International Journal of Foot and Ankle is an open access, peer reviewed journal bringing high quality clinical information for foot and ankle caregivers where the approach is broad including all aspects of the subject from basic science to clinical management. The journal aims in promoting the recent advancements and awareness with diagnosis, care, and treatment of patients with disorders of the musculoskeletal system of the foot and ankle.

The journal is open for possible publication of original articles, reviews, communication, short articles, case reports and clinical images covering the aspects related to foot and ankle. The journal includes a variety of topics that fall but not limit to the areas of achilles tendinitis, adult acquired flatfoot, ankle fracture, arthritis of the foot and ankle, bone health in foot, bunions, charcot-marie-tooth disease, claw toe, clubfoot, corns, diabetic foot, flexible flatfoot in children, foot care, hammer toe, heel pain, ingrown toenail, in toeing, knee arthroplasty, morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis and bone spurs, podiatric medicine, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, toe amputation, etc. We encourage this as a common platform for the researchers, surgeons and orthopedicians to share and explore the recent clinical advancements.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Foot and Ankle

ISSN: 2643-3885

Editor-in-chief: Thanos C Badekas

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Foot Ankle

ISO abbreviation: Int J Foot Ankle

Other titles: IJFA

Category: Foot and Ankle

DOI: 10.23937/2643-3885

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710061

Comparison of Neurovascular Structures at Risk during Ankle Arthroscopy: A Cadaveric Study

Ramez Sakkab, DPM, Varsha Salunkhe, DPM, Monica Jung, DPM, MS, Kristina Corley, DPM, Jae Yoon Kim, DPM and Gautam Sowda, BS

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 30, 2021

Arthroscopy has become increasingly common for diagnosis and treatment of ankle joint pathology. The four most common portals used for ankle arthroscopy are the anteromedial (AM), anterolateral (AL), posteromedial (PM), and posterolateral (PL). And anatomy of neurovascular structures (NVS) along the ankle can significantly vary. The distance of NVS was compared to anatomic landmarks of ankle arthroscopic portals to verify safe zones for scope insertion. Twenty-six fresh-frozen cadavers were util...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710060

Alignment-Free Joint Angles Measurement Using Virtual Reference Coordinate System

John Pontius and Seung-Jae Kim

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 29, 2021

In order to overcome the difficulty in aligning specimens accurately within a reference system for angular kinematic measurements, a method of using a virtual reference coordinate system was designed and implemented in conjunction with using an optical motion capture device. The virtual coordinate system is created by digitizing three identifiable points in space. In this way, angular measurements of specimens can be described with respect to the virtual coordinate system to be anatomically rele...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710059

Distal Tibial Metaphyseal Fractures in Children Treatment by Intrafocal Pinning: A Case Report

Mohamad Khaled Ghannam, Victoria Al Karaki, Joe Medawar and Fadi Hoyek

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 24, 2021

Distal tibial metaphyseal fractures (DTMF) are rare fractures among children, and are usually treated by closed methods for 6 to 8 weeks with reported satisfactory outcomes. However, the choice of the surgical procedure if indicated, remains controversial, and many options of osteosynthesis are still considered. This a case of a traumatic progressively displaced DTMF despite cast immobilization in an 11-yearsold child, who was treated in our institute by intrafocal pinning and followed for 15 mo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710058

A Population Study of Foot Size of Children as an Important Parameter for Foot Health: A Randomized Cross-Sectional Analysis

Petra Baresova, Tomas Urbanek, Petr Kratky, Zuzana Bahulova, Martina Cernekova, Jitka Badurova, Fahanwi Asabuwa Ngwabebhoh and Tomas Saha

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 09, 2021

Foot healthcare studies reports a high fraction of population possesses footwear related ill-fitting. These feet related ill-fits may vary with difference in nationality and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to examine and establish the current feet size and shape of a population of children in the Zlin region of the Czech Republic. A total of four hundred and sixty-nine children within the age range of 6-15 years participated in the investigation. Using a 3D scanning device based on foot...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710057

The Forgotten Brick: Case Report of a Lisfranc Injury with “Pericuneiform” Dislocation

Helen Bumann and Martin Wonerow

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 11, 2021

The Lisfranc joint complex forms the transverse arch of the foot. The Lisfranc joint complex is fundamental for both stability and flexibility of the foot, whereas the intermediate cuneiform anchors as its keystone. Due to the complexity of the joint, Lisfranc injuries show many different patterns. Up to now, there is limited evidence regarding treatment recommendations. Furthermore, as shown in our case, some injury patterns do not fit into existing classification. A 42-year-old patient present...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710056

