

New Diagnosis of Spina Bifida Occulta in a Patient Presenting with Bilateral Hamstring Tightness: A Case Report

Elizabeth Callahan, DO and Eliza Pierko, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/06/29

Spina bifida occulta represents a limited form of spina bifida. In this condition, the vertebral laminae fail to fuse. Spina bifida occulta can be diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound or after birth on routine X-ray. In most cases, SBO is asymptomatic. Here, we present the unique case of a 30-year-old male who presented with bilateral hamstring tightness of lifelong duration, with low back pain of one year duration. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510253

Characterization of Throwing Track and Field Injuries in Adolescent and Young Adult Participants Resulting in Emergency Department Visits: An Analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System

Angela S Zhu, BA, Rory A Byrne, BA, Matthew Quinn, MD, Jacob M Modest, MD, Ozair Meghani, MS and Brett D Owens, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/06/29

Track and field throwing event injuries in the United States has not been well characterized for the adolescent and young adult population. In a sport where athletes’ bodies are subject to repetitive actions with substantial biomechanical demands, a more thorough understanding of common injuries is crucial. This information would allow coaches and parents to not only mitigate risk of injury, but also help to optimize performance. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510252

Effect of Physiotherapy Applications on Inflammatory Markers in Asthma Disease

Özden Gökçek and Ufuk Yurdalan

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/05/26

Chronic systemic diseases associated with asthma cause an increase in the burden of health services, a reducation in the quality of life of individuals, and a decrease in work efficiency. Obesity, which plays a role in the reduction of pharmacological effects in the treatment of asthma, increases with sedentary life. A significant reduction in obesity is observed with exercise applications. Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma and also increases the severity of the disease by causing a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510251

Treadmill Exercise Testing on Different Blood Genotypes among University Students

Angela Member Danborno and Terhide Iorhemen Kyeleve

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2023/05/13

The benefits of regular exercise are overwhelming, be it in children, teens or adult. The phrase "exercise is medicine" has continously been used to emphasize the physiological, pshychological and social benefits of exercise. This research aims at comparing the effect of blood genotype and exercise on some physiological parameters in fit and willing undergraduate students....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510250

LifeWave X49TM Patch Supports Improved Results in Fitness, Strength and Stamina

Connor Melinda H, Connor Caitlin A, Horzempa Dan, Yue Dawei, Eickhoff Jens, Perry Marsha and Young David

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/04/14

LifeWave X49TM non-transdermal patches, lavender top blood tubes, BD Vacutainers with Pre-attached holders, cryo tubes, centrifuge, urine test kits, saliva test kits, racking, freezer, gloves, band aids, alcohol wipes, masks, UVC sterilizing wands, sterile eye droppers, sterile cotton balls, tourniquets, dry ice, shipping containers and exercise bike. Resistance bands, dumb bells, and hand grips were supplied to each participant....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510249

Noninvasive Management of a Large Morel-Lavallée Lesion

LT George Michael Johnson DO, LCDR Kevin Michael Bernstein MD, MMS, CAQSM, FAAFP

Article Type: Case report | First Published: April 12, 2023

A 38-year-old with ankylosing spondylitis presented to a sports medicine clinic following a traumatic cycling accident. Physical exam found pain, swelling and ecchymosis overlying the proximal thigh. Point of care ultrasound revealed an underlying large hematoma causing a closed degloving of the overlying tissue or a Morel-Lavallée lesions. MRI confirmed size of the lesion and diagnosis made previously. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510247

Exercise Prescription for Hypertension

Thomas Wesley Allen DO, MPH

Article Type: COMMENTARY | First Published: April 05, 2023

The importance of physical exercise in preventing, treating and controlling hypertension has been the subject of enormous attention during the past several decades. Nearly one third of American adults have been diagnosed with high blood pressure and millions more have pre-hypertension. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has an important non-pharmacologic role in hypertension treatment and prevention, yet one in three Americans does not engage in leisure-time physical activity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510245

Accurately Predicting Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Roger Ramsbottom

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 20, 2023

While access to a well-equipped laboratory is beyond the reach of the majority of exercise and health practitioners, more readily available assessment tools are field tests. The latter estimates CRF from performance over a set distance(s) or time. The most popular field test used to attain this information is the 20-mSRT (shuttle run test). It is functional, readily understood, and used internationally to provide estimates of cardiorespiratory fitness....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510244

Injury Incidence and Burden in 979 Player Seasons of an Elite Dutch Soccer Academy

Danny Holtus, BSc, Prof. Johannes L Tol, MD, PhD, Bastiaan Bruning, PT, MSc, Lotte Jagtman, MSc, Vosse de Boode, PT, MSc and Gustaaf Reurink, MD, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 27, 2023

The epidemiology of injuries in youth soccer is ambiguous. Most studies are based on the consensus statement of Fuller, et al., where pediatric-specific injuries are not included. As a result, this type of injury is often neglected or categorized inconsistently. A consequence may be adhering an incorrect focus in injury prevention. This study aimed to describe injury incidence, severity and burden by age group in an elite soccer academy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510243

Cardiovascular Risk Prevention in College-Age Students

Linda Washington-Brown, PhD, EJD, APRN-C, FAANP, FAAN, Danielle Granderson, BSN, RN, Jenna’ Walia Reed, MS, MBA, LAT, ATC, NASM-CPT, CES, PES and Erica Pereira Amorim, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2022

There is a steady increase in persons diagnosed with hypertension by a health care provider, including college-age students in Florida. There are over one million college-age students enrolled in public or private higher education programs in Florida. Surveys have shown that many of the college-age students screened for hypertension were informed that they had elevated blood pressures by a healthcare professional but indicated no follow-up....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510241

Effect of Acupuncture in the Management of Competitive Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Steve D Bailey

Article Type: Systematic review and Meta-analysis | First Published: December 09, 2022

The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on competition-induced anxiety in elite athletes to provide an assessment of the overall efficacy of the use of acupuncture in the management of competitive anxiety. A systematic literature search was performed by two reviewers (SB and TE) on electronic databases from their inception to 2022....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510240

Retrospective Comparison of Two Circuit Training Programs with Different Intensities in Obese and Overweight Individuals

Irene-Chrysovalanto Themistocleous, Petros Agathangelou and Manos Stefanakis

Article Type: Clinical Trail | First Published: January 03, 2023

The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare two Circuit Training (CT) programs, one with moderate and one with high intensity, on the body composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), biochemical and physiological markers and isometric strength in apparently healthy obese and overweight individuals. This is a retrospective comparison of two groups of apparently healthy obese and overweight individuals that participated in two different trials examining the effect of two intermittent CT...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510239

The Effect of Acupuncture on Reducing Pain and Stiffness of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) following Eccentric Loading Exercise

Steve D Bailey

Article Type: Randomized controlled trial | First Published: November 13, 2022

To investigate the effects of acupuncture on pain and stiffness intensity and the symptoms associated with DOMS after 24 and 72 hours following the induction of DOMS. A preliminary, randomized controlled single blind study....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510238

The Impact of Food Security Status on Body Composition Changes in Collegiate Football Players

Lee Stowers MS, RD, Tara Harman MS, RD, Greg Pavela, PhD and Jose R. Fernandez, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 31, 2022

Food insecurity negatively affects nutrition intake and diet quality, and college students specifically experience food insecurity in greater proportions than the general adult population. However, the prevalence and effects of food security among Division 1 college football athletes is unknown....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510237

Effects of High-Intensity Circuit Training in Obese and Overweight Population: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Irene-Chrysovalanto Themistocleous, Petros Agathangelou and Manos Stefanakis

Article Type: Clinical Trial | First Published: October 31, 2022

Obesity is a serious risk for various cardiovascular diseases and is often managed with increased physical activity and exercise. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a minimal dose, High-Intensity Circuit Training (HICT) program on a range of cardiovascular risk factors in obese and overweight individuals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510236

The Underlying Mechanism of Acupuncture on Enhancing Muscle Strength: A Review of Literature

Steve D Bailey

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 23, 2022

Methods to obtain an immediate and long- term increase in muscle strength and function are goals of rehabilitation practitioners, sports therapists, strength and condition coaches and athletes. There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of acupuncture for rehabilitation of muscle function following stroke and there is strong evidence to support the use of acupuncture to enhance muscle strength in healthy individuals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510235

An Athlete’s Guide to Training in the Heat


Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 23, 2022

Athletes face many factors that can limit performance. Proper nutrition, sleep, and even the environment are all contributing factors to an athlete’s overall performance. However, when we look a little deeper, the athlete’s ability to handle the environment can be one of the more difficult challenges. The healthy athlete’s ability to tolerate a hot climate during exercise can be the most significant threat to performance....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510234

Influence of the Menstrual Cycle on the Performance of Different Physical Tests Specific to Handball

MOUSSOUAMI Simplice Innocent, AGBODJOGBE Kpedetin Wilfrid Dieu Donné, BOUSSANA Alain Marc, LOUNIONGO God, ALONGO Yvon Rock Ghislain and BIO NIGAN Issiako

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 21, 2022

Nowadays, several scientific studies focus women’s the menstrual cycle and its impact on sports performance. However, the results of these studies are controversial. In This regard, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the menstrual cycle on physiological responses, intermittent Yo-Yo test performance, repeated sprints and medicine-ball in elite women handball players. The sample of this study is 18.71 ± 0.72 years older female players....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510233

The Effect of Sports Drinks to Biochemical Signs on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) in Dehydrated Individuals Due to Eccentric Exercise

Ates Sendil, MD, PhD

Article Type: Clinical Research | First Published: October 14, 2022

The research was conducted on 24 healthy male subjects between the age of 20 and 30, who has not practiced any sports before, who has not taken part in any strength exercises in the past 3 months, and who does not smoke and use any medicine constantly such as antidepressants and diuretics which cause dehydration. No subjects below 18 were included in the study....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510232

Body Composition Changes in College Basketball Players Over Summer Training

Shaun Kuo, Aston Dommel and R Drew Sayer

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 17, 2022

Body composition is an important determinant of athletic performance that is directly influenced by training and detraining. Collegiate athletes experience substantial variability in training intensity during a season, but little research has been conducted to track changes in body composition across periods of intense training and breaks from structured sport-related activities....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510231

Body Composition Changes in College Athletes During Holiday Breaks

Aston Dommel and R Drew Sayer

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2022

Changes in eating and physical activity during the winter holiday season are commonly associated with weight gain in the general population. Concerns around weight and fat gain are also relevant to collegiate athletes who are generally unable to access on-campus dining and exercise facilities during this time....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510230

Comparison of Head Impact Magnitudes and Frequencies Between Intercollegiate Male and Female Lacrosse Players

Elizabeth Daidone Yates, MS, ATC, Katelyn Nelson, ATC, Debbie A. Bradney, DPE, ATC, Katherine M. Breedlove, PhD, ATC and Thomas G. Bowman, PhD, ATC

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 21, 2022

Research studies have examined effects of player position and type of play on head impacts in intercollegiate football players, but there is little available information on head impacts in lacrosse players...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510229

Running Performance during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Sriram Venkatesan, Mary Starrs, Sonja Eagle, Caleb Phillips and Grant S Lipman

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 20, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic saw governmentimposed health mandates that contributed to profound work, exercise, and lifestyle changes. There was an observed increase in weight gain and sedentary behavior during the pandemic in United States, as well as increased outdoor exercise and running. While road race times have consistently slowed over the last few decades, it is unknown how running performance changed during the pandemic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510220

Body Composition Changes in College Athletes during the COVID-19 Lockdown

Aston Dommel, Jose R Fernandez and R Drew Sayer

Article Type: Scientific Research | First Published: April 24, 2022

In the spring of 2020, COVID-19 shocked the college sports world with athletes having seasons abruptly canceled and sent home under mandatory lockdown orders. Athletes and athletic performance staff had no idea when they would be back on campus or have access to oncampus athletics facilities. This situation caused substantial concern regarding potential adverse changes to athletic performance and body composition in the athletes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510228

Most Common Injuries in CrossFit Training: A Systematic Review

Channah Joelle Brandsema, Mirwais Mehrab and Nina Maria Cornelia Mathijssen

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: July 14, 2022

The injury rate for CrossFit training is relatively low in comparison to other fitness-related sports. Systematic reviews regarding the extent of number of injuries per body part and injury-related exercises in CrossFit training are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine the injury prevalence and incidence in CrossFit participants, in particular of injured body parts, and to examine injury related exercises in CrossFit....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510227

The Role of Fitness Status and Sex on Metabolic Flexibility during a Bout of High-Intensity Interval Exercise and a High- Fat Meal Challenge

Alyssa A. Olenick, Regis C. Pearson, Nathan T. Jenkins

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2022

We explored whether High-Intensity Interval Exercise (HIIE) could provide a novel method to test metabolic flexibility during exercise. We also aimed to assess substrate oxidation during HIIE and in response to a high-fat meal to determine if these assessments of metabolic flexibility are influenced by fitness and sex....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510226

Validation of an Allometric Model to Predict Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Young adults from 20-M Shuttle Run Test Performance

Roger Ramsbottom , Alan M Nevill and Sharon A Plowman

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 11, 2022

Being able to screen for changes in CRF cost effectively as well as identifying variables to provide accurate values for aerobic fitness has been identified by numerous studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether published models were valid predictors of CRF in young adults using previously unpublished 20 m SRT (shuttle run test) data....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510225

Unilateral Seventh Rib Posterior Stress Fracture in a High School Baseball Pitcher

Mani Singh, MD, Nicholas Tsitsilianos, MD and Katherine Yao, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 29, 2022

Posterior rib stress fractures are rare injuries that may occur in the overhead athlete, most commonly at the first or second rib level in collegiate or professional players. The purpose of this article is to present the unique case of a lower thoracic posterior rib stress fracture in a high school pitcher, as well as to describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of this condition....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510224

In the Elderly Population does Creatine Supplementation Play a Beneficial Role in Memory and Cognition A CAT Manuscript

Trevor Shaw

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 15, 2022

Creatine has been used for decades to aid in performance/ energy system output and even more recently in bone health. However recent literature has suggested creatine has much more far-reaching effects. A combined PubMed and Google scholar search within the last 7 years demonstrated numerous high-quality papers discussing the benefits of creatine on cognition....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510223

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Achilles Tendinopathy among University Soccer Players

Uchechukwu Martha Chukwuemeka, Chidinma Michelle Anyoku, Ifeoma Uchenna Onwuakagba and Uzoamaka Nwakego Akobundu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 05, 2022

Tendinopathies especially that of the Achilles account for a significant amount of overuse injuries in sports that could hinder optimal performance in sport, might lead to permanent physical damage or disability, and it’s epidemiology is not extensively documented in our clime....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510222

The Effect of Implementation of Continuous Assessment in Practical and Theoretical Class for Sport Science Students

Fenta Bitew

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 05, 2022

The purpose of continuous assessment is to monitor learner’s progress so decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning in terms of expected knowledge, skills, attitude and value. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of implementation continuous assessment in practical and theoretical class for sport science students....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510221

Effects of Acupuncture on Enhancing Muscle Strength: A Systematic Review

Steve D Bailey

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: April 21, 2022

A systematic literature search was performed on electronic databases from inception to 2020. The risk of bias was assessed by two reviewers (SB and BL). The PEDro scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs and the standards for reporting interventions in clinical trials of acupuncture (STRICTA) was used to assess the quality of the acupuncture intervention....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510219

Neuromuscular Electric Stimulation as an Alternative to Dynamic Warm-Up for Anaerobic Power Activities

Jason Wicke, Ben Chianchiano, Sara Garner and Jordan L Cola

Article Type: Scientific Research | First Published: April 14, 2022

The aim of this study was to compare short duration Neuromuscular Electric Stimulation (NMES) to traditional dynamic warm-up to prepare muscles for activity. Thirty college age participants (20 male, 10 female) completed both a general warm-up, followed by either an NMES warm-up or a dynamic warm-up. The participants were then asked to perform three trials each of standing long jump, 20m sprint, and 18.3m (20-yard) shuttle run, in random order. Each participant returned one week later and were t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510218

Impact of Resistance Training on Sports Performance and Muscular Adaptations

Zachary M. Townsend

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 31, 2022

Resistance training helps contribute to sportsperformance and general health benefits. In particular, resistance training is linked to physiological adaptations causing increases in muscular strength, endurance, power, and hypertrophy. These muscular adaptations can be translated to improvements in sports performance. With this concept in mind, sports performance coaches can manipulate training variables in order to optimize athletic performance and help athletes achieve their goals. However, ad...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510217

Manual Therapy and Upper Quarter Training in an Adolescent Quarterback with Chronic Clinically Suspected Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A Case Report with 1-Year Follow Up

Denny B and Brismée JM

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: March 30, 2022

The brachial plexus neurovascular bundle has been described as a pain generating entity in the upper quarter. Many factors contribute to neurovascular irritability, not least of which shoulder girdle mobility dysfunctions, particularly in the throwing athlete. This case study describes clinical identification of upper quarter impairments contributing to a suspected disputed neurogenic thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) in a high school quarterback. Specific clinical examination using provocation, mo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510216

Breast Injury in USA Female Water Polo Athletes

Laura J. Smith, PT, DPT, PhD, Tamara Eichelberger, PT, MPT, PhD and Edward J. Kane, PT, MSPT, ATC, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 16, 2022

Water polo is a very physical and aggressive sport and injury data for male water polo athletes is well established. However, the data is very scarce for women. Given that a recent study identified that almost half (47.9%) of female collegiate athletes experienced a breast injury during participation in basketball, soccer, volleyball, and softball, it warrants the investigation of the prevalence of female breast injuries during participation in water polo. The purpose of this study was to report...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510215

Effects of a Cognitive Distraction Task on Gait Mechanics in Recently Gait-Retrained Runners

Erin E. Futrell, PT, MPT, OCS, Darcy S. Reisman, PT, PhD, David R Mullineaux, PhD and Irene S. Davis, PT, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 26, 2022

When assessing running mechanics in a laboratory setting, there is risk for performance bias by the participants. The purpose of this study was to determine if runners who had recently undergone gait retraining altered their running mechanics while performing a cognitive distraction task. Two groups of runners were analyzed at 3 postintervention time-points for changes in vertical loadrates, cadence, and footstrike pattern. Runners who received cadence retraining (CAD) did not alter cadence, but...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510214

Speed Marching in Military Boots: The Walk-To-Run Transition Speed and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces

LTC Wes O. Zimmermann, MD, PhD and MAJ Eric M. Lever, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 24, 2022

Speed marching is the term for moving on foot, in which service members alternate marching and running to cover a certain distance in limited time. The standard load for speed marching is 25 kilograms, this includes a backpack, a tactical vest and rifle. When increasing walking speed, a person will switch from walking to running at a certain speed, this is called walk-to-run transition. The walkto- run transition speed for marching in military boots, with or without a rifle, is unknown. Marching...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510213

Impact of Varying Exercise Intensity on Oxygen Uptake and Cardiovascular Response during Body Weight Supported Treadmill Walking in Healthy Adults

R. Scott Van Zant, Wick R. Colchagoff, Josh Addis, Joel Daloz, Maureen Gill, Jenna Moskow and Aubrey Norris

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 21, 2022

Body Weight Supported Treadmill Training (BWSTT) is effectively used in locomotive training for patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal deficits. The impact of BWSTT on oxygen uptake (VO2) and cardiovascular (HR and BP) response in patients has been shown to be variable, possibly due to level of Body Weight Support (BWS) or exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to compare and quantify VO2, HR, and BP response in healthy adults during BWSTT at 0% and 30% BWS for two exercise inte...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510212

Pattern of Musculoskeletal Injuries Amongst Male Amateur Basketball Players in Anambra State, Nigeria

Christian Arinze Okonkwo, MSc, Eustus Chigemezu Okereke, B.MR, Joseph Onuwa Umunnah, Ph.D., Peter Olanrewaju Ibikunle, Ph.D., Victor Egwuonwu, Ph.D., Stanley Maduagwu, Ph.D., Kenneth Umezurike Ani, MSc, Dickson Obinna Nwodo, MSc, Samuel Chidile Muonwe, MSc and Chiamaka Ann Nwanne MSc

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 06, 2022

Musculoskeletal Injuries (MSIs) are expected consequences of participation in sports-related occupations like basketball given that it is a contact sport with complex movements that include jumps, turns, and quick changes in direction. This study, therefore, explored the pattern of MSIs among amateur basketball players in the Anambra State of Nigeria and the correlation between socio-demographic variables and MSIs. A cross-sectional survey research design was used for this study. One hundred a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510211

Acute Effect of Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Cycle Ergometer Test and Physiological Parameters in Healthy Young Individuals: A Pilot Study

Sefa Haktan HATIK, PT, MSc, PhD, Berkay Eren Pehlivanoğlu, PT, MSc, PhD, Mesut ARSLAN, PT, MSc, PhD, Çilem TAŞKIN, MSc and Ali Veysel ÖZDEN, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 05, 2022

This study is to investigate the effect of non-invasive auricular VNS on cycle ergometer test and physiological parameters in healthy individuals. 46 people participated in the study. The participants were randomly divided into 3 groups as Above Threshold, Under Threshold and Control according to the sensation of electrical current on ears. The participants were evaluated 3 times; before the application, after the first and second bicycle exercises. Numerical pain scale, pulse rate, blood pressu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510210

Effect of Acupuncture on Physiological Response to Exercise: A Systematic Review

Steve D Bailey and Bethany Liddington

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: December 13, 2021

To update the current evidence of the effect of acupuncture on recovery Heart Rate (HR), blood lactate and maximum volume of oxygen consumption (VO2max) following intense exercise through a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials. A systematic literature search was performed on electronic databases from inception to 2020. The Cochrane Handbook guidelines for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to assess the methodological quality and exclude studies with fatal flaws...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510209

Benefits of Concurrent Aerobic-Resistance Interval Exercise in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Carolina Aristizábal, Oscar Ortiz, Emily J. Walsh, Mario Leone and Alain S. Comtois

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 12, 2021

Physical training of lower leg skeletal muscle has been shown to increase exercise tolerance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of concurrent aerobic-resistance interval exercise on lower leg muscle function and local muscle tissue oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle (VLM) of COPD patients. Peripheral muscle oxygenation in the VLM was measured using Near Infrared Spectrometry (NIRS) during the six- minute walk te...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510208

Case Report: Ossified Subperiosteal Hematoma in the Humerus of a Lacrosse Player

Alana M Munger, MD, Dieter M Lindskog, MD and Elizabeth C Gardner, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 06, 2021

An 18-year-old male collegiate lacrosse player presented to a sports medicine clinic with two-week history of atraumatic pain along the lateral aspect of his left arm. Radiographs demonstrated a thin, well-defined exostosis arising from the cortex of the mid-humeral diaphysis and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an osseous excrescence in the anterolateral aspect of the humerus and the prominence of the cortex in this area suggested a prior subperiosteal hematoma in this region - consisten...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510207

The Effect of an Ultradistance Foot Race on Thyroid, Stress Hormone Levels and the Immune System

Dimitra Pappa, Maria G Pavlatou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Flora Bacopoulou, Christina Darviri, Katerina Skenderi, Maria Tsironi, George P Chrousos and Ioannis Papassotiriou

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 06, 2021

The aim of the present research is to investigate the effect of an ultra-marathon race on the levels of thyroid, immune and stress system hormones. Moreover, to explore a potential correlation of the above-mentioned hormones with stress hormones. 30 out of the 40 participants who took part in the race, finished the 246 km in less than 36 hours, and were included in the study. There were 3 different sampling times: prior, after and 48 hours after the race. Blood samples were taken to identify s...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510206

Differences between Seated and Standing Low-Speed Treadmill Walking

David K. Brennan, Ph.D and Thomas W. Allen, DO, MPH

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 27, 2021

The purpose of this study was to compare the Energy Expenditure (EE) during very low-speed (< 2.0 mph) treadmill walking while seated to EE during upright treadmill walking. A convenience sample cohort study of nine volunteer participants (4 males; 5 females) M age 63.4 (± 10.5) years performed both seated (MuV) and standing walking (STW), across 0.5 mph, 1.1 and 1.5 mph velocities. For many people who are unable to jog or run, walking is a viable substitute for cardio/pulmonary and leg strengt...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510205

Physical Activity Behavior Change: Before, during and after the Lockdown (Covid 19) in Five Country

Lv Wan Gang, Zhou Xue Jun and Rahmat Hidayat

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 13, 2021

There are two purposes in this study (1) To identify whether self-determination factors can influence physical activity behavior in different situations, before, during, and after lockdown. (2) Whether self-determination factors can affect the frequency of physical activity, before, during and after lockdown. BPAQ and BREQ-2 to 2.326 people China n = 607 Indonesia n = 1017 Malaysia n = 341 Philipina n = 127 Vietnam n = 234. BPAQ Intensity of Physical Activity, the highest percentage of LIT in du...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510204

Evolution of Research on Elite Adult Athlete Sleep: A Systematic Review

Aldo C. Silva, Lucas A. Facundo, Adriana S. Amaral, Diego A. Borba, João P. P. Rosa, Andressa Silva and Marco T. de Mello

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 13, 2021

To describe the evolution of research on elite adult athlete sleep. A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Sport Discus databases. Studies where sleep was the main variable and included only elite (national or international level), healthy (no injury or any pathology), and adult athletes were included for analysis. Only articles published in the English language were considered. After analyzing all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 50 studies were inc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510203

Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: A Case Report of an Exceptionally Elevated Serum Creatine Kinase (CK) Level

Jonathon Kyriakides, BSc, MBBS, Aria Khani, BSc, MBBS, MRCP and Rahul Khamar, BSc, MBBS

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 30, 2021

Serum Creatinine Kinase (CK) is used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in rhabdomyolysis. We present 32-year-old male with exertional rhabdomyolysis following a spin cycling class, with a peak serum CK level of 332,200 U/L. He was admitted for intravenous fluid therapy and then followed-up in the outpatient setting; renal function remained stable throughout. We review the literatures and explain why a combination of patient and environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis of exert...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510202

Prevalence and Pattern of Musculoskeletal Injuries among Recreational Weightlifters in Nnewi, Nigeria

Chidile Muonwe, Samuel Chidiebere Nwobi, Chiedozie James Alumona, Chukwuebuka Okeke, Chiamaka Ann Nwanne, Ifeoma Blessing Nwosu, Ifeoma Adaigwe Amaechi, Christian Arinze Okonkwo, Ogochukwu Umeonwuka, Ezinne Chika Ekediegwu, Uzoamaka Nwakaego Akobundu and Stanley M Maduagwu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 30, 2021

Weightlifters are prone to musculoskeletal injury. However, studies on the prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal injuries among weightlifters in Nigeria are not available. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal injury among recreational weightlifters in Nnewi, Nigeria and explored the association between the prevalence of injury and sociodemographic, and training characteristic variables. Ninety-one recreational weightlifters participated in this cro...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510201

Progressive Upper Compartment Functional Strength Training on Postural Muscle Force: In Volleyball Players

Yeliz Kahraman

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 27, 2021

Postural muscle force leads to a increase in functional movement and associated ability of strength. The author examined changes in shoulder and humerus strength, maximum isometric joint angular degree force after functional upper strength training in volleyball players. They evaluated isometric joint angular force degree as predictors of functional strength. Functional strength group increased significantly (p < 0.05) for all angular strength. Compared with controls, to functional strength led ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510200

Feasibility of a Six Week High Intensity Interval Training Program in Patients with Non- Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study

Emily Walsh, Guy Hajj-Boutros, Guillaume Bastarache, Andréa Faust and Alain-Steve Comtois

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 22, 2021

High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has become a mainstream, frequently investigated form of exercise training and has been used as a modality for physical activity in cancer patients. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients performing a program of HIIT. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a HIIT program for these patients. Ten participants were recruited for this study. Five were controls and f...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510199

The Effect of Remote Training during Covid-19 Quarantine on Body Composition Changes in Collegiate Football Players

Lee Stowers and Jose R Fernandez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 30, 2021

Previous research has shown that following a structured training plan can result in significant changes in body composition in elite football players. However, the effect on body composition changes after athletes complete the same training plan remotely with limited resources needs further investigation. The purpose of this study is to determine if body composition changes in collegiate football players differ after training remotely during COVID-19 quarantine compared to training on campus dur...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510198

Analysis of Blood Pressure after and of Exercise Training Competitor

Rubem Machado Filho, Leonardo Amado Sohr Cardoso and Fábio de Albuquerque Gonçalves

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 30, 2021

Are called concurrent training programs that combine strength training and aerobic endurance in the same training session. This study aimed to verify the behavior of blood pressure during and after a training session competitor. We studied 10 subjects aged 30.8 ± 12.8 (19 to 53 years) (4 hypertensive and normotensive 6) of both genders (5 men and 5 women). The statistical analysis was performed using software (Primer for Windows, version, McGraw-Hill, USA) using paired t-test, giving th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510197

Reevaluation of Diagnostic Criteria for Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in Collegiate Wrestlers: A Case Series and Review

James Geiselman, DC, MS, DACBN, CCSP, ICSC, CES, CNC, NREMT, EMT-P and R. Darin Thomas, DO, MS

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: August 09, 2021

Rhabdomyolysis is a common and potentially fatal condition encountered by athletic trainers, coaches, primary care physicians and sports medicine physicians. Benign, or physiological, Exertional Rhabdomyolysis (ER) may resemble Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) and becomes clinically significant when accompanied by other morphologies including severe muscle pain and swelling, and myoglobinuria. ER is often characterized by a triad of symptoms including 1) Muscle pain, 2) Muscle swelling, and ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510196

Evaluation of Educational Advancement following a Sports Medicine Rotation

Edward Rozek, PhD, Allison Cracchiolo, BS, Patrick Keating, BS, Kate Hefferan, BS, Chaoyang Chen, MD and Stephen Lemos, MD, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2021

The competency in orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine has been reported as a deficiency. Sports medicine clinical rotations may improve both medical students’ and residents’ musculoskeletal knowledge, but none have evaluated the knowledge and skills a resident may gain during the rotation in sports medicine. The purpose of this study is to determine (1) The knowledge gained by residents at varying levels after rotating within our sports medicine program and (2) The performance of residen...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510195

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Depicted Muscle Injuries in Athletes Participating in the Rio De Janeiro 2016 Summer Paralympic Games

Daichi Hayashi, Michel D. Crema, Mohamed Jarraya, Cheri A. Blauwet, Rafael Heiss, Frank W. Roemer, Wayne E. Derman and Ali Guermazi

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: June 18, 2021

Muscle injuries may affect elite athletes including those competing at the Paralympic Games. We aimed to describe the frequencies, anatomic distribution, and severity of muscle injuries involving Paralympic athletes during the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Imaging-depicted muscle injuries in Paralympic athletes were identified upon retrospective review of all MRI studies performed at the Games. Images were evaluated retrospectively by five board-certified musculoskeletal radiologi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510194

Effects of Moderate-Intensity Intermittent Circuit Training in Obese and Overweight Individuals

Irene-Chrysovalanto Themistocleous, Petros Agathangelou and Manos Stefanakis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 14, 2021

Obesity has become a serious problem in Western societies and is associated with several health problems and reduced quality of life. The purpose of this randomised, clinical trial is to investigate the effects of a moderate-intensity, intermittent, circuit training program on a range of cardiovascular risk factors such as body composition, biochemical and physiological variables and aerobic capacity in obese and overweight individuals. A total of 30 participants were selected and 15 of them per...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510193

Non-Traumatic First Rib Fracture in University Wrestler

Thomas Wesley Allen, DO, MPH, FACP, FAOASM

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 05, 2021

The first rib is well situated to be fully protected from external trauma as it is surrounded by soft tissue, muscles, and bony structures. It is rarely fractured by external trauma. However, two reports of non-traumatic first rib fractures have recently been reported: One in a basketball player and the other in a cheerleader. We present a third case of a non-traumatic first rib fracture, one that occurred in a collegiate wrestler secondary to cervical muscle contraction. The first rib is the sh...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510192

Influence of Physical Activity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy and/or Hormonal Deprivation Therapy: Integrative Literature Review

Caio Augusto de Ávila Silva, Gabriel Dias Monteiro, Gustavo Pereira Freitas, João Vitor Coppola Oliveira and Douglas Reis Abdalla

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 05, 2021

In Brazil and in the world, the incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer have been increasing. The prostate is a male gland responsible for the production of part of the semen. More than any other type, it is considered a cancer of the third age, since about 75% of the cases in the world occur from the age of 65. In this study it was correlated the practice of physical exercises with the progression and evolution of the disease beyond the impacts in the treatment. This work aimed to verify in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510191

A Neural Mobilization Treatment Strategy for Patients with Neurogenic Claudication Related to Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Prospective Case Series

Reid Gehring, PT, ScD, Joan Potter-Brunet, PT, DPT, Phillip Sizer, PT, PhD, Kerry Gilbert, PT, ScD and Jean-Michel Brismée, PT, ScD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 03, 2021

mobilization treatment strategy in patients with Neurogenic Claudication (NC) related to degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis (LSS). Prospective case series. Seven older adults with NC related to LSS received a standardized treatment program. Outcome measures included the Swiss Spinal Stenosis questionnaire (SSS), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), time to First Symptoms (TFS) and Total Ambulation Time (TAT). Outcomes were assessed at the 7th visit and 3-months. Improvements were noted at the 7th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510190

The Influence of Maximum Strength Performance in Squats and Standing Calf Raises on Squat Jumps, Drop Jumps, and Linear as well as Change of Direction Sprint Performance in Youth Soccer Players

Michael Keiner, Bjorn Kadlubowski, Hagen Hartmann, Tobias Stefer and Klaus Wirth

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 05, 2021

Speed and strength performance have an essential role in soccer. It is well known there is a moderate to strong correlation between maximum strength, speed and jump performance. However most studies have analyzed only maximum strength values of the knee and hip extensors for the correlation analysis. Studies on the maximum strength of the calf muscles are rare. The aim of the study was to calculate the one-tailed correlation coefficients of the One-Repetition Maximum (1RM) in Standing Calf Raise...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510189

Persistent Pain after Clay Shoveler's Fracture Delayed Union: The Role for Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection

Ike B. Hasley, MD, Marc P. Gruner, DO, David B. Soma, MD and Jacob L. Sellon, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 15, 2021