Mechanisms and Outcomes after Crush Injuries of the Foot

Kate Nicholls, Henry Goodier, Philippa Bennett, Heath Taylor and Nicholas Savva

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 10, 2021

Crush injuries of the foot are poorly defined in the literature. Previous studies focus on the mechanism of injury or the environment in which they occur. Crush injuries can be associated with long-term sequelae including chronic pain and it has been suggested that seemingly less severe soft tissue injuries can carry significant morbidity equivalent to or worse than bony injuries. The aim of this multicentre study was to provide a contemporary overview of patients presenting with crush injuries ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710055

Contact Mechanics Modeling of the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament on the Plantar Surface of the Foot

Vitale Kyle Castellano, Robert L Jackson, and Michael E Zabala

Article Type: Prospective, Descriptive Study | First Published: May 27, 2021

Neuropathy is a disease which results in the loss of sensation in the extremities. One method for assessing the degree of neuropathy is with a monofilament evaluator which buckles at a prescribed force depending on the filament diameter. However, as this assessment is conducted by the clinician’s hand, the true force delivered is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to model the effects of both insertion depth and monofilament diameter on the contact force and normal stress produc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710054

Postoperative Management of K-Wires in Percutaneous Foot Surgery

Arzac Ulla Ignacio

Article Type: Prospective, Descriptive Study | First Published: May 10, 2021

When a Kirschner wire (K-wire) is used percutaneously, the protruding end often causes discomfort and is associated with an increased risk of complications, such as pin loosening, infection, injury, etc. This study was undertaken to determine the ideal postoperative management when using these implants. We describe a surgical alternative for K-wire management in foot surgery. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted. A total of 39 patients (70 procedures) were enrolled in the study and und...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710053

Long-Term Outcomes in Athletes with Chronic Lateral Ankle Instability Treated Integrally With an Anatomic, Minimally Invasive Surgical Technique

José Cymet Ramírez, MD and Julio César Vázquez Mondragón, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 10, 2021

Chronic lateral ankle instability usually occurs in young athletes. It is caused by a rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament, better known as the anterior peroneal astragalus ligament (APAL). This lesion is associated with a rupture of the calcaneal fibular ligament or posterior calcaneal peroneal ligament (PCL) in 10 to 20% of cases and with the presence of chondral lesions of the talus and tibial dome in 75% of cases, the latter being caused by abnormal chronic joint hypermobility second...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710052

Use of a Second Ray Amputation for Foot Salvage in a Collegiate Athlete with Proteus Syndrome

Ethan R Harlow, MD, Pranav Khambete, BS, Jason Ina, MD, and Shana Miskovsky, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 22, 2021

Our patient is a 20-year-old female, NCAA Division II collegiate soccer player, who presented to the office with progressive deformity and pain of the right foot and second toe that has been worsening over one year. At age 5, she was diagnosed with PS with the right foot overgrowth as the presenting symptom. Her symptoms progressed to the point where prolonged standing would cause her pain and thus rendered her unable to continue her athletic endeavors, limited her shoe wear, and began to affect...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710051

Treatment of Foot and Ankle Infection with Antibiotic Cement Spacer

Hyeon Soo Kim, MD, Sung Jin Shin, MD and Jin Woo Kim, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 28, 2021

The present paper analyzed the results of treatment of foot and ankle infection with antibiotic cement. Twenty-seven patients who underwent surgical treatment for bone infections of the foot and ankle using an antibiotic cement spacer during the period from July 2014 to June 2019, and were followed up for more than one year were selected as subjects for the present retrospective analysis. The subject was divided into Group A (19 subjects), in which the antibiotic cement spacer was removed during...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710050

Catastrophic Hindfoot Collapse after Tibiotalocalcaneal Nailing: A Case Series

Adam Bernatsky, DPM, Zachery Weyandt, DPM and David Seligson, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 28, 2021

The use of a tibiotalocalcaneal retrograde hindfoot nail without joint preparation has been utilized in this population with promising results. This procedure, however, does not come without complications. It is often difficult to place the nail in the proper position within the calcaneus, talus, and tibia as medial translation is difficult without preparing the joints for fusion. This may contribute to increased nail failure rates and specifically hindfoot fractures. Three cases of hindfoot nai...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710049

Short Term Results of the Cadence Total Ankle Prosthesis: A Dutch Non-Designer Case Series

Brylka EP, MD, Sierevelt IN, MSc, Vergroesen DA, MD and Nolte, PA, MD, PhD

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: September 30, 2020

Design developments improved outcomes of total ankle replacement (TAR), but the ankle remains difficult to replace with prosthesis. The aim of this study is to evaluate short-term results of the Cadence Total Ankle System. Eleven TARs were retrospectively evaluated for intraoperative complications, short-term postoperative complications, clinical outcomes and radiological outcomes. Nine intraoperative complications occurred in 7 patients and eight short-term post-operative complications occurre...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710048

Subtle Cavovarus Foot: A Missed Risk Factor for Chronic Foot and Ankle Pathologies

Benjamin Green, Anne-Laure Ménard, PhD, Stéphane Leduc, MD and Marie-Lyne Nault, MD, PhD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 03, 2020

This literature review investigated the subtle cavovarus foot with a search in Pubmed and Google Scholar using the following keywords: Subtle cavovarus foot, cavovarus foot or cavus foot and one or more of the following: Associations, injuries, ankle sprains, ankle instability, sports, plantar pressure, dynamic pedobarography, Tekscan and footprint, from January 1980 to February 2019....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710046

Case Report: An Unexpected Outcome of In Situ Fusion of the Calcaneo-Cuboid Joint

Van Kerckhoven J, Van Beek N and Verfaillie S

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 04, 2020

We present a case report where a necessary lengthening of the lateral column was performed after an in-situ fusion of the calcaneo-cuboid joint following an inversion injury to the ankle. A low energy inversion injury of the ankle (ankle sprain) is one of the most common injuries presented at the emergency department and often results in ligamental injury of the anterior talo-fibular and calcaneo- fibular ligament. However, dislocating forces can proceed even more distally and also affect the fo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710045

Preserving Foot Length: Pan-Digital Amputation an Alternative Amputation to Transmetatarsal Amputation: A Case Study

Jered M Stowers, DPM, Paul Carroll, DPM and Jonathon J Sharpe, DPM

Article Type: Case Study | First Published: May 25, 2020

Maintaining foot length during limb salvage procedures is of paramount importance to maintaining foot function. Currently, the most clinically accepted amputation for an unsalvageable forefoot is the transmetatarsal amputation. While this procedure has predictable results, there are pitfalls to the procedure. Under certain circumstances, a pan-digital amputation may be a more functional amputation. There is limited literature on outcomes of this procedure. The case presented highlights a patient...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710044

Metatarsophalangeal Joint Fusion using Plate a Lag Screw-Single Surgeon Experience in a District General Hospital

Muhammad Murtaza Khan and Dakshinamurthy Sunderamoorthy

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 06, 2020

We retrospectively evaluated the patients who were operated for MTPJ fusion of big toe from January 2015 to December 2018. Rate of non-union and functional outcome (pre and post op MOXFQ score) were considered as a primary outcome. Overall patient satisfaction was considered as the secondary outcome. A total of 28 patients were operated and they were followed using clinical notes. Our mean follow up was for a period of 16 months (1.34 years). The average age of our patients was 68.35 years, 2 ma...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710043

Examination of Rear Foot Bones Shapes in Patients with Ankle Osteoarthritis using Principal Component Analysis

Takuya FUJINUMA, Yuya OISHI, Shinichi KOSUGI, Hiroaki KUROKAWA, Yasuhito TANAKA, Satoki TSUICHIHARA and Hiroshi TAKEMURA

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 22, 2020

Artificial ankle joint replacement surgery is an important treatment for patients with ankle osteoarthritis (OA). Estimation of the pre-deformed ankle bones shapes are a key factor in artificial joint replacement surgery, and the surgeon can achieve highly satisfactory outcomes for patients such as less pain and sufficient function with an alternative ankle joint. However, the relationship between the bone shape deformation process and stage of the disease remains unclear. In this study, we inve...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710042

Case Report: Concurrent Sustentaculum Tali and Lateral Talar Body Fracture in a 19 Year Old Patient

Ioannis M Stavrakakis, George E Magarakis, Zacharias Christoforakis and Ioannis Daskalakis

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 28, 2020

Fractures of the sustentaculum tali and body of the talus are rare high energy injuries. Thorough clinical examination as well as proper imaging studies are necessary in order not to miss this kind of fractures. Severity of the injury, amount of displacement, soft tissue compromise, accuracy of reduction as well as stability of fixation are the main factors affecting the outcome. This study presents a case of a 19-year-old patient, who sustained a sustentaculum tali fracture with a concomitant l...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710041