Clay shoveler's fracture is an avulsion fracture of the lower cervical or upper thoracic spinous processes. This injury can be seen in trauma and sports-related activity, and usually responds to rest from painful activity. Patients with persistent pain may be treated with surgical excision of the avulsion fragment. We describe the case of a 14 year-old competitive swimmer whose desire to return to sport after failed initial treatment led to pursuit of an ultrasound-guided anesthetic/corticostero...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510188

Medically Integrated Fitness Program Review to Improve Health and Functional Outcomes

Michael M. Haniff, MD, PhD(c), Christopher R. Sutton, MS, ACSM-RCEP, EIM, James J.L. Mateka, MD, PhD(c), Peggy McDonagh Bravo, RN, BSN, MA, Wesley R. Waggener, PhD, CSCS and Nathaniel S. Jones, MD, CAQ-SM

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 21, 2021

Exercise prescription may be a useful tool in the management and prevention of chronic disease among the adult population. There is a dearth of structured exercise prescription programs for improving quality of life, physical function, and overall health. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of Next Steps Fitness Programs on symptoms and health outcomes among adults with one or more chronic conditions. This study was a retrospective examination of ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510187

First Rib Fracture Nonunion Treated With Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in a Division 1 Collegiate Baseball Player

Kanjiya S, Gambardella RA and Moon CN

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 17, 2021

Fractures of the first rib have historically been described in major trauma with a high prevalence for cardiothoracic and musculoskeletal fractures. However, there have been several case reports describing first rib fractures in athletes. The vast majority of these patients return to play with conservative management. Unfortunately, some patients may develop fracture nonunion. Patients that develop a nonunion may remain asymptomatic. In the rare case that a patient is symptomatic or develops tho...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510186

The Influence of Linear Sprint and Jump Performance on Change-of-Direction Performance in Male and Female State-Representative Youth Basketball Players

Michael Keiner, Björn Kadlubowski, Klaus Wirth and Markus Klusemann

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 17, 2021

Good change-of-direction sprint performance is considered important for basketball players. Regarding the components of a change-of-direction task, a correlation between the linear sprint and concentric power output can be assumed. Previous studies have shown heterogeneous correlation coefficients between different change-of-direction (COD) tests and linear and jump performance. Therefore, 47 trained youth basketball players (13.2 ± 3.6 years; 34 males and 13 females) were recruited. Linear spr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510183

Season Impact on the Technical and Physical Training Load in Professional Volleyball

Thiago A.G. Horta, Maurício G. Bara Filho, Bernardo Miloski, Daniel G.S. de Freitas and Jeferson M. Vianna

Article Type: Original Investigation | First Published: February 28, 2021

The development or maintenance of fitness and the enhancement of biomotor skills are two important components in the preparation of intermittent team sports athletes for the frequent and substantial demands faced in competition. On the other hand, the interpretation of training data contextualized with the period in which the team is in the season, are of extreme importance to avoid negative adaptations, injuries, and illnesses to athletes. Fourteen male athletes participated in the study. The T...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510185

Causes and Prevention of Running-Related Injury: An Engineering Perspective

Lee Saxby and Mick Wilkinson

Article Type: Current Opinion | First Published: March 17, 2021

There is a high prevalence of, and lack of a systematic reduction in running-related injuries. Despite decades of research, there remains a lack of consensus about risk factors and solutions for running injury in the scientific literature. In response to suggestions that running injuries should be viewed from alternative conceptual frameworks, this paper has viewed running from an engineering perspective to suggest causes and solutions based on the 'fundamental principles' approach that characte...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510184

Covid-19 Disease, Self-Isolation and Physical Inactivity

Mehmet UNAL and Tulay IREZ

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 28, 2021

The COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which started in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, was declared a global epidemic by the World Health Organization. Restrictive measures based on physical (social) distance are taken to prevent the spread of the disease, which manifests itself with symptoms such as high fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, weakness, and diarrhea. According to the settlement rules, nationwide quarantines covering mass quarantine have proven effect...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510182

Isolated Tear of the Distal Biceps Femoris Tendon in a Young Elite Australian Rules Football Player

In Sun Na, Stuart Down and Scott Hancock

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 16, 2021

Isolated tear of the distal biceps femoris tendon is rare in athletes. A recent systematic review identified only a total of 22 athletes with such injuries. More specifically, only one previously reported case in an athlete outlined a tear localised to the distal tendon, as opposed to the more commonly documented myotendinous junction. Most of these injuries were treated surgically (n = 20/22) with mean (± SD) overall time to return to sport of 4.9 +/- 3.3 months. This study presents a rare cas...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510181

Acute Compartment Syndrome in the Anabolic Steroid using Bodybuilder: A Case Report

Eduardo Freitas Ferreira, Barbara Dantas, Diogo Portugal, Nuno Silva, Catarina Peixoto, André Ladeira and Carla Vera-Cruz

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 31, 2020

A 19-year-old male bodybuilder presented to the emergency department with a lower right leg anterior non-traumatic compartment syndrome associated with a footdrop. He had been using daily anabolic-androgenic steroids for the past 12 weeks. Emergency fasciotomy was done and the patient initiated rehabilitation. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510180

Inactivity during COVID-19 Quarantine and its Effects in Strength and Functional Parameters in Elderly: A Case-Study

Júlio Benvenutti Bueno de Camargo, Rubem Machado Filho, Felipe Alves Brigatto, Danilo Rodrigues Batista, Paulo Henrique Barbosa, Guilherme Borsetti Businari, Jhenipher Moniky Rosolem, Rafael Sakai Zaroni, Evandro Murer, Gustavo Zorzi Fioravante, Daniel Alves Correa, Diego Pereira Jeronimo, Anderson Martelli, Moises Diego Germano, Wellington Goncalves Dias, Victor Augusto Ramos Fernandes, Luan Oenning Col and Tiago Volpi Braz

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 31, 2020

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) may be defined as a disease with pandemic characteristics. Although social distance may be able to combat the spreading of the virus, negative repercussions in general population's health may occur, especially in older people. Then, the aim of the present case-study was to assess the effects of a 6 month-detraining period in strength and functional parameters of a previously strength-trained elderly woman....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510179

Match Running Performance and Positional Demands of a U9 Female Soccer Team Competing in a Parks and Recreation- Sponsored League

Brad H. DeWeese, Robert W. Sausaman, Matt L. Sams and Joanne Spalding

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 19, 2020

The purpose of this study was to describe the match play characteristics of female youth-athletes participating in recreation league U9 soccer via wearable Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. Nine female youth soccer athletes (8.6 ± 0.9 years; all with 3-4 years of playing experience) were monitored during the study period. The athletes participated in approximately 2.5 hours of soccer-related training per week and two 48-minute 9v9 matches per week. The athletes were classified as Forw...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510178

Intense Endurance Exercise: A Potential Risk Factor in the Development of Heart Disease

Jocelynn Rajanayagam, MD and Mohammed Alsabri, MD, M.B, B.S

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 17, 2020

Exercise is known to improve cardiac health; however, the upper limit of exercise is not as clear. High intensity endurance exercise and its association with cardiac dysfunction is becoming more important as more people in the USA participate in endurance activity. Increased cardiac remodelling, myocardial fibrosis, and arrhythmias were associated with increased endurance exercise in most instances. Clinically significant dysfunction from endurance exercise induced cardiac remodelling and myocar...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510177

Warm-up or Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation are Unnecessary before Anaerobic or Aerobic Power Exercise?

Carlos Alexandre Fett, Karla Regia Ferreira Viana Figueiredo, Almir de Franca Ferraz, Fabíula Lebbeck, Camila Fernanda and Waléria Christiane Rezende Fett

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 19, 2020

Preparatory activities for physical exercise and/or sports competition are carried out with the improving performance and preventing injuries. Traditional Warm-up (TW), such as jogging and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching, are two examples of activities used for this purpose. However, there is no consensus in the literature about their efficacy, and which of them is the best. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of TW and PNF on anaerobic power (AnP) and Aer...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510176

Distinct Recovery Length and Multiple 1-RM Attempts for Both Upper and Lower Body Exercises

Estevao Scudese, Adolf Grotz, Cristiano Queiroz de Oliveira, Fabiana Rodrigues Scartoni, Alan Bruno Silva Vasconcelos, Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto, Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas and Gilmar Weber Senna

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 02, 2020

The present study aims to verify the responses of different rest period lengths on multiple attempts of the 1-RM (repetition maximal) in the Bench Press (BP) and Leg-Press (LP) exercises. Fifteen trained men (83.38 ± 10.89 kg, 179.40 ± 6.70 cm, 22.40 ± 2.52 years, 11.93 ± 3.51% BF, 1.23 ± 0.16 kg relative strength [maximum bench press load]\kg [body weight]-1) performed a test and retest for load evaluation in both exercises. After load determination, subjects performed four more visits, wi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510175

Hyperpathia and Aerobic Exercise

J. C. Jiménez-Sáez, J. J. Jiménez-Rodríguez and S. Muñoz

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020

The patient began to suffer from hyperpathia in his childhood. Then an electric shock-like pain indifferent support areas prevented the patient from putting pressure on these areas for a long period. The treatment with carbamazepine made the stabbing pain disappear. However, since then a pressure-induced soreness of varying intensity has developed in different body support areas if the stimulation on them exceeds a certain limit or if the dose of carbamazepine or the level of aerobic physical ex...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510174

Sports Medicine Practice during COVID-19 Pandemic - A 'New Normal'

Simarpreet Singh Kalra, Anirban Mallick and Jahnavi Dande

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 12, 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all areas of life, including sports and athletes which caused disruption to physical and psychological wellbeing leading to health impairment and loss of performance. The global sports calendar has been impacted, athletes are almost stuck indoors facing an unprecedented effect in their life. The sports medicine practitioners all over the world need to adapt to these new challenges. Resumption of training and competition while maintaining social distanci...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510173

A Comparative Study on the Physical Quality (Lower Body Strength and Endurance) of Boys Under-17 Youth Football Development Project and Non-Athletes of the Same Age Group: The Case of Debre Markos Town

Fenta Bitew

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2020

Professional spends more time and efforts for improvement of athletic performance. The study was conducted for the comparison of physical qualities (lower body strength and endurance) of boys under-17 youth football development project participants and non-participants of the same age group at Debre Markos town. The research design was cross-sectional survey. The researcher selected 25 project participants by using simple random sampling and 25 non-athletes by using purposive sampling technique....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510172

Transient Immune Deficit after Exercise and the Relationship with Immuno-Nutrition: A Short Review of the Literature

Lucas Cecin de Deus Spirandelli, Vítor Brandão Veloso, Eduardo Elias Vieira de Carvalho, Ana Karina Marques Salge, George Kemil Abdalla and Douglas Reis Abdalla

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 26, 2020

In order to understand the relationship of immune deficit after physical activity and its relationship with food supplementation with carbohydrates and polyphenols to mitigate this transient suppression, the objective of this review is to identify the factors that characterize the decline in immune function after physical exercise and stress the importance of immunonutrition in this context. The use of carbohydrates and polyphenols in physical activity practitioners to mitigate transient immune ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510171

Validity of Lower Extremity Postural Sway for Baseline Concussion Testing

Marisa Pontillo PT, PhD, DPT, Shawn Hines and Brian Sennett, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 18, 2020

The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and King-Devick (KD) are utilized frequently in the athletic population for baseline testing, despite the BESS lacking sensitivity. Biomechanical testing detects smaller magnitudes of change but has not been validated against clinical tests. The objectives of this study were to examine the distribution of Lower Extremity (LE) sway variables in an athletic population; to examine the relationship between clinical and biomechanical concussion testing measures...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510170

Use of a Virtual Platform to Evaluate Mental Performance, Mood State and Anxiety in a Third-Division Mexican Soccer Team

Mora Rosas Norma Elizabeth, PhD, Natalia Lozano Virgen, PhD and Francisco Arroyo Paz, MD

Article Type: Sport Psychology Analisys | First Published: July 16, 2020

The psychological evaluation for soccer players should be conducted during different times of the regular season, as it can provide relevant data that are useful for the coach and his multidisciplinary assistant’s team. Generally speaking, this evaluation is carried out by a sports psychologist and takes time to apply to the entire team, which makes the scoring process and data interpretation take longer, especially if this is carried out by a single psychologist in the traditional way....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510169

Sleep Loss During Military Training Reduces Testosterone in U.S. Army Rangers: A Two-Study Series

Janna Mantua, Jacob A Naylor, Bradley M Ritland, Carolyn A Mickelson, Alexxa F Bessey, Jake J Choynowski, Walter J Sowden, Ashlee B McKeon and Tina M Burke

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: July 11, 2020

U.S. Army Rangers must maintain a high level of physical fitness in order to be successful during training and deployment missions. The hormone testosterone increases muscle growth and strength, which leads to better physical fitness and performance. Therefore, maintaining high testosterone levels is of critical importance to this unit. However, many Ranger missions require sleep deprivation, which, in non-military populations, has been shown to decrease testosterone. The purpose of the study wa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510167

Characterizing Relationships with Exercise Partners: Communication, Closeness, and Performance

Hill CR, Max EJ, Wittenbaum GM and Feltz DL

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 05, 2020

Social influence research in exercise has highlighted the motivation-boosting potential of working out with an exercise partner or group, but to the authors’ knowledge there has been no research to date characterizing the typical dyadic exercise relationship, which is an interpersonal relationship that includes regular co-exercise. If exercise partners are motivational, then characterizing their relationship is important. A sample of 555 undergraduates were administered a survey, 383 of whom m...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510168

The Significance of Early Repolarization and Incomplete Right Bundle Block in Athletes

Samir Rafla, MD, PhD

Article Type: Brief Communication | First Published: June 12, 2020

The study included hundred persons engaged in competitive sports for duration not less than 6 months; with training at least 3 days per week and at least two hours per day. All were males. Full history especially questioning for syncope, tachycardias or chest pain was obtained as well as family history of sudden death or coronary disease. ECG was done for all plus echo Doppler in some cases. Early repolarization was accepted present if J point is elevated more than one mm in LII, III, aVF or in ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510165

Vegan Diet in Sports and Exercise – Health Benefits and Advantages to Athletes and Physically Active People: A Narrative Review

Katharina C Wirnitzer

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 15, 2020

Health is one factor in leading a fulfilled life. Since food and sport are considered to be ‘medicines’, their continuous inter- related application is a highly effective but simple tool for improving individual health. However, being a healthy human is a prerequisite for becoming a successful athlete. Vegan diets are booming in the mainstream and in sport. From current sporting success all the way back to ancient times, it is evident that vegans can win races up to professional levels and e...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510166

Impact of a Novel Training Approach on Body Composition in the Elderly

Matthew C Scott, Jason D. Allen, Neil M. Johannsen, Daniel P. Credeur, Conrad P. Earnest, Timothy S. Church, Eric Ravussin, William E. Kraus and Michael A. Welsch

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 16, 2020

Deterioration of body composition with advancing age is related to functional decline. This study examined the effects of a novel progressive exercise training program on body composition in individuals > 70 y, at risk of losing functional independence. Aging is associated with significant changes in body composition. Evidence from the Baltimore Longitudinal Aging Study (BLAS) demonstrates Fat Free Mass (FFM) increases up to the 3rd decade of life, after which it remains relatively stable until ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510164

Factors that Influence Injuries Occurrence in Jiu-Jitsu Competitors

Tulio Fernandes de Almeida and Angelica Rodrigues de Araujo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 29, 2020

The Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is known for its efficiency and competitiveness, the modality has shown an increase in the practitioner’s number and international level competitions, leading to worldwide popularization. Even with worldwide success and recognition, the number of studies on the modality did not follow this growth, which makes it difficult to categorize the sport and identify the factors related to injuries, which is essential to promote and plan interventions aiming at injury prev...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510163

Bilateral Simultaneous Distal Biceps Rupture: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

John Reza Matthews, MD and William Wind, MD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 24, 2020

On physical examination, visual inspection demonstrated residual swelling within the antecubital fossae and ecchymosis extending to the proximal lateral forearm of both elbows, but more extensive on the left. There was an obvious deformity of both biceps musculature with proximal retraction of the muscle belly on the left. The deformity was accentuated with resisted elbow flexion. Both elbows demonstrated localized tenderness directly over the biceps tendon. On the right, the biceps tendon was p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510160

Effect of Different Exercise Mode and Ursolic Acid Supplementation on FNDC5 and UCP1 Gene Expression and Plasma Irisin in Rats

Mahzad Teimourian, Hoseyn Fatolahi and Hasan Mateenhomaei

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 22, 2020

Each exercise mode can lead to a specific effect. On the other hand, herbal supplements increase the effects of exercise. Yet the interactive effect of exercise mode and Ursolic Acid (UA) on the Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) has not been well explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12-week Aerobic Training (AT), Resistance Training (RT), and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) along with UA supplementation on muscle FNDC5 and adipose tissue UCP1 gene expression a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510162

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Needs Analysis

Trevor Shaw

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 23, 2020

The physical nature and needs of the athletes in the sport of Brazilian jiu-jitsu are unique. Depending on the style and competition selection, athletes are exposed to a wide variety of match times, making the endurance, strength, and even flexibility demands variable. Beginner matches start at a length of 5 minutes, where high-level competition can go up to 20 minutes in a single round. Each of these requires very different physical attributes depending on the style of the bout. For the sake of...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510161

Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Sleep and Salivary Melatonin in Men

Kaylee M Pobocik, PT, DPT, Seth A Von Rentzell, Abigail J Leonard, Amber N Daye and Elizabeth S Evans, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 16, 2020

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that affects approximately 50-70 million US adults. Previous studies have examined the impact of exercise as a non-pharmacologic mechanism for improving sleep and reducing insomnia. The body’s melatonin secretion is considered an internal sleep regulator (as opposed to external sleep regulators such as medications) and may be improved by regular exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention on n...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510159

Torque and Electrical Activation of the Rectus Femoris Muscle at Distinct Joint Angles: A Case Study

Anelize CINI, Francesca SONDA, Izabel de Almeida PAZ, Ana Paula Janner ZANARDI and Grazielle Martins GELAIN

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 21, 2020

The angulation of knee and hip joints affect isometric contractions of Rectus Femoris muscle (RF) during knee extension. Literature states that torque-angle relationship depends on muscle length and neuromuscular electrical activation. However, it is still not clear whether the maximum neuromuscular activation changes concomitantly with the change in the joint angles considering the presence of muscle shortening. We present a case study in which we analyzed changes in neuromuscular activation an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510158

A Novel Oblique Impact Test Rig for Testing Helmet

Daniel E Abram, Adrian Wikarna, Farid Golnaraghi and G Gary Wang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 13, 2020

In this work, a new test rig is introduced to assess various head impact scenarios on different types of helmets. The test rig is a free-fall system where a helmeted headform is suspended instead of being placed on a basket frame and detaches from the system before the impact allowing an unrestricted motion. The proposed testbed showed to be effective in performing helmet impact tests at different angles. The test rig is particularly effective in tests at steep anvil angles, such as 15°, which ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510157

Systematization of Functional Training Sessions to Benefit Physical Fitness for Daily Activities in Older People

Antonio Gomes de Resende-Neto and Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 10, 2020

Tools applied today in the Functional Training (FT) have long been used in general fitness programs, but systematic use and scientific interest are recent phenomena. Thus, there are many methodological conflicts and divergences in the prescriptions of this method. For example, some studies have associated FT with the use of instability in many exercises, while others use unstable bases in a small portion of training, or simply do not use. Thus, there is still an absence of a systematic FT model ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510156

Effects of Massage on Cardiovascular Outcomes and Perceived Exertion of Brazilian JIU-JITSU Parathletes Submitted to Simulated Fight

Jaqueline Santos Silva Lopes, Simone Maria Lopes, Anibal Monteiro de Magalhaes Neto, Aline Castilho de Almeida, Abel Pompeu de Campos Junior, Bruno Fernando Cruz Luccheti, Daianne Camargos da Silva, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti Andrade

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2019

The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular physiological responses and perceived exertion rate on Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu parathletes submitted to a simulated fight. Six male athletes were included. After the fight, a recuperative massage protocol was applied to the upper limbs and trunk. Regarding Heart Rate (HR), values above baseline were found in all participants post intervention. Only one participant demonstrated recovery of Blood Pressure (BP) to baseline after the technique....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510155

Is it Valuable for Top Elite Footballers to Adopt a Personal Strength and Conditioning Coach? A Brief Report

Rafael Grazioli, Pedro Lopez, Leonel Villeroy, Leonel Alvim, Bernardo Bock, Natalia Nunes, Filipe Veeck, Martinho Inacio, Carlos LF. Machado, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Eduardo Lusa Cadore

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: December 16, 2019

Some athletes have been particularly adopted personal strength and conditioning coaches during their day to day routines. However, there are no studies about this complementary management. The present study aimed to screen injury incidence, match play, and market value parameters of topelite soccer players during seasons with and without a personal strength and conditioning coach. After implementing the personal training interventions, there was an individual decrease in number of injuries (50%)...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510154

Impact of Shoulder Injuries on Quality of Life for Retired National Basketball Association Players: A Survey Study

Chetan Gohal, MD, Moin Khan, MD, MSc, FRCSC, Tyrrell Burrus, MD, Kim Madden, MSc, PhD, Joel Gagnier, PhD, Joseph P. Rogowski, MSc, ATC, CSCS and Asheesh Bedi, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 04, 2019

Athletes in the National Basketball Association (NBA) are at risk of sport-related injuries due to the frequent jumping, pivoting, and overhead movements that constantly strain the musculoskeletal system. A comprehensive understanding of how shoulder injuries affect athletes during their NBA careers and into retirement has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to utilize a survey to evaluate the epidemiology of shoulder injuries in NBA players and determine the impact that these injuri...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510153

Lady or Gentleman? Sex Differences in Osseous and Cartilaginous Structures of the Knee

Lauren C Pringle, MD, Miho J Tanaka, MD and Laura M Fayad, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 11, 2019

We performed a comprehensive review of imaging investigations of knee morphology comparing male and female subjects using PUBMED, with search terms for CT/MRI, knee anatomy, and gender. Inclusion criteria were primary imaging investigations of knee osseous/cartilage anatomy (minimum 15 subjects); exclusion criteria were studies of post-operative patients, those with comorbid orthopedic conditions, and review articles. Sex differences in osseous/cartilage anatomy were extracted and aggregated. O...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510152

Complex High Turnover in Bone Metabolism Impairs Bone Quality in Female Long-Distance Runners with Menstrual Disorders

Eiji Sasaki, Yuki Fujita, Katsuro Yoneda, Shoko Kinugasa, Ken Kato, Eiichi Tsuda, Yasuyuki Ishibashi and Takashi Umeda

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 09, 2019

Menstrual disorder is a risk factor for stress fracture. Stress fractures impede running activity in female long-distance runners. However, the bone metabolism of female long-distance runners, and its relationship with bone quality, are not understood. We examined the characteristics of bone metabolism and bone quality in female long-distance runners with menstrual disorder. Sixteen female university long-distance runners and 31 young female non-athlete volunteers were enrolled. Self-reported me...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510151

Comparison of Active and Sedentary Bout Lengths in Normal and Overweight Adults using eMouverecherche

Ludivine Paris, Romain Guidoux, Damien Saboul, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie and Sylvie Rousset

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

Physical inactivity and long sedentary time are common in obese people. The eMouveRecherche application was developed to provide accurate minute-by-minute classification of physical activity in light, moderate, vigorous intensity and sedentary bouts. The aim was to compare the frequency and length of bouts in Normal-Weight (NW) and Overweight (OW) adults. Fifty-seven adult participants either normal weight or overweight wore a smartphone with the eMouve application for the entire waking period o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510150

Validity of Two High-Incline VO2max Protocols for College- Aged Population

DE Lankford, FACSM, Jake T Bartschi, Keegan Huntsman, Lex Gidley, Tyler Hook and Yilin Wu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

The aim of the study is to validate two high-incline Graded Exercise Tests (GXT) that could be used as alternatives to the Bruce protocol to obtain VO2max values for college-aged individuals who may not be accustomed to running on a treadmill. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) assesses the upper limit of an individual's ability to consume and utilize oxygen during intense, or maximal exercise, commonly accepted as a reliable indicator of cardiorespiratory health. Among all the existing protocols, G...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510149

The Effect of Concurrent Exercise Order (Resistance and Endurance) on Lipid Profile, Leptin Serum and Insulin Resistance Index in Overweight Women

Mehdi Hakimi and Maryam Ali-Mohammadi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 17, 2019

The implementation of a concurrent exercise session in two exercise groups except for the indicators of HDL that there was no significant change, caused to significantly decreases in TC, TG, LDL, insulin, insulin resistance indices and leptin serum that this rate of changes was significant compared with the control group. But no significant difference was observed between implementation of two methods of concurrent exercise. In addition, the control group did not change significantly in none of ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510148

Limbus Vertebra and Low Back Pain: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Man R Shim, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 14, 2019

Limbus vertebra is marginal interosseous herniation of the nucleus pulposus. It is generally considered to be an incidental finding without any symptoms unless posterior herniation causes nerve compression. However, recent findings have suggested limbus vertebra may be associated with a specific gene and intervertebral disk degeneration. This article reports a case of a 40-year-old male patient with limbus vertebra, intervertebral disk degeneration, and low back pain, followed by a comprehensive...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510147

Strength and Endurance Influence on the Trunk Muscle in the Functional Performance of Elderly Women

Marceli Matos Andrade Mesquita, Marta Silva Santos, Alan Bruno Silva Vasconcelos, Antonio Gomes de Resende-Neto, Jose Carlos Aragao-Santos, Roberto Jeronimo Santos Silva, Gilmar Weber Senna, Felipe Jose Aidar Martins, Paulo Marcio Pereira Oliveira, Estelio Henrique Martin Dantas and Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 07, 2019

The trunk muscles have an important role in the stabilization of the trunk in the elderly, however it is not known how much they can influence in the functional performance of this specific population. There were 45 elderly women in the study. The maximum strength and endurance of the trunk and the functional performance were evaluated through the stable wooden seat, McGill protocol, Senior Fitness Test battery and the deadlift. For statistical purposes, a multiple regression model was used. The...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510146

Low or Adequate Carbohydrate Diet and Aerobic Exercise Decrease Cardiometabolic Risk in Overweight Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Raquel Simoes Mendes-Netto, Ana Carolina Santos Barbosa Machado, Barbara Lucia Fonseca Chagas, Marina de Macedo Rodrigues Leite, Alan Bruno Silva Vasconcelos, Danielle Góes da Silva and Marzo Edir da Silva Grigoletto

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 04, 2019

To evaluate the efficacy of a low carbohydrate diet on body composition and cardiometabolic markers in overweight women undergoing endurance physical training. A randomized, controlled clinical trial included 24 overweight women, 8 of whom consumed low-calorie diets containing an adequate carbohydrate content, while 16 consumed a low carbohydrate diet. The women regularly performed semi-supervised physical exercise (walking/running) for 12 weeks. Body composition (weight, abdominal and hip circu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510145

Injuries of Futsal Players and Prevention in China

Wu Jianxi, Hu Xianxiao, Zhao Lei and Xia Shushu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 26, 2019

Futsal has become an important form of “campus football”. It can provide important supports to sustainable development of “campus football” by studying injuries futsal players. In this study, the injured position and causes of futsal players were analyzed through questionnaire survey, comparison and literature review. It concludes that ankle is the most vulnerable position of futsal players to injuries, followed by waist, knee joint, head and face, hip and thigh successively. Waist is th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510144

Simultaneous Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Medial Collateral Ligament and Patellar Tendon: A Case Series, Review of the Literature, and Proposed Treatment Algorithm

Matthew Quinn, Nicholas Lemme, Anna King DO and Ramin R. Tabaddor

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 25, 2019

Patellar Tendon (PT) rupture in combination with an anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL) +/- a Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) injury is a rarely reported injury pattern. We report the cases of three athletes who sustained simul-taneous rupture of their PT, ACL and MCL while competing. They were treated in a staged manner with acute pri-mary repair of the patellar tendon and MCL followed by a rehabilitation period. Reconstruction of the ACL was performed once range of motion and strength of ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510143

Acute Heart Rate Responses to Resistance Exercise at Different Cadences

Marc R Apkarian

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 21, 2019

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether movement speed, or cadence, affects the heart rate (HR) response to three sets of 10 repetitions of resistance exercise at slow (6 seconds/repetition) and fast (2 seconds/repetition) cadences. When three sets of 10 repetitions are performed on the angled leg press at a slow cadence, a significant increase in peak HR occurs for the sets, while the fast cadence does not demonstrate an increase in peak HR values. The is presumed in part due to infl...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510142

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Platelet Rich Plasma: Systematic Review


Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 07, 2019

The aim of this study was reviewed the scientific evidence of the relationship that could exist between the use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) after the reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). We performed a systematic using the following key words: platelet rich plasma AND anterior cruciate ligament. Abstracts were screened by a single reviewer. For those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. From 127 studies found only 5 articles were includ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510141

A Comparison of Physical Activity Levels between On-Line and Campus University Students

Kelly R Rice, Justin S Fuller, Darren J Dutto, John M Schuna Jr and Timothy K Behrens

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 05, 2019

A total of 238 participants enrolled at a regional university in Oregon with a significant online presence (58% of student head count).PA levels of on-campus and online students were assessed during April 2014 via an online electronic questionnaire. PA queries were based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) questions regarding PA. Costs to treat diseases associated with a lack of regular physical activity have a distinctly negative impact on the American health care system...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510140

The Relationship between Anaerobic Power Output and Race Performance during Marathon Canoe and Kayak Competition

Andrew Hatchett, Charles Allen, Kaitlyn Armstrong and Brittany Hughes

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2019

Paddle sports are low impact activities that result in high aerobic demand. Although this sport relies on the aerobic system, with the addition of shorter distances in competition settings it has led to interest in the importance of anaerobic capacity. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between anaerobic power and endurance paddle race performance. Fifty (n = 50) endurance paddle athletes completed a 13-mile course either by kayak or canoe. A modified Wingate anaerobic po...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510139

Burundi Population Awareness about Gout and the Pivotal Role Played by Physical Exercise in Prevent and Managing Gout Relating Problems

NGAYIMBESHA Adrien, BIZIMANA Jean Berchmans and GAKIMA Marie Stella

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2019

Prevalence and incidences of gout disease had shown an increasing trend all over the world including in developing countries. In underdeveloped countries like Burundi, there is no information about this disease situation, and the population may lack sufficient knowledge to prevent this metabolic pathology. Gout is a type of inflammatory arthritis that may sometimes be called gouty arthritis. Gout develops in some people who have high levels of uric acid in their body and bloodstream, a condition...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510138

Balance in Transitional Age Youth with Autism Spectrum and Neurodevelopmental Disorders during a 6-Week Comprehensive Wellness Program

Eve Spratt, MD, MSCR, Carrie Papa, Conner McDonald, COM, Martina Mueller, PhD, Nicole Gribben, MPH-PAPH, PhD Student, Carolyn Peterseim, COM, Mary Ashley Mercer, MD, Ali Serpe, MD, Tatiana Baier, PhD and Janis Newton

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 25, 2019

Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at an increased risk of poor balance and coordination due to sensory deficits. Specifically, reactive postural control impairments have been well documented among individual’s with ASD, however, research suggests that interventions can improve these associated deficiencies. The Piece It Together (PIT) program is a community-based comprehensive program designed to provide wellness opportunities among teens and young adults with ASD and other ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510137

Treatment of Direct Head of the Rectus Femoris Injury with PRP Therapy in a Division I Basketball Player

Matthew Quinn, BS, Nicholas Lemme, MD, Phillip Salko, MD and Ramin R. Tabaddor, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 22, 2019

The Rectus Femoris (RF) is the most commonly injured quadriceps muscle and is second only to the hamstring in prevalence amongst lower extremity injuries occurring in athletes. For most high-level athletes, injuries involving these anatomical structures takes an average of 38 days for return to sport. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP), is an orthobiologic that is commonly used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. PRP acts as a catalyst in the healing process by using the patient's own blood to...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510136

Effects of Different Methods of Resistance Training on Indicators of Daily Physical Fitness in Physically Active Elderly Women

Ilmar Danilo Santos Lima, Antonio Gomes de Resende-Neto, Jose Carlos Aragao-Santos, Albernon Costa Nogueira, Alan Bruno Silva Vasconcelos, Bruna Caroline Oliveira Andrade, Iohanna Gilnara Santos Fernandes and Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 29, 2019

Aging is an intrinsic process of the human being linked to functional deteriorations in several systems, affecting the quality of life due to the inability to perform the simple tasks of the day to day in an autonomous, efficient and safe way. In addition, the female sex is also considered an independent risk factor for functional capacity decline. When compared to men, women are more affected by senescence due to hormonal changes associated with menopause that intensify muscle weakness and incr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510135

Complex Hip Spine Syndrome in Young Athlete: A Diagnosis Dilemma

Mohamad Azwan Aziz and Redzal Abu Hanifah

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 20, 2019

This is a case of Mr. D, a 32 Chinese gentleman. He is an active in recreational body building exercise for 10 years with an athletic physique. He was diagnosed with prolapse intervertebral disc in the past 7 years however his condition worsening for the past 3 years with multiple episode of severe back pain requiring admission and he develops reduces sensation over left lower limb at L3 and L4 dermatomes associated with reduced motor power in dorsiflexion of ankle and extension of big toe over ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510134

Immune Response in a Pediatric Cancer Patient after a One-Week Skiing Intervention

Nicolas Kurpiers, Nico de Lazzari, Nils von Neuhoff and Stefan Flohr

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 05, 2019

Moderate physical activity possesses positive effects on the immune system function. Numerous studies investigated such effects also in cancer patients. As most studies were conducted on adults, much less is known in children and adolescents. Moreover, most studies were conducted under laboratory conditions in order to control the duration and intensity of the activity. However, daily life also includes outdoor activities....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510133

The Great Difficulties for our Obese and Hypertensive Patients to have Physical Activities

N Ali-Tatar, A Derradji, R Guermaz, D Hakem, B Mohammedi, M Brouri, A Berrah and MT Chentir

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 21, 2019

A sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity affects more than half of the population worldwide. Despite the burdens that obesity and diabetes impose on our society, awareness of the cardiovascular disease as a result, is poor. What about primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in our population with obesity and diabetes? To investigate the feasibility in our daily practice of Cardiovascular (CV) primary prevention in Algerian patients without established cardiovascular disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510132