Proposing Transmalleolar Axis Bisector (TMAB) as a Geometrically Accurate Alternative to the Heel Bisector Line for the Clinical Assessment of Metatarsus Adductus

Victor Omosemoje Alonge, PhD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: March 14, 2020

The classification of metatarsus adductus by Bleck relied on the heel bisector line (HBL). The original procedure for bisecting the heel involves the initial making of a mould of the weight bearing foot to create an ellipse image of the heel. The procedure was later simplified by using photocopies of the foot instead of moulds of the foot. In either case, the heel is then bisected to determine its longitudinal axis which is designated as the HBL. The procedure for determining the longitudinal ax...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710040

An Atypical Soft Tissue Mass on the Dorsum of the Foot: A Case Report

Kirmanj Atrushi PGY-3, DPM

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 17, 2020

Evaluating and treating soft tissue masses is a component of podiatric practice that few will be able to avoid. Indeed, of all soft tissue masses, ganglion cysts appear to be the most common. Many of these can be adequately treated with fine-needle aspiration. However, in other cases, surgical excision may be indicated, particularly when the cyst is pressing against a nerve or similarly sensitive structure. In this case report we seek to analyze one case of a painful soft tissue mass that was or...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710039

Case Report: Lymphatic Drainage Resolves Toe Walking Gait in a Boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Susan Vaughan Kratz, OTR, CST-D

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 14, 2020

Describe how lymphatic drainage (LD) resolved obligatory toe walking gait and stance in a boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The treatment plan was generalized from an identical treatment given to a collegiate athlete with chronic spasms of gastronemii. A single treatment of LD. No literature suggests a fluid anatomy model for manual therapies as treatment options for toe walking. This case highlights an effective method discovered to quickly reverse functional deformities despite several ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710038

Foot Care Education, Health-Seeking Behaviour and Disease Outcome in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Results from the Multi-Centre Evaluation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Nigeria Study

Innocent Okpe, Ejiofor Ugwu, Olufunmilayo Adeleye, Ibrahim Gezawa, Marcelina Enamino and Ignatius Ezeani

Article Type: Research article | First Published: December 16, 2019

Considerable advances have been made in the field of diabetic foot care over the past 25 years in developed countries. On the contrary, diabetes foot ulceration (DFU) still remains a common diabetes related complication of substantial public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Diabetic foot outcome in Nigeria is reportedly poor, with high amputation and mortality rates. Proper foot care education is known to impact positively on both DFU prevention and outcome in the developed societies. Ho...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710037

Orthotic Intervention on Flexible Flat Feet and Lower Extremity Exertional Pain during Normal Overland Walking

Bruce N Elliott, PT, EdD, DPT, MS, COMT and Juan C Garbalosa, PhD, PT

Article Type: Rese arc h art icle | First Published: December 04, 2019

A biomechanical foot orthosis is commonly used for the management of lower extremity injuries that are related to flexible flat feet. The purpose of this study was to document the effect of a maximal arch supination stabilization (MASS) orthosis on foot motion in individuals with flexible flat feet who experience lower extremity exertional pain. 30 subjects with flexible flat feet and lower extremity exertional pain received a pair of custom orthoses. Intersegmental foot kinematics were recorded...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710036

Surgical Management of Foot Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa in Adults: Case Report of Surgical Technique

Reema Alhussein and Mohammed Alshouli

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 02, 2019

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare congenital anomaly causing localized or generalized gigantism. Characterized by an abnormal excessive growth of mesenchymal elements in particularly fibro-adipose tissue, bone, tendon, nerves and vessels. We report our experience in surgical management of a case with Macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving the second toe of the left foot. A through clinical and radiological assessment followed by surgical second ray amputation and soft tissue debulking of the le...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710035

A Novel Approach to Post-Traumatic Foot and Ankle Pains using Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cryoneurolysis: A Case Report

David H Sherwood, DO, Jason-Flor V Sisante, PhD and Neil A Segal, MD, MS

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 20, 2019

Cryoneurolysis is a minimally invasive, low side effect profile, evidence-supported intervention currently with FDA approval to produce lesions in peripheral nervous tissue, including for relief of pain associated with knee osteoarthritis. The mechanism of action on a peripheral nerve is temporary axonal signal disruption via Wallerian degeneration. While the axon and myelin sheath degenerate, the endoneurium, perineurium and epineurium are unaffected. Schwann cells and macrophages clear debris,...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710034

Extreme Thrombocytosis Resulting from Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery with Forefoot Necrosis: A Rare Case Report

Cuervas-Mons Manuel, Alvarez Baena Lucia, Garcia Ruano Angela and Arnal Burro Javier