Proof of Concept: Taking the Guessing out of Assessing Knee Stability

Dawn Gulick

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 20, 2019

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is frequently assessed using the Lachman test. This test involves linear translation of the tibia on the femur. Meta-analysis and systematic reviews report a wide range of diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this case report was to establish a proof of concept using a novel device, the Mobil-Aider, to accurately quantify linear translation of the tibia on the femur....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510131

Screening and Injury Surveillance for a Contemporary Dance Company: A Pilot Study

Chia Kok Kiong Jason

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 20, 2019

Information on the profile of dancers as well as patterns and extent of dance injuries is useful to dance community in implementing injury prevention measures. However, there is little published data on injuries in the Singapore dance population. Nine dancers underwent anthropometric measurement, dance specific screening as well as Functional Movement Screen (FMS). The dancers were interviewed for each injury that developed over a year to establish diagnosis as well as gather data on the circums...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510130

The Change in Kinematics and Lower Limb Muscle Activation Whilst Running after Cycling in a Triathlon and the Difference between Elite and Moderately Trained Triathletes: A Systematic Review

George Wilson, Jody Chappell and Richard Twycross-Lewis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 31, 2019

Triathlon is a multi discipline endurance sport that involves the continuous completion of a swim, cycle and a run. There are various distance triathlons in which triathletes can compete, including: Sprint, Olympic and half or full Ironman distance. The sport has grown hugely in popularity and had its first introduction into the Olympics in year 2000. Its popularity is continuing to increase, according to the British Triathlon Federation the number of triathlon participants in Britain has increa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510129

Effect of Acute Needle Acupuncture on Peak Isometric Muscle Torque and Fatigue in Healthy Participants

Peter S Micalos, Sokcheon Pak, Jack Cannon, Mathew Hale and Byung-Soo Koo

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 29, 2019

Repeat performance of the peak isometric muscle torque was sustained following a 20-min acupuncture procedure compared to a decline in the control group following a 20-min rest procedure. Differences between groups might be associated with acute acupuncture procedure and acquired performance bias. The procedure of needle acupuncture requires the insertion and manipulation of a fine needle at selected acupoints on the body to induce therapeutic effects. Acupuncture is widely recognised as a treat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510127

Surgical Treatment of a Young Athlete with Displaced Avulsion Fracture of the Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)

Alexander E Poor, Alec Warren, Nicole Cannon and William C Meyers

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 29, 2019

Avulsion fractures of the anterior superior iliac spine are uncommon without established treatment guidelines. Deciding between nonoperative versus surgical management depends on the grade of displacement, skeletal maturity, type of sport/activity, and competitive/career requirements. We present a young athlete who sustained an ASIS avulsion fracture while playing baseball that was treated with open surgical reduction and fixation using absorbable sutures with an emphasis on mobilizing the TFL t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510126

Effects of Multicomponent Training on Functional Fitness and Quality of Life in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Antonio Gomes de Resende Neto, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento, Danilo Rodrigues Pereira da Silva, Raquel Simoes Mendes Netto, Josimari Melo de Santana and Marzo Edir Da Silva Grigoletto

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 25, 2019

Sixty-two older women were randomized into a multicomponent group (MG: n = 32, 65.28 ± 4.96 years) or a stretching group (SG: n = 32, 64.40 ± 3.68 years). MG performed joint mobility exercises, walking, muscle strength exercises and intermittent activities. SG has performed flexibility exercises with minimal physical effort. In order to verify the functional fitness, the Senior Fitness Test battery was used and the quality of life was verified by means of the WHOQOL BREF questionnaire in the p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510124

Performance-Determining Coordinative and Conditional Abilities in the Fire Brigade Sport Discipline

Sophia Lichan, Robert Prill and Sven Michel

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2019

Fire brigade sport is a common sport in parts of Europe, with a growing body of popularity. In sports science, no research has been carried out in this field up to date. In consequence, there are no structures for talent scouting in firefighting sports. "100 m obstacle course" is one out of the four disciplines in this sport. For an efficient scouting of talents and training in general the necessary conditional and coordinative abilities must be identified. Dynamic balance, short sprint and moto...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510123

The Association between Dietary Protein Intake Frequency, Amount, and State of Energy Balance on Body Composition in a Women's Collegiate Soccer Team

Ashley Delk-Licata, Christian E Behrens, Dan Benardot, Brenda M Bertrand, Paula C Chandler-Laney, Jose R Fernandez and Eric P Plaisance

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2019

Although protein consumption has been documented to influence body composition in humans, the effect on fat-free mass and fat mass, as influenced by the timing, frequency, and state of energy balance during the day when protein is consumed has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether the amount and frequency of dietary protein intake, and the state of energy balance when consumed, are associated with body composition of collegiate women's socce...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510122

Characterization of Exercise-Induced Cytokine Release, the Impacts on the Body, the Mechanisms and Modulations

Katsuhiko Suzuki

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 28, 2019

The objective of this review is to introduce significant research findings mainly on cytokine responses to exercise. First, some basic background information on cytokines is provided. Then, some of our data according to exercise modes and key experimental research on the factors affecting cytokine responses to exercise are explained. Furthermore, the mechanisms and modulations of the cytokine responses are described to understand stress and inflammatory reactions and their prevention/recovery......

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510121

Determining Rheumatology Patient Interest in a Group Strength Training Program - Results of an Exercise Survey

Kevin Rhie, MD, Danielle M Feger, MS, Rayford R June, MD, Christopher N Sciamanna, MD, MPH and Sharon E Banks, DO, MS

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 20, 2019

Exercise has proven benefits in rheumatologic disease including reducing inflammation and improving symptoms. A Group Strength Training (GST) program design has improved adherence to exercise in primary care patients but the effect is unknown in rheumatology patients. We examined the interest of rheumatology patients with different diagnoses and the effect of comorbidities in pursuing an organized GST program. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of patients from a rheumatology practice in cent...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510120

Shoulder Infrared Thermography in Chronic Rotator Cuff Tears - Temperature Assessment and Variation in Affected and Non-Affected Shoulders

Bernardo Nunes, MD, Jorge Lopes, MD, Miguel Relvas-Silva, MD, Hélio Alves, MD, Ricardo Vardasca, PhD and Manuel Gutierres, PhD

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 13, 2019

The obtained results demonstrated IRT as highly reproducible. A small decrease in skin temperature after exercise has been related to peripheral vasoconstriction, and this was confirmed in both affected and non-affected shoulders. Nevertheless, it was expected on affected shoulders a lower baseline and after exercise skin temperatures, which was not confirmed, as no significant difference was found between groups. As such, the role of IRT as complimentary mean of diagnosis is yet to be establish...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510119

Effect of Eight Weeks of Exercise Training on Lipid Profile and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Person

NGAYIMBESHA Adrien, BIZIMANA Jean Berchmans and GAKIMA Marie Stella

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 11, 2019

Obesity is a metabolic abnormality characterized by increased levels of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides, decreased levels of High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and abnormal Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) composition. The most significant contributing factor for obesity-related dyslipidemia is likely uncontrolled fatty acid release from adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, through lipolysis, which causes increased delivery of fatty acids to the liver and synthesis of Very-Low...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510118

Learning from Pokemon GO and Preparing for Potter: The Impact of Augmented Reality Video Games on Adolescent Physical Activity

Laura McLaughlin BA, Prithwijit Das MSEd, Kate Fruitman BA and Ruth Milanaik DO

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 11, 2019

Only 25% of US high school students meet CDC physical activity guidelines. Over 40% report playing video games for > 3 hours/day. This epidemic of inactivity may lead to health consequences including obesity. Augmented Reality Games (ARGs) may increase activity through video gameplay. Our objective was to quantify the effect of an ARG, Pokemon GO, on adolescent physical activity. Pokemon GO led to a minimal but significant initial increase in activity. Although future studies are needed to deter...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510117

Accelerated Junctional Rhythm in Athlete's Heart: An Unusual Presentation

Lahut D, Bodur B and Tosun O

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 11, 2019

The athlete's heart refers to a heart which has gained physiological adaptation mechanisms due to long term training in various sport activities. Sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, first degree atrioventricular block and second degree mobitz type I AV blocks are most common electrocardiographic findings in athlete's heart. In our case we observed first degree atrioventricular block with pathological PR interval values second degree mobitz type I (Wenckebach) atrioventricular block and accelera...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510116

Treatment of the Myofascial Trigger-Points of Triceps Surae: A Systematic Review

Mathias Simon, Albert Perez-Bellmunt, Olivier Peillon, Paolo Ragazzi, Alexandra Myers Escola and Carlos Lopez-de-Celis

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: January 31, 2019

Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs) in the triceps surae muscles are very frequent and their presence may be implicated in pain, such as nocturnal night cramps. These points cause important limitations to athletic performance and daily activities. For this reason, treatment of these MTrPs are essential in the clinical field and have been addressed by a large number of therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze treatments available for the MTrPs in the triceps surae and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510115

A Correlation Study of Lower-Limb Gait Biomechanics with Clinical Severity in Patients with Achilles Tendinopathy

Ogbonmwan I and Kumar BD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019

Achilles tendinopathy is one of the most common lower-limb overuse sports injuries and is also frequent in the general population. Annual incidence rates of Achilles tendon complaints have been reported as 7% and 9% respectively in elite runners and 14% generally in athletes. A large cohort of 57,725 Dutch patients registered with a GP established an annual incidence rate of mid-portion Achilles Tendinopathy as 1.85 per 1000 patients registered. Remarkably only 35% of the cases in the study were...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510114

Epidemiology of Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in Men and Women

Maria Casado, Roberto Seijas, Albert Perez-Bellmunt, Raul Navarro, Paolo Ragazzi and Pedro Alvarez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 14, 2019

In the practice of sports that require impact and pivot movements such as football or skiing, knee injuries are common and among these is important to underline the rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). Non-contact movements cause a 70% of ACL injuries and there is a high incidence of ruptures in women. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse what are the causes for the difference in incidence between men and women in terms of ACL ruptures. Through the search in the previ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510113

Non-Traumatic First Rib Fractures Secondary to Opposing Muscle Contractions: A Case Series

Jamie L Weis

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 12, 2019

While first rib fractures typically occur from direct, traumatic injuries and have high rates of serious complication, less commonly, non-traumatic first rib fractures are encountered in young athletes. This paper presents the cases of a teenage basketball player with a first rib fracture after stretching, and that of a teenage cheerleader with a first rib fracture from straining to lift another cheerleader. Both patients became asymptomatic following conservative treatment and returned to sport...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510112

Breast Injury During Sport Participation

Laura J Smith, Tamara Eichelberger, Elizabeth Miller and Edward J Kane

Article Type: December 26, 2018 | First Published: December 26, 2018

A recent study found that almost half (47.9%), of female college athletes participating in basketball, soccer, volleyball and softball (n = 194) suffered a breast injury during their college career with less than 10% reporting their injury to health personnel with only 2.1% receiving treatment. Breast injury in female athletes is under-reported and is lacking a much-needed level of awareness in sport. If there is a void in awareness of breast injuries and in reporting breast injuries, preventive...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510111

Effect of Blood Flow Restriction Training in Combination with a High-Intensity Interval Training on Physical Performance

Alexander Torpel, Marie Brennicke, Maximilian Kuck, Tom Behrendt and Lutz Schega

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 12, 2018

We aimed to investigate whether a Blood Flow Restriction Training (BFR) prior to a High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) leads to a higher increase in physical performance than a sole HIIT. 24 male participants (18 to 30 years) were randomly assigned to a BFR+HIIT or HIIT group which performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks a HIIT on bicycle-ergometers. Prior to each training session of the HIIT, both groups carried out 4 sets of deep squats without additional load but the BFR+HIIT group perfor...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510110

Isokinetic Force and Work Capacity after Long-Duration Station «MIR» and Short-Term International Space Station Missions

Yuri A Koryak

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 12, 2018

The effects of long-duration (~ 210 days) aboard the Orbital Station "MIR" and short-term (~ 10 days) spaceflights aboard the International Space Station on the joint torques of various muscles and work capacity of knee extensors were studied in male cosmonauts. Greater postflight changes in maximal joint torque were observed for back, knee, and ankle extensors compared with flexors, and the difference was especially clearly seen after long-term spaceflights. Muscle work capacity was inferred fr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510109

Extremely Low HDL Cholesterol and Increased LDL Cholesterol Induced by the use of Anabolic Steroids in a Body Builder: A Case Study

Min Li and Simon W Rabkin

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 29, 2018

Anabolic steroids are banned substances in competitive sports because they are an exogenous method for performance enhancement in sports that require increased muscle mass or strength. However, these agents are still used by certain athletes who wish to accelerate the increase skeletal muscle mass with exercise. The adverse effect of anabolic steroids on High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) has been explored in case control studies comparin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510108

The Effect of Core Exercise Program on Motoric Skills in Young People

Yildiz Yaprak

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 28, 2018

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week core exercise programme performed on Swiss ball and BOSU ball that on dynamic balance, flexibility, spinal Range of Motion (ROM), back muscle endurance, back muscle strength, abdominal muscle strength, and body composition for healthy young males. The present findings show that there were significant increases between pre and post-training values for back muscle strength, abdominal muscle strength, spinal ROM and dynamic bala...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510107

Within-Day Energy Balance in Mexican Female Soccer (Football) Players - An Exploratory Investigation

Francisco Arroyo, Dan Benardot and Elizabeth Hernandez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 24, 2018

To assure optimal performance and reduced risk of illness and injury, athletes require a food and fluid intake that optimally satisfies normal physiological requirements plus the additional demands of physical activity. Both macronutrient (i.e., carbohydrate, fat, and protein) and micronutrient (i.e., vitamins and minerals) intakes are essential for maintaining health, optimal body composition, and the desired athletic performance ....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510106

Physical Activity in the Prevention of Abdominal Obesity: Type, Duration and Intensity

Francisco Jose Gondim Pitanga, Cristiano Penas Seara Pitanga and Carmem Cristina Beck

Article Type: Opinion | First Published: October 17, 2018

To suggest the type and dose (duration and intensity) of physical activity more adequate to prevent abdominal fat in adults. The evidences that were presented are part of studies on physical activity and abdominal fat published in the national and international literature. Physical activity (aerobic and resistance exercises), with a prolonged duration of moderate intensity for men and walking or moderate intensity for women, is suggested as the most adequate for the prevention/treatment of abdom...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510105

Effects of an Intense One-Week Skiing Program on Balance Abilities in Pediatric Cancer Patients

Kurpiers N, Vogler T and Flohr S

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 10, 2018

Beside a number of physical, physiological, psychological, and social impairments, cancer and its treatment can also reduce balance abilities. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a one-week winter camp with an intense alpine skiing program on balance ability of pediatric cancer patients in the follow-up care. Eighteen pediatric cancer patients. Most studies on the effects of physical activity on cancer have been conducted on adults. Much less research has been done in pediat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510104

Proximal Hamstring Injuries: An Unusual Finding

Raj Subbu and Fares Haddad

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 06, 2018

The proximal hamstring complex is frequently injured in athletes, traditionally occurring in waterskiing, sprinting and hurdles. However, more recently it is increasingly being reported in a variety of different sports. The hip and knee joint are stabilized by the hamstring muscles due to eccentric contractions, which occur when a muscle contracts whilst passively stretched. This happens to the hamstring muscle during hip flexion and knee extension. Injuries are much more common during eccentric...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510103

Glenohumeral Rotational Angles May Affect Outcomes of Cross-Body Stretch: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial

Koya Mine

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 27, 2018

Various stretching techniques have been proposed to prevent or improve Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD) and Posterior Shoulder Tightness (PST). Cross-body stretch is one of the most common methods to address GIRD and PST. The current evidence is unclear with regards to the influences of glenohumeral rotational angle during cross-body stretch....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510102

High Level Cycling Performance 10 Years after Cardiac Transplantation

Grazzi Giovanni, Totti Valentina, Myers Jonathan, Mosconi Giovanni, Gambaretto Camilla, Sambri Vittorio, Trerotola Manuela, Nanni Costa Alessandro and Sella Gianluigi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 23, 2018

Cardiac Transplantation (CTX) is a treatment option for selected individuals with end-stage heart failure. However, long-term outcomes are limited by the development of cardiovascular complications, and coronary allograft artery disease is the main cause of death in Heart Transplant Recipients (HTR) five years after intervention. Training programs among HTR are recommended in the early post-operative period as well as in the long term....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510101

'Stick to it' - Exercise Programmed Adherence as the Main Determinant of Successful Weight Loss Interventions

Santiago Tavares Paes and Renato Marques Bianchini

Article Type: Perspective Article | First Published: August 04, 2018

The regular practice of physical exercise can improve the functioning of energetic systems, increasing metabolic efficiency, which reduces the progression of the pathological effects of obesity. The increase in energy expenditure secondary to physical exercise occurs by stimulating the metabolic reactions and the enhancement of energy substrate use by active exercised muscles. There are many metabolic factors activated by exercise....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510100

What Factors Can Increase the Metabolic Effects of Regular Practice of Physical Exercises in Obesity?

Santiago Tavares Paes

Article Type: Communication | First Published: August 04, 2018

Physical exercise has been used as an important tool in the prevention and treatment of obesity by developing physical qualities that positively alter body composition, metabolic activity and by attenuating the comorbidities associated with excess weight. An inverse association has been demonstrated between physical activity level and development of obesity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510099

Understanding the Behaviors and Attitudes of Athletes Participating in the 2016 Rio Olympics Regarding Nutritional Supplements, Energy Drinks, and Doping

Sulaiman Omar Aljaloud

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: July 14, 2018

Our research team traveled to Brazil to collect the data for this study. Olympic athletes participating in the 2016 Rio Olympics were randomly selected to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire, and this activity took about 20 minutes. The survey contained nine questions including frequency of use, knowledge, and perception of nutritional supplements, energy drinks, and doping. Descriptive statistics were run to summarize the data collected and the results...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510098

Identification and Validation of the Lactate Threshold Velocity using the Y-Intercept and Slope of the Fit Curve (YIS Method)

Emma Swanwick, David B. Pyne, Bernard Savage and Martyn Matthews

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 11, 2018

Although the Lactate Threshold (LT) has lost some of its status as a marker of exercise intensity, the LT does mark a metabolic transition that, when we are looking to explain energy timelines, can provide an important perspective. This paper is the first of a series looking to clarify and transform how we monitor intensity of exercise. As such we need to create a more robust method of identifying LT....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510097

Nutritional and Pharmacological Strategies of Bodybuilders in Preparation Period for Competition

Amanda Assenheimer, Igor Brandao, Mauricio Schüler Nin and Rafael Longhi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 09, 2018

Fifteen athletes were evaluated: 60% (n = 9) males and 40% (n = 6) females, with a mean age of 27 years. Regarding nutrients, carbohydrates had a mean intake of 1.68 g/kg body weight, mean protein content was 3.68 g/kg body weight, and lipids were 20.4% of the Total Energy Value. Protein and lipid intakes were not statistically significant, but when the carbohydrate consumption was compared, there was a statistical difference between the sample values and the recommended ranges. The use of Anabo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510096

Trends in Gambling Behaviour among NCAA College Student-Athletes: A Comparison of 2004, 2008 and 2012 NCAA Survey Data

Rayna M Sansanwal, Jeffrey L Derevensky and Thomas S Paskus

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 05, 2018

Student-athletes represent a vulnerable subgroup of the college student population with regards to engagement in high-risk behaviours, including gambling. Three large samples of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes in 2004 (N = 20,587), 2008 (19,942), and 2012 (N = 22,935) were surveyed about their gambling behaviour and attitudes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510095

Oxygen Uptake, Carbon Dioxide Production, Minute Ventilation and Heart Rate during Post Exercise Recovery in Healthy and Unmedicated Elderly and Young Men

Paulo Farinatti, Felipe A Cunha, Walace Monteiro, Nadia L Silva and Gabriela Venturini

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 05, 2018

This study investigated the influence of aging and effort intensity upon oxygen uptake (V.O2), carbon-dioxide production (V.O2), minute ventilation (V.E) and Heart Rate (HR) during postexercise recovery. Young (YG: n = 16; 24 ± 2 yr) and older (OG: n = 18; 63 ± 1 yr) groups performed cycle ergometer exercise bouts at 100%, 75%, and 40% of maximal work rate, preceded by 30-min resting assessment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510094

Exercise and the Eye: A Call for Prospective, Outcomes-Based Research Collaborations between Exercise Physiologists and Ophthalmologists

David M Kleinman

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 05, 2018

The benefits of physical activity on health are becoming increasingly understood. Evidence suggests regular exercise leads to better overall heath, lower blood pressure, less chronic pain, reduced risks of cardiovascular events, and improved cognitive functioning. These factors overlap with ophthalmic health, and loss of vision is one of the most feared health consequences patients describe....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510093

Attitude of Burundi Doctors Regarding Physical Activity Prescription in Case of Musculoskeletal Problem Related to Pregnancy

NGAYIMBESHA Adrien, BIZIMANA Jean Berchmans, GAKIMA Marie Stella and NZISABIRA Felix

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2018

In the absence of medical or obstetrical complications, pregnancy should be a period of joy for every woman. However, during this period, many physiological and anatomical changes occur, and which impose a negative impact on woman's health. The gradually changing body and increasing weight of the pregnant woman cause noticeable alterations in her posture and in the way her walks....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510092

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Joint and Graft Infection following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

Harin Parikh, Aubrey Armento, Tessa Mandler and Jay Albright

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 04, 2018

Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is an uncommon postoperative complication of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa even more rarely implicated as the infectious organism. Previous reports of P. aeruginosa SSI's outline hospital-associated etiologies such as inadequate sterilization of surgical instruments, but it is known that the organism can be found in public areas such as swimming pools and hot tubs....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510091

Changes in Lifestyle, Exercises, Possible Mechanisms and Associations with Prostate Cancer

Mauro Sergio Perilhao, Roberta Luksevicius Rica and Danilo Sales Bocalini

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 09, 2018

Prostate cancer is characterized by overgrowth of the prostate, followed by a decrease in the size and intensity of the urinary stream, which is considered a major cause of illness and death worldwide. Its etiology is unknown. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyles are placed in the context of lifestyle, which has been studied since researchers realized that changes in one's living influence the onset of prostate cancer....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510090

Feet and Footwear: Applying Biological Design and Mismatch Theory to Running Injuries

Michael Wilkinson, Richard Stoneham and Lee Saxby

Article Type: Opininon Article | First Published: May 07, 2018

The Endurance-Running hypothesis proposes that natural selection has shaped humans into endurance-running specialists. Running-related-injury rates between 20-79% suggests modern humans are prone to injury in this species-specific movement pattern. This opinion piece offers a novel perspective on high-injury prevalence in human endurance running, focussing on evolutionary mismatch between modern athletic footwear and evolved foot structure and function....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510089

The Neuromuscular Efficiency of Trunk Muscles is Altered by Age in the Abdominal Muscles but by Gender in the Back Muscles

Christoph Anders, Agnes Huebner and Bernd Faenger

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 04, 2018

Several measures are applied to characterize the functional state of muscles. Among these, the Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC) is most frequently used and considered the gold standard. A little understood and used measure is Neuromuscular Efficiency (NME) of muscles. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare NME indices of several trunk muscles of healthy adults with respect to age and sex....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510088

Effects of a Slashpipe Training Intervention on Postural Control Compared to Conventional Barbell Power Fitness

Nicolas Kurpiers, Teresa Rovelli, Christin Bormann and Tim Vogler

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 26, 2018

Postural control is essential to maintaining balance and stability under health-related aspects. In the past several training concepts have been recommended for the enhancement of postural control. One of these concepts is the so-called 'Slashpipe' training, which uses a pipe partly filled with liquid in order to complete exercises similar to those found in barbell power fitness programs. However, evidence for the benefits of this intervention is rare. The aim of the study was to investigate the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510087

The Metabolic Cardio-Respiratory Effects of Abdominal Electrical Muscle Stimulation

Craig E Broeder, Amanda J Salacinski, Steve Mauk and Dimitria Vandarakis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 25, 2018

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been studied in athletes, healthy, and diseased populations mainly focusing on muscle strength and body composition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of acute EMS at rest and steady-state walking (3.5 mph & 5% grade) in healthy adults. Thirty-eight subjects (M = 19, F = 19) volunteered and completed resting and steady-state exercise trials with and without EMS in duplicate on separate days (test...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510086

Meniscal Pain: US Guided Meniscal Wall Infiltration Versus Partial Meniscectomy, a Comparative Study

Clement Marion, Marc Bouvard, Alain Lippa, Patrice Gardes, François Lavalle and Igor Benezis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 18, 2018

The increasing increase in the name of meniscal lesions leads to a reflection on their charge price. The aim of a treatment is to relieve the pain and to allow, as a priority, the smooth running of the daily and professional activities. The concept of meniscal economy is expanded by the medical community. We compared the benefit of infiltrations of the meniscal wall with the arhroscopic meniscectomy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510085

Physical Activity and Serum Cytokines Levels in Depressed Individuals - Gender Differences

Carolina David Wiener, Fernanda Fedrotti, Jean Pierre Oses, Karen Jansen, Diogo Rizzato Lara, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva and Jeronimo Costa Branco

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 26, 2018

The efficacy of physical activity on the reduction of depressive symptoms may be attributed to its impact over neuroinflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between habitual practice of physical activities and serum cytokines levels in individuals diagnosed with depression....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510084

The "2-2-2" Early Mobilization Protocol in Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Pilot Case Series

Frederic Lavoie, Lydia Mychaltchouk and Jean-Olivier Tetreault-Paquin

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 19, 2018

Accelerated functional rehabilitation for acute Achilles tendon rupture has been supported by various studies, both as a stand-alone conservative treatment, as well as post-operative protocol. The following pilot case series questioned whether a simple home-based incremental intensity rehabilitation program involving early mobilization would allow for results similar to surgical treatment and other conservative treatment protocols upon comparison of re-rupture rates, residual pain, treatment sat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510083

Functional Training Protocol in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial

Taysi Seemann, Anke Bergmann, Leonessa Boing, Magnus Benetti, Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira and Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimaraes

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 15, 2018

Prostate cancer treatment is associated with side effects including urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and a decrease in physical function. Physical exercise has been considered beneficial in countering these side effects. We believe that supervised exercise programs may be an efficient alternative to treatment and rehabilitation in these patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510082

The Effects of Pre-Exercise Blood Glucose on Responses to Short Duration High Intensity Exercise

Emma Swanwick and Martyn Matthews

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 08, 2018

Carbohydrate ingestion prior to exercise has been the subject of much debate over the last few decades with a range of individual responses observed with different carbohydrate loads, across a time period of 15-75 minutes pre-exercise. It has been argued that pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding, and subsequent insulin response, added to the onset of moderate intensity exercise can lead to hypoglycaemia (defined as a blood glucose level below 3.9 mm/L)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510081

Effects of a Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Intervention on Athletes Psychological Responses Following Injury: A Pilot Study

Scott Rollo, Jill Tracey and Harry Prapavessis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2017

Participation in sport is associated with the possibility of athletic injury. The 2013-2014 Statistics Canada Community Health Survey indicated 33.5% of injuries were a result of participation in sport and exercise. Additionally, an estimated eight million sports injuries are treated annually in Europe and over 3.3 million athletic related injuries are reported in the United States annually....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510080

Influence of 7-Day Simulated Microgravity on Human Mechanical Properties Calf and Architecture and the Effect of Electromyostimulation Training

Yuri A Koryak

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 27, 2017

A number of studies have indicated that sudden exposure to microgravity environment causes a decrease in the tone of the skeletal muscles, reduction of muscle strength, perceptual and coordination disorders in the neuromuscular systems, shift of the spinal reflex mechanisms and degradation of joint position sense....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510079

A Step towards a Field Based Agility Test in Team Sports

David Drake, Rodney Kennedy, Jonny Davis, Matthew Godfrey, Simon MacLeod and Amy Davis

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 23, 2017

Agility perfos makinrmance tests are limited by the requirement for force plates, timing gates or expensive camera systemg application into practice challenging. The primary aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of a field based 1v1 agility test encompassing perceptual-action performance. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between the 1v1 agility tests with a range of physical performance tests including a commonly used Y step test....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510078

Plantar Fibromatosis: An Unusual Cause of Plantar Pain

Filipa Vieira, Clarissa Canella, Flavia Costa, Alessandro Severo and Edson Marchiori

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 22, 2017

Ledderhose's disease or plantar fibromatosis is a rare benign condition characterized by local proliferation of fibrous nodular tissue within the plantar aponeurosis. The diagnosis of this disease is based on clinical examination but imaging is often required to confirm the diagnosis or reveal alternative diagnosis. Because the cause of Ledderhose disease is still unknown....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510077

Foam Rolling as a Warm-up Technique for Anaerobic Power Activities

Andrea JD, Wicke J and Kleber F

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 11, 2017

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Foam Rolling (FR) compared to an Active Warm-Up (AWU) on performance measures of anaerobic power. Twenty-one male participants, recruited from a Division III university's athletic teams, completed a two day cross-over protocol to examine knee extension output using an isokinetic dynamometer....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510076

Characteristics and Relevant Factors of Sports Injury among Rural School-Aged Children in Zunyi, Southwest China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Chan Nie, Ya Hui, Yanna Zhou, Tao Wang, Huiting Yu, Shangpeng Shi and Xiuquan Shi

Article Type: BRIEF REPORT | First Published: September 23, 2017

Sports injury is common among students, it occurs during sports or exercise activities such as football, basketball, volleyball. Most sports injuries affect the locomotor system, which are traumatic in most cases [1-3]. Although great attention has been paid to their prevention and treatment, injury prevention is still a great challenge in rural Zunyi, a low-income area in southwest China....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510075

Resistance Exercise Performed at Different Degrees of Arterial Occlusion Pressure does not Induce Prolonged Oxidative Stress or Muscle Damage

Eduardo DS Freitas, Michael G Bemben, Alexandre S Silva, Rodrigo R Aniceto, João B Ferreira-Junior and Maria S Cirilo-Sousa

Article Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE | First Published: September 21, 2017

This study investigated if resistance exercise performed at differing Arterial Occlusion Pressures (AOP) causes oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twelve males completed 4 sets of 10 repetitions of knee extension at 20% of 1RM, with 30 s rest intervals between sets, that varied only in the amount of restriction pressure applied...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510074

Within - and between - Session Reliability of the Spider Drill Test to Assess Change of Direction Speed in Youth Tennis Athletes

Jessica Huggins, Paul Jarvis, Jon Brazier, Yianni Kyriacou and Chris Bishop

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: September 20, 2017

Agility or Change of Direction Speed (CODS) is a critical physical attribute in a sport such as tennis, which is categorised by frequent and multiple changes of direction. Recently, a CODS test called the 'spider drill' has been used to assess tennis athletes' ability to change direction....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510073

Apnea Training Specificity and its Implications for Performance in Aquatic Sports: Case Study Reports

Sylvia Konstantinidou and Chrysoula Chairopoulou

Article Type: CASE STUDY | First Published: September 18, 2017

Apnea training forms an essential drill used by athletes in aquatic sports such as diving, underwater rugby but also in swimming particularly fin and synchronized swimming. Literature suggests a number of long-term adaptations observed in apnea-conditioned athletes compared to controls. Unique responses to acute apneas have also been manifested by athletes with minimum apnea exposure though arguably to a lesser extent....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510072

Assessment of a Zumba® Fitness Class in Hospital Workers

Alfredo Covarrubias-Gomez, Nora I Reyes-Martínez and Lilia Castillo-Martínez

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: September 13, 2017

Mexico has an elevated prevalence of obesity. Advisors had proposed nationwide programs to increment physical activity. Exercise in the workplace had a beneficial impact in anthropometric measures and BMI. Zumba® can improve those measurements and benefit workers health. Our main objective is to evaluate the impact of a Zumba® fitness class in the health of workers. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510071

Musculoskeletal Injuries in British Army Recruits: A Retrospective Study of Incidence and Training Outcome in Different Infantry Regiments

Heagerty RDH, Sharma J and Clayton J

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: September 11, 2017

Musculoskeletal Injuries (MSKI) and the subsequent attrition incurred during basic military training represent a significant socioeconomic burden across global defence forces. The collection of accurate injury surveillance data is fundamental to meaningful analysis, identification of trends and subsequent introduction of targeted prevention strategies....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510070

Call to Action: Enhancing 'Exercise is Medicine' from the Perspective of Fitness Professionals

Taniya S Nagpal, Liza Stathokostas, Harry Prapavessis and Michelle F Mottola

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 31, 2017

Exercise is Medicine (EIM) is an international initiative that aims to incorporate exercise in primary healthcare by encouraging physicians to prescribe exercise and/or refer patients to Fitness Professionals (FPs). To determine how to increase referral and prescription practices previous research has focused solely on the perspective and recommendations of physicians, not FPs....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510069

Exercise, Nutrition and Gut Microbiota: Possible Links and Consequences

AV Costa, G Leite, A Resende, F Blachier and AH Lancha Jr

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 24, 2017

Gut microbiota plays an important role in the modulation of physiological processes associated with the digestion of nutrients, immune system and control of energy homeostasis. Changes in gut microbiota composition have been associated notably with obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases. Diet is one of the major factors capable of modulating the intestinal microbiota composition....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510068

Validity of Simple Health Assessments to Evaluate Locomotive and Cognitive Functions of Late-Stage Older Adults in Japan

Eri Sarashina, Katsuyoshi Mizukami, Hanatsu Nagano and Rezaul K Begg

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 14, 2017

Due to the trend of ageing commonly seen in developed countries, late-stage older adults are expected to enhance their healthy life expectancy for sustainable healthcare systems. Sound locomotive and cognitive functions are the two important factors for independent lifestyles. While various institutions offer simple health assessments to check their health status, their validity still has room for debate....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510067

Glucose Turn Point as a Marker of Exercise Intensity in Elite Swimmers

Emma Swanwick and Martyn Matthews

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 11, 2017

Physical exercise brings an increased demand for substrates to be metabolized in working muscle. Part of this requirement is met by glucose, circulating in the blood, released from an increase in hepatic glycogenolysis and through the use of glycogen in the muscle. The movement of glucose from the blood into the muscle cell is mediated by GLUT-4 transporters....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510066

Medical Management of Males and Females in Return to Learn and Return to Play after Concussion: An Observational Study

Amy Hassen, Ariel Klingaman and Jennifer Reneker

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 21, 2017

This study aimed to 1) Describe differences in medical management between males and females after a concussion, and 2) Explore factors associated with the number of days to Return to Learn (RTL) and Return to Play (RTP). 111 subjects, aged 12-19 with sports-related concussion participated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510065

The Long-Term Effects of Stand-up Paddle Boarding: A Case Study

Ben Schram, Wayne Hing and Mike Climstein

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: July 12, 2017

The association between inactivity and poor quality of life has been well documented. A major barrier to exercise is a perceived lack of time and lack of enjoyment of exercise modalities. Stand up Paddle Boarding (SUP) is an aquatic physical activity deemed easy to learn....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510064

Land Based Resistance Training and Youth Swimming Performance

Marie Clare Grant and Mykolas Kavaliauskas

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 08, 2017

Resistance training has been shown to have both performance-enhancing and injury-reducing benefits in youth athletes. The benefits are somewhat overlooked by many swimming coaches, therefore the effects of a structured resistance training programme in highly trained youth swimmers was investigated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510063

Long-Term Adaptations to Aerobic-Anaerobic Physical Training in the Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acids Profile

Pablo J Iglesias, Diego Munoz, Francisco Llerena, Francisco J Grijota, Ignacio Bartolome and Marcos Maynar

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 24, 2017

Fatty acids are critical organic compounds involved in the synthesis of other lipids like phospholipids and glycolipids constituting lipid bilayer of all cell membranes, besides they are an important source of chemical energy. A correlation between several fatty acids and health has been demonstrated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510062

Immediate Effects of Stretching for Iliopsoas Muscles on Lumbopelvic-Hip Kinematics during Gait: A Randomised Controlled Trial Using Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Koya Mine, Keio Ishiguro and Takashi Nakayama

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 24, 2017

Stretching for iliopsoas muscles is commonly performed for patients with non-specific low back pain, which tends to be provoked by extension-related movements. However, it is unclear whether stretching can immediately alter lumbopelvic-hip kinematics of patients during gait....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510061

Anxiety and Depression Levels and Their Relation to the Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Patients Who Underwent Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program

Rafael Machado de Souza, Daniela Bervian Linck, Cassia Cinara da Costa, Maria Lucia Langone and Paulo Jose Zimermann Teixeira

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 19, 2017

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a preventable and treatable disease characterized by persistent airflow limitation, usually progressive and associated with an abnormal lung inflammatory response to inhalation of particles or toxic gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall worsening of the patient....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510060

Cumulative Effects of Occupational Loading as a Risk Factor for Hip Pain in UK Military Personnel - Study Protocol of a Case Control Study

Russell J Coppack, James L Bilzon, Andrew K Wills, Ian M McCurdie, Daniel T Walton, Alastair M Nicol and Alexander N Bennett

Article Type: Study Protocol | First Published: June 12, 2017

High rates of hip Osteoarthritis (OA) have been reported in occupational sub-groups exposed to prolonged and strenuous physical activity levels. The military population is particularly at risk given the demands inherent to this population....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510059

The Effects of Two Weeks of Arm Crank Sprint Interval Training in Men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

Christopher R Harnish, Roy T Sabo, Jonathan A Daniels and Deborah Caruso

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 10, 2017

Numerous studies have shown that up to half of persons with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are obese, with nearly 70% of persons with SCI exhibiting two or more components of Metabolic Syndrome, with poor glucose and insulin regulation being most common....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510058

Mood and Oxytocin Blood Levels in Physically Active Women with and without Oral Contraceptive Use in Relation to Seasonal Daylight Variation

Lisbeth Wikstrom Frisen, Peter Larsson, Lucia Mincheva Nilsson and Karin Henriksson Larsen

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 01, 2017

The aim is to provide normative data on oxytocin, and its seasonality in users and non-users of Oral Contraceptives (OC) in physically active women. Further, to elucidate the relationship between Oxytocin and Profile of Mood States (POMS) for further research to see if Oxytocin can be used as an additional diagnostic marker to detect overreaching/overtraining syndrome or other stress disorders....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510057

Arousal and Vigilance: The Effects of Physical Exercise and Positive Mood on Attention

Yael Kallo and Yuri Rassovsky

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 13, 2017

The present study was an effort to examine the extent to which the different states of arousal, as induced through exercise and manipulation of positive mood, interact to affect attentional processes. Thirty-four healthy participants were randomly assigned into 2 mood conditions: neutral and positive. A computerized auditory continuous performance test was used to measure attentional performance....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510056

Preventable Ischaemic Heart Disease and Stroke Deaths Attributable to Insufficient Physical Activity: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis in the Argentinian Population

Rosana Poggio, Laura Gutierrez, Vilma Irazola, Adolfo Rubinstein and Goodarz Danaei

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2017

A non-optimal level of PA contributes substantially to the mortality burden of cardiovascular diseases in Argentina, especially in individuals under 70-years-old. More substantial resources should be directed toward enhancing built and social environments which are essential to effectively increase PA, to improve health-related quality of life and reduce the burden of cardio-metabolic diseases in Argentina....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510055

A Non-Displaced C1 Fracture in Amateur Wrestling: A Case Report

Sergen Devran, Turgut Akgul and Omer Batın Gozubuyuk

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 20, 2017

We present a case of a bilateral atlas posterior arc fracture that occurred during wrestling training. Atlas bone fractures are rare although may result with catastrophic consequences. A male amateur wrestler aged 25 years, who was otherwise healthy fell on his head while doing a cartwheel and could not continue training....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510054

A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Combined with 6-Weeks of Crossfit Training Improves Body Composition and Performance

Rachel M Gregory, Hasan Hamdan, Danielle M Torisky and Jeremy D Akers

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 18, 2017

Twenty-seven non-elite CrossFit subjects (mean ± SD age = 34.58 ± 9.26 years) were randomly assigned to a LCKD (males, n = 3; females, n = 9) or control (CON) (males, n = 2; females, n = 13) group. LCKD was instructed to consume an ad libitum diet and restrict carbohydrate intake to less than 50 grams per day and CON maintained usual dietary intake....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510053

Does Intensive Aerobic Training Influences Cognition in Middle-Aged Men?

Theodore Parthimos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Sokratis G Pappageorgiou and Ioannis Zalonis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 10, 2017

Thirty-three amateur runners (group of athletes) compared with thirty healthy adults with no previous involvement in sports (control group). Both groups were evaluated by means of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for attention, processing speed, memory, visuospatial organization, executive functions and athletic test for aerobic capacity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510052

Breathe Long, Live Long

Carl C Bell and Joseph A Kurian

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: February 28, 2017

Using ancient wisdom, personal experience, and modern 21st century science can help researchers understand and design scientific inquiry that will lead to useful and pragmatic research agendas. This approach is illustrated by the observations made by Taoist beliefs, the senior author's personal experience, and the scientific literature on how resting heart rates promote longevity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510051

Vacuum Sealing Drainage for Treating Early Infection after Total Hip Arthroplasty

Tao Liu, Fujiang Cao, Yunqiang Xu and Shiqing Feng

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 14, 2017

Surgical site infections (SSIs) can have a profound impact on patients as they often require hospital readmission, additional surgical interventions, lengthy intravenous antibiotic administration, and delayed rehabilitation. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) exposes the wound site to negative pressure, resulting in the improvement of blood supply, removal of excess fluid, and stimulation of cellular proliferation of granulation tissue....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510050

The Effect of High-Speed Resistance Training on Movement Speed and Power of Older Women

Celia Cohen Barros, Celia Pereira Caldas and Luiz Alberto Batista

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 13, 2017

The relationship between physical fitness and functional capacity in the aging process is notable. Functional capacity determines the degree of independence to remain socially included and its decline is an effective indicator of poor quality of life. Significant scientific evidence support that an active lifestyle helps to prevent and minimize the negative effects of aging. Physical exercise is an important goal for Health Promotion....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510049

Predicting V̇O2 Change from a Single Unidirectional Trial of Cadence Manipulation in Recreational Runners

Thomas Ruediger and Ryan Dombkowski

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 10, 2017

The study protocol was approved by the University's Institutional Review Board. Subjects of either gender were recruited by convenience from a local cohort of graduate students or by direct association or relationship with this cohort. Subjects self-identified themselves as recreational runners logging at least 10 miles per week, free of any neuromuscular or neurological disorders, lacking any joint or limb pain or discomfort, and willing to sign the informed consent document....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510048

Controlled Trial on the Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Mass and Function among Older Women Subjected to Resistance Training

Maria Jose Prieto Kinesiologist, Marcela Catalan Kinesiologist, Gonzalo Ayala Kinesiologist, Nicolas Gajardo Kinesiologist, Gladys Barrera Registered Nurse, Sandra Hirsch, Maria Pia de la Maza and Daniel Bunout

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 01, 2016

Older women aged between 60 and 75 years without chronic debilitating diseases, living in the community were invited to participate. All were subjected to supervised resistance training using elastic bands, three times per week during 12 weeks and were randomized to receive, in a double blind fashion, 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate or maltodextrin, during the same period....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510047

Effects of Daily and Flexible Non-Linear Periodization on Maximal and Submaximal Strength, Vertical Jump and Speed Performance of Brazilian Army Skydivers

Fabien Pereira da Silva, Jose Vilaca-Alves, Leonardo Lopes de Souza, Juliano Spineti dos Santos, Tiago Figueiredo, Gabriel Andrade Paz, Jeffrey M Willardson and Humberto Mirand

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 28, 2016

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of daily non-linear periodization (DNLP) and flexible (FNLP) models on maximal and submaximal strength, vertical jump and speed performance gains after 12 weeks of Brazilian army skydivers....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510046

Energy Restoration by an Original Fruits & Vegetables Juice Intake in a Cohort of Elderly People Affected by Sarcopenia

Maria Vadala, Beniamino Palmieri and Carmen Laurino

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2016

30 participants (27 women and 3 men) affected by sarcopenia were prescribed to drink a fixed volume of fruits & vegetables juice for 3 months. In this anecdotal and retrospective observational study, we filled questionnaire (0-5 rating) describing subjective well-being feelings, psycho-neurological traits, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular as well as any untoward effects....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510045

Changes in Endothelial Markers during a Summer Ultra-Endurance Road Cycling Event in the Heat

Kupchak BR, Kazman JB, Umeda EA, Vingren JL, Lee EC, Armstrong LE and Deuster PA

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 22, 2016

Purpose: To assess the impact of completing a 164 km road cycling event performed in a hot environment (Wichita Falls, Texas in August), on endothelial biomarkers and resultant risk of blood clots in men and women....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510044

Perceived Health, Sedentary Time, Body Mass Index, and Breaks from Prolonged Sitting in the Workplace

Sonali Sarkar, Wendell C Taylor, Dejian Lai, Ross Shegog and Raheem J Paxton

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 11, 2016

This study provides important information related to factors associated with perceived health. A better understanding of perceived health and motivation are important for employers and worksite program developers. Our findings suggest that more education is needed to inform the public about the relationships between sedentary behavior and health....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510043

Preventive Physiotherapy Applied to Portuguese Surf Athletes: Association in Improving Performance and Reducing the Number of Injuries

Beatriz Minghelli, Filipe Costa, Patricia Moreira and Monica Vicente

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 26, 2016

Surfers are constantly subjected to suffer injuries that can result from environmental exposure, unpredictability in performing the maneuvers, contact board, involvement with the wave and/or excessive training. Physical therapy applied to surfers aims to prevent common injuries of this activity, improving the physical performance of the athlete. This study determined the prevalence of injuries in surf athletes and the association of preventive Physiotherapy in the reduction of the number of inju...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510042

Effect of Flare Reaction to Intra-Articular Hyaluronan Injection on Cartilage Boundary Lubricating Ability of Human Synovial Fluid

Taryn E Ludwig, Jenelle R McAllister, Victor Lun, J Preston Wiley and Tannin A Schmidt

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 01, 2016

Lubrication of articular cartilage is achieved by a combination of lubrication mechanisms. Fluid film lubrication occurs at high speeds and low loads when cartilage surfaces are separated by a layer of synovial fluid (SF). Boundary lubrication occurs at low speeds and high loads when cartilage surfaces are in contact and lubrication is provided through molecular interactions at the surface....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510041

The Suitability of Global Rating Scales to Monitor Arthroscopic Training Progress

JJ Stunt, GMMJ Kerkhoffs, B van Ooij, IN Sierevelt, MU Schafroth, CN van Dijk, J Dragoo and GJM Tuijthof

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 17, 2016

As developing arthroscopic skills is challenging and training time for residents is limited, arthroscopic skill competency of residents should be measured. Assessment tools, such as Global Rating Scales (GRS), have been developed for structured, objective feedback and to assess learning curves. The goal of this study is to assess known-groups and convergent validity of these scales, to evaluate the suitability of these scales to monitor training progress of residents....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510040

Evaluation of Physical Activity Intensities and Energy Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Adults

Ludivine Paris, Martine Duclos, Romain Guidoux, Nicolas Lamaudiere and Sylvie Rousset

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 04, 2016

Western lifestyle characterized by lack of physical activity and diet rich in fat and refined sugars is associated with various non-communicable chronic health diseases. The prevalence of obesity worldwide is steadily increasing. In 2014, 39% of adults worldwide were overweight and 13% were obese. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and an excessively rich diet are responsible for chronic imbalance between energy intake and expenditure favoring the development of obesity and its co-morbid...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510039

A Comprehensive Kinematic Analysis during a 15 Km Submaximal Training Run

Joshua P. Bailey, John A. Mercer and Janet S. Dufek

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 02, 2016

Recent studies have investigated biomechanics of running during competitive road races in an attempt to record endurance runners in their natural environment, due to the ability to measure numerous runners in a short period of time. A key focus area for running races are the foot strike pattern differences among foot wear conditions, running speed measured as finishing time and changes related to fatigue during later stages of the race. Identification utilizing two-dimensional video analysis has...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510038

Physical Activity Prevalence and Awareness after an Exercise is Medicine on Campus Campaign, 2011-2013

Kelly R Rice, Tim K Behrens, Rachel L Cline, Lisa Hines and Kristin Sturm

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 01, 2016

The benefits of physical activity (PA) are well known, and documented to include: reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, depression, and other widespread preventable disease. It is recommended that adults participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week in order to receive health benefits. Despite the numerous benefits one can accumulate through participation in PA, levels remain low and decline during adolescence into adulthood....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510037

Baseline Values of the SCAT in Mexican Football Association Players

Ortiz MI, Murguia-Canovas G

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 16, 2016

Recently, there has been increasing cases of sports-related concussion. Individuals with this kind of injury may develop acute or chronic symptoms that may affect their health and athletic performance. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the baseline scores in all domains of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) among Mexican football association players....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510036

Four Weeks of Balance Training does not Affect Ankle Joint Stiffness in Subjects with Unilateral Chronic Ankle Instability

Tarang Kumar Jain, Clayton N. Wauneka and Wen Liu

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: January 15, 2016

Balance training has been shown to be effective in preventing ankle sprain recurrences in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) but the biomechanical pathways underlying the clinical outcomes are still unknown. This study was conducted to determine if a 4-week balance training intervention can alter the mechanical characteristics in ankles with CAI....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510035

The Effect of Dynamic and Static Stretching on Golf Driving Performance

Graeme G. Sorbie, Julien S. Baker, Yaodong Gu and U. Chris Ugbolue

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: January 11, 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dynamic and static stretching warm-up routines on golf driving performance. Three different components were tested; namely carry distance, accuracy and ball contact. Twelve male competitive golfers took part in the experiment. Two supervised warm-up treatments were tested on nonconsecutive days. Each subject was randomized to either a dynamic stretching (DS) or static stretching (SS) routine. The DS and SS protocols consisted of nine stretch...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510034

Correlations between Vitamin D Concentrations and Lipid Poanels in Active Duty and Veteran Military Personnel

Ashlyn M. Hiserote, Cristobal S. Berry-Caban, Qiang Wu and Laurel M. Wentz

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 07, 2016

Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States and has been associated with dyslipidemia along with additional cardiovascular conditions. Dyslipidemia raises the risk for cardiovascular disease and has been linked to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military personnel. The purpose of this study was to identify significant correlations between serum vitamin D and lipid panel concentrations in active duty and veteran military personnel. This analysis examined 3,053 unique ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510033

Caribbean Sports and Nutrition: Focus on the Glycemic Index

Fitzroy J. Henry

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 05, 2016

Caribbean athletes have displayed their admirable talents at global events for many years. More recently, they have become world champions and record holders. Given the small size of the Caribbean population these mighty achievements are truly remarkable. Even more remarkable is the fact that these athletes seldom utilize one of the most important performance enhancers - nutrition this paper highlights the value of appropriate uses of carbohydrate, particularly the glycemic index, in various spo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510032

Validity of a Kinect-based Tracking System for Clinical Assessment of Knee Kinematics

Edward Nyman, Jr.

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: January 04, 2016

The primary objective of this study was validation of a three-dimensional single-camera system (Kinect) for use as a clinical screening tool for evaluating knee kinematics during drop jump landings. Lower extremity kinematics for each of eight adolescent female participants were simultaneously tracked by a traditional motion capture system and the prototype Kinect-based tracking system during performance of a drop jump landing task. Peak sagittal plane knee flexion angle and minimum knee separat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510031

Profile of Rugby Injuries in High School Zimbabwean Adolescents

Matthew Chiwaridzo, Yemurai Masunzambwa, Nirmala Naidoo, Farayi Kaseke, Jermaine Dambi and Takura Matare

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 28, 2015

Background: Rugby is a popular sport played in many countries worldwide. There has been recent growing interest for the sport in Zimbabwe especially among adolescents. However, no study has been done to document the profile of rugby-related injuries among Zimbabwean adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years. The goal of the present study is to describe the injuries sustained by adolescent males during the 2014 high school rugby season. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted involv...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510030

Postural Dual Task Performance during Anti-Saccades in Healthy Children

Layla Ajrezo, Sylvette Wiener-Vacher and Maria Pia Bucci

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 21, 2015

Purpose:It is known from literature that postural stability in children is affected by a secondary task. In the present study we explored the effect of anti-saccades on postural sway in healthy children. Methods: 43 healthy children from 8 to 15 years old participated to the study. Postural stability was measured by Techno Concept platform and simultaneously eye movements were recorded by an eye tracker (Mobile T2). Children performed anti-saccades task (saccades away from the target), pro-sacca...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510029

Dietary Iron Intake and Hemoglobin Concentration in College Athletes in Different Sports

Takako Fujii, Yuka Okumura, Etsuko Maeshima and Koji Okamura

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 11, 2015

Iron-deficiency anemia is relatively prevalent among endurance athletes. It is therefore recommended that athletes consume a greater amount of iron. Resistance exercise has been shown to alleviate anemic symptoms, suggesting that the prevalence of anemia may vary among athletes that participate in different sporting events and that their iron requirements may differ according to their sports. The present study investigated the relationship between iron intake and anemia in college athletes in di...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510028

Preliminary Study on Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence in Iranian Female Athletes

Behnoosh Vasaghi-Gharamaleki and Sedigheh Ostad-Rahimi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 04, 2015

Research carried out over the past few decades has shown that urinary incontinence is observed among physically active women, including those involved in professional high impact sports. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and assess its risk factors among Iranian female athletes. A total of 195 volunteers comprising women athletes aged between 16.5 and 32.5 years....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510027

Motive8! Feasibility of a Text Messaging Intervention to Promote Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis

Holly Blake, Anna L. Roberts, Mark E. Batt and Jonathan P. Moses

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: November 28, 2015

27 people (6 male, 21 female; aged 25-81 years) with knee osteoarthritis received 4 text messages per week, for 6 weeks. Telephone surveys were conducted at baseline and 6 weeks to measure physical activity levels and beliefs, including self-efficacy for exercise, barriers and benefits of exercise, social support and pain. Participants completed physical activity diaries. Process evaluation included participant perceptions of the intervention and 'real-time' data on intervention fidelity (automa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510026

A Recovery Based Intervention to Improve Retention in an Activity Centric Health and Fitness Program. An 'outside-in' Approach

J. David Prologo

Article Type: Hypothesis | First Published: November 24, 2015

One hundred eight million people were estimated to be on a diet in the United States in 2014 at any given time, with each of those making 4 to 5 attempts to lose weight each year - translating to approximately 2.5 billion dollars spent failing weight loss programs. A variety of mechanisms have been studied and marketed in attempts to increase the length of time users will follow their diet and/or exercise programs, with largely disappointing results....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510025

Prediction of Performance in Vasaloppet through Long Lasting Ski-Ergometer and Rollerski Tests in Cross-Country Skiers

Erik Mygind, Kristian Wulff, Mads Rosenkilde Jensen and Jorn Wulff Helge

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 09, 2015

The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in 'Vasaloppet' and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes test and a 120 minutes on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provid...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510024

Antropometric Measures and Physical Habilities for Elders Practioners of Physical Activities Programs on West of Parana

Jacques Macsue, Possamai Leonardo Trevisol, Nogueira Edinaldo JS, Paganotto Maykon and Dorst Debora Goulart Bourscheid

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: October 31, 2015

Aging is the last phase of adulthood characterized by the set of physiological changes, reduced physical abilities and basic skills such as strength and balance. However studies show that physical exercise is highly important in improving and maintaining physical fitness. Thus this study aimed to correlate the strength of arms and legs with circumference of left and right leg and balance. This study included elders participants of exercise projects for seniors existing in Cascavel and Four Bridg...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510023

The Original Compared with Terminal in Anterior or Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

Denglu Yan, Yancheng Song, Zhaojie Wang and Zhi Zhang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 29, 2015

Background: It currently remains unclear why the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is most commonly torn from its proximal attachment on the femur and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is torn from its distal attachment on the tibia. This study is designed to evaluate the difference of ligament attachment in bone through a comparison of the origin with the terminal ends in both the ACL and PCL. Methods: A sample population of 203 knee patients was assessed through magnetic resonance imaging (...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510022

Physiologic Changes and Nutrient Intake in Female Participants during a Simulated 80.5 Kilometer Ultramarathon Run: A Pilot Study

R Scott Van Zant, Justin Grogg, Jennifer Schoon, Jason Exposito and Meghan Carroll

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: October 8, 2015

Purpose: To frequently examine body weight (BW), blood parameters, nutrient/fluid (N/F) intake, urine output and vital signs of recreational female runners completing a simulated ultramarathon. Methods: Three participants completed an 80.5 km run on a closed 8.1 km course. BW, blood glucose (BG), N/F intake and urine output were measured 24 hr pre- and post event. Complete blood count was measured 1 hr pre-and post event. BW, HR, SBP, DBP, BG, blood lactate (BL), RPE, lower extremity (LE) VAS pa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510021

Manuscripts in the Sport and Exercise Sciences

Roger Ramsbottom

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 20, 2015

Scientific journals act as a means of exchange or the sharing of information / novel ideas between the author and its readership. A journal's editorial board are responsible for published papers which attain high standards of scientific merit. In order to further this process the authors have a responsibility to write clearly and succinctly, with clarity for the reader being upper-most in mind. Thus 'jargon' needs to be avoided and any acronyms used in the manuscript clearly defined. The methods...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510020

A Community-Based Exercise and Support Group Program Improves Quality of Life in African-American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

Nora L. Nock, Cynthia Owusu, Susan Flocke, Susan A. Krejci, Emily L. Kullman, Kris Austin, Beth Bennett, Stephen Cerne, Carl Harmon, Halle Moore, Mary Vargo, Paul Hergenroeder, Hermione Malone, Michael Rocco, Russell Tracy, Hillard M. Lazarus, John P. Kirwan, Ellen Heyman and Nathan A. Berger

Article Type: Orginal Research Article | First Published: September 5, 2015

African-American (AA) breast cancer (BCa) survivors have higher mortality rates, more comorbidities and are less likely to meet national physical activity guidelines after diagnosis compared to Caucasian BCa survivors. We previously reported that a 20-week resistance exercise intervention coupled with a support group and home walking program, conducted using facilities and personnel at a community cancer support center, in Stage I-III AA BCa survivors improved strength, fitness and circulating C...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510019

Severe Musculoskeletal Injuries due to the use of Cleats Whilst Cycling

J Kukadia, G Zamfir, G Arealis, N Ashwood and B Karagkevrekis

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: September 4, 2015

In cycling, pedalling symmetry and foot position is paramount for an energy efficient and injury free ride. Traditionally a clipped pedal was used to secure the foot onto the pedal, which was found to be related to a number of overuse knee injuries, leading to the advent of clipless pedals or cleats, which allowed for a more efficient pedal stroke. Whilst there is some research behind cleat design in football, little remains for cycling. Here we present a series of five patients with severe trau...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510018

Glyceryl Trinitrate Patches: A Modern Treatment for Tendinopathies

Yusuf Assem and Manit Arora

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 23, 2015

Tendinopathy encompasses a variety of conditions that develop within tendons in response to overuse, characterized by pain and dysfunction. These include disorders of the Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, lateral epicondyle, medial epicondyle and the rotator cuff. Historically, most of these disorders have been attributed to tendinitis or inflammation of the tendon, however recent histopathological work has lent support to tendinosis as the underlying pathology....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510017

Exergaming to Improve Physical and Mental Fitness in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Pilot Study

Claudia L. Hilton, Allison Attal, John Best, Tim Reistetter, Pete Trapani and Diane M. Collins

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 18, 2015

Although not included as core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), children and adolescents with this diagnosis often experience executive function (EF) and motor impairments. This study investigated the use of a speed-based exergame called the Makoto arena as an intervention strategy to improve EF and motor performance in in 17 school-aged children and adolescents with ASD. All areas of EF improved, with significance in the overall global executive composite and in the metacognit...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510016

Effects of Pitching a Simulated Game on Upper Extremity Kinematics in Youth Baseball Pitchers

Gretchen D. Oliver and Hillary A. Plummer

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: August 09, 2015

Overuse injuries in youth baseball players have increased exponentially with the insurgence of participation in the sport. It has been estimated that 5 million children (6-17 years) participate in organized youth baseball in the United States. Additionally, it has been documented in a survey of 476 youth pitchers (9-14 years) that roughly half reported either shoulder or elbow pain while pitching, thus leading researchers to speculate overuse injury. As overuse injuries are continuing to be appa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510015

Paediatric Hip Pain: A Rare Injury

Raj Subbu and Fares Haddad

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 07, 2015

Paediatric hip pain in young athletes can be a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The anatomy of the paediatric pelvis and surrounding structures varies considerably to that of an adult and therefore is predisposed to different types of injuries which can lead to future deformities if not managed appropriately. Unlike adult pelvic fractures, which have set guidelines and management strategies, less research exists on these injuries in the paediatric context and more specifically in the sportin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510014

Effect of Hypercapnic Severity on Plasma Ammonia Accumulation and Respiratory Exchange Ratio during Incremental Exercise

Takahide Kato, Takaaki Matsumoto, Atsuko Tsukanaka, Masataka Nakano, Ryo Ito, Masato Amano, Marc Cole and Stanley M Yamashiro

Article Type: Original Investigation | First Published: July 20, 2015

Blood lactate (La) and ammonia (Am) concentrations are widely accepted markers of metabolism not only in clinical studies but also during exercise. Elevations from normal resting levels of both are observed in exercise and associated with deleterious effects such as fatigue. A decrease in blood La concentration during exercise under hypercapnic conditions was previously reported, and La threshold (LT) was unchanged by hypercapnia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510013

Physiologic Responses to Two Distinct Maximal Cardiorespiratory Exercise Protocols

Rebecca D Larson, Gregory S Cantrell, Carl J Ade, John W Farrell III, David J Lantis, Monica A Barton and Daniel J Larson

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 05, 2015

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare physiologic responses elicited by a ramp protocol to those elicited by a staged protocol. Methods: 57 subjects were recruited and consented to be tested on two separate occasions across one week using a magnetically braked cycle ergometer. Expired gases were collected using a calibrated metabolic cart....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510012

High-Resolution Accelerometry Resolved by Time-Frequency and Principle Pattern Analysis

W Jeffrey Armstrong, John D Welch, Frank Borg and Travis W Beck

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 03, 2015

The measurement peak-to-peak amplitude high-resolution accelerometery (HRA) during single-leg balance has been shown to be reliable. In the present (repeated measures design) study, the HRA signal was transformed into a wavelet-based HRA-intensity-pattern and analyzed using principle components analysis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510011

Feasibility of Focused Cardiac Ultrasound in Pre-participation Screening

Miriam L. Fishman, Jennifer Shea, Brian G. Choi and Allen J. Solomon

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 29, 2015

Objective: Current American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for pre-participation athletic screening recommend a 12-point history and exam to minimize the risk of sudden cardiac death. We tested the hypothesis that focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) performed and simultaneously interpreted by a cardiologist using a handheld ultrasound device would be a feasible addition. Methods: We performed pre-participation screening according to AHA recommendations on high school athletes in a multi-purpose...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510010

A New View of Responses to First-Time Barefoot Running

Michael Wilkinson, Nick Caplan, Richard Akenhead and Philip R Hayes

Article Type: Original Investigation | First Published: May 28, 2015

We examined acute alterations in gait and oxygen cost from shod to-barefoot running in habitually-shod well-trained runners with no prior experience of running barefoot. Thirteen runners completed six-minute treadmill runs shod and barefoot on separate days at a mean speed of 12.5km.h-1. Steady-state oxygen cost in the final minute was recorded. Kinematic data were captured from 30-consecutive strides. Mean differences between conditions were estimated with 90% confidence intervals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510009

Eccentric Loading Increases Peak Torque Angle of the Ankle Plantar Flexors in Healthy Volunteers

Matthew Wellisch, Peter Hamer, Luke Hopper, Max Bulsara and James Debenham

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 24, 2015

Eccentric loading of the ankle plantar Flexor's (PF) has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the conservative treatment of Achilles tendinopathy, however, its mechanism of therapeutic benefit remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PF eccentric loading on PF angle to peak torque (AtPT), peak torque (PT) and lower limb vertical stiffness. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomised to an eccentric (n=15) or concentric (n=13) exercise group....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510008

Exercise and Stem Cell Therapeutics for the Infarcted Heart

Joseph R Libonati

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 18, 2015

Heart failure afflicts 5.1 million individuals in the United States and its prevalence is expected to increase 25% by 2030. It is associated with a poor quality of life, increased mortality, and is extremely expensive to health care systems. The progressive loss of cardiomyocytes is a central feature of heart failure from multiple etiologies....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510007

Effectiveness of Bracing and Taping, and the Influence of Light Finger Touch, During Unexpected Ankle Inversion Perturbations

J. Daniel Freedman, Youngmin Jun, David A. Humphreys and James P Dickey

Article Type: Orginal Research | First Published: May 15, 2015

Ankles are the most frequent site of musculoskeletal injury and a major cause for lost time in sports. Taping and bracing are commonly used to support unstable ankle joints. The purpose of this project was to evaluate whether taping or bracing effectively reduce ankle motion, or alter the timing or amplitude of muscle activation, during unexpected perturbations. 14 male subjects stood on their right foot on an inversion motion platform and underwent a sudden inversion....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510006

Influence of 120-Day Stimulated Microgravity with Countermeasures on Human Muscle Musculo-Tendinous Stiffness and Contractile Properties

Yuri A Koryak

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 15, 2015

It is well known that the unloading of the musculoskeletal system by actual or simulated microgravity causes numerous changes in the musculoskeletal system, such as muscular atrophy and decreased contraction strength, both after relatively short-term (10-17) and long-term (>5 weeks) periods of unloading. The deterioration of musculoskeletal function causes no direct health hazards and does not affect the capacity for work during short-term space missions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510005

Epidemiology of Volleyball Related Injuries in the Young Athlete

Gerardo E Miranda, Manuel Mas, Deric Lopez, Carlos Perez and William Micheo

Article Type: Epidemiologic Study | First Published: April 24, 2015

Volleyball is a worldwide sport played by approximately 200 million people. It is played at different levels of competition, and organizations, starting from youth to the professional level. Young athletes get involved early in club leagues and interscholastic competition. Volleyball is currently among the most popular club sports in the United States and Puerto Rico....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510004

Mosh Pit Injuries: A Case Series of Avulsion Fractures in 2 Adolescents

Muhammad Waseem, Sabeeda Kadavath, Swathi Sethuram, Husayn Al-Husayni and Gerard Devas

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 17, 2015

Apophyseal avulsion fractures are almost exclusive to the adolescent population. It has been commonly associated with sports injuries. In our case reports, we identify two cases of these apophyseal avulsion fractures with no history of routine physical activity. In the context of our patients, identifying causation of hip pain was essential to understanding the mechanism of any trauma resulting in fractures. The adolescents presented in this case series reported a history of mosh pit activity af...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510003

Characterization of Endorphin Gene Expression Following Electroporation in Mice Tibialis Anterior Muscle: Implications for Gene Doping Detection

Morten Klitgaard Nohr, Parisa Gazerani, Julie Gehl3 and Jacek Lichota

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 13, 2015

Since ancient time, doping has been used by athletes. The prevalence for using performance-enhancing agents is increasing and new methods are being applied. Gene doping is foreseen to become one of the new doping methods in athletic performances. This study was therefore performed to investigate the possibility of transfecting a gene encoding the endogenous peptide preproenkephalin (PENK) in mice as gene doping candidate and subsequently establish a functional detection method....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510002

Late-Night Matches for Professional Soccer Players: Should we be Concerned about Sleep and Recovery?

Hugh H.K. Fullagar

Article Type: Perspective | First Published: March 30, 2015

Elite soccer players compete within the uppermost echelon of the most popular and participated sport in the world. Both male and female stars of the game, from Cristiano Ronaldo to Marta Vieira, entertain hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Indeed, the financial growth of the game in recent decades has enabled global television audiences to witness the game they love....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510001

Electromyographic Cross-Spectral Analysis of Antagonist Muscle Coactivation

Travis W. Beck

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 20, 2015

The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to compare the responses for traditional EMG amplitude measures with those from the crossspectrum approach for assessing agonist-antagonist interaction, and (2) to examine changes in the agonist-antagonist interaction for the elbow flexors and extensors with increases in movement velocity. Eighteen healthy, college-aged subjects (mean SD age = 21.8 2.7 yrs) volunteered to perform maximal, concentric isokinetic contractions of the dominant elbow fle...


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24



Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42



Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69



International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97



Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55