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 19, 2019

Essential thrombocythemia is a chronic myeloproliferative syndrome characterised by excessive proliferation of platelets and megakaryocytes, with a relatively favourable course. We present a case of extreme thrombocytosis resulting from minimally invasive foot surgery with forefoot necrosis. A 72-year-old female patient presented with hallux valgus and metatarsalgia. A platelet count of 560,000/ µL was detected as an unexpected finding. Minimally invasive surgery was performed, and in the first...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710033

Investigating the Validity of Soft Tissue Signs on Lateral Ankle X-Ray to Aid Diagnosis of Achilles Tendon Rupture in the Emergency Department

Lowri Bowen, Rhodri Evans, Owen Bodger, Joshua Howard and Anne-Marie Hutchison

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 14, 2019

We retrospectively identified two groups of patients; Group A consisted of patients with an Achilles tendon rupture and Group B included patients with a clinically intact Achilles tendon but with a lateral ankle ligament sprain. Three clinicians independently reviewed all patients’ x-rays for each of the radiological features under investigation to determine whether a rupture was present or not. Inter-rater and Intra-rater reliability were calculated using the Kappa coefficient (Kc.) To determ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710032

Plantar Fasciitis Rupture - Who is the Culprit?

Fairuz Suhaimi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2019

The plantar fascia is an important structure in the foot, which helps, stabilizes the arch of the foot during motion and provides shock absorption when the foot hits the ground. Inflammation of the plantar fascia has been high in incidence, with multiple factors attributed to it. However, occurrence of the plantar fascia rupturing is not common. Corticosteroid injection to the plantar fascia has long been advocated as the major cause of this. Nonetheless, in recent literatures, corticosteroid in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710031

Freiberg's Infraction in a Geriatric Patient - A Case Report

Daniel Pollack, DPM, FACFAS

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 17, 2019

Foot pain is debilitating and common, especially in the geriatric population. It causes difficulty, or an inability, to ambulate which may lead to further issues such as weight gain, reliance on others for assistance, and imbalance which can lead to falls. It is important to consider Freiberg's infraction as a cause of foot pain in the elderly, even if it normally occurs in younger patients. Freiberg's infraction (also known as Freiberg's disease) is premature bone death, or osteonecrosis, of mo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710030

Surgical Repair of an Unstable Third Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dislocation via Direct Plantar Plate Repair: A Simple and Effective Technique

Christopher W Kinter, MD, Kevin J Kinter, MS and Christopher W Hodgkins, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 12, 2019

Traumatic dislocation of a lesser metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is a rare case for a foot and ankle surgeon to encounter. These dislocations can be difficult to reduce due to the surrounding connective tissues that may be interposed in the joint space. These include the plantar plate, deep transverse metatarsal ligament, flexor tendons, and lumbricals. When the clinician is unable to reduce the phalanx, surgery is required to prevent sequelae such as further swelling, ecchymosis, joint damage,...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710029

Z-Calcaneal Osteotomy: Radiographic Assessment of Correction in the Valgus Hindfoot

Daniel Dawson, A Walls and J Wong

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 24, 2019

Elective reconstruction in the valgus hindfoot is a complex and varied field of orthopaedic surgery. Often multiple procedures, both bony and soft tissue are required. The surgical aims are to create a plantigrade foot, restore hindfoot alignment and re-create the medial longitudinal arch in an attempt to allow more normal biomechanical function. Invariably a calcaneal osteotomy is required to correct hindfoot alignment. There are various methods of performing a calcaneal osteotomy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710028

Changes in Dynamic Plantar Pressure for Children with Tarsal Coalition as Compared to Normal Children

Brian Curtin, DO, Xue-Cheng Liu, MD, PhD, Roger Lyon, MD and Scott Van Valin, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 10, 2019

One of effective therapeutic treatment involves the use of inserts to alter the foot biomechanical alignment and reduce the pain. It is essential to select an appropriate insert based upon foot functions by dynamic plantar pressure measurements. The goal of this study was to evaluate children's kinetic abnormalities in feet with tarsal coalition using plantar pressure measurements. The design of this study was a prospective cohort with normal control, which is considered as Level 3 Evidence....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710027

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) for Refractory Fractures at the Fifth Metatarsal Base

Kenta Tanaka, Akihiro Kanamori, Masaya Kajiwara, Tomofumi Nishino, Yusuke Nishida, and Masashi Yamazaki

Article Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE | First Published: March 22, 2019

A fifth metatarsal base fracture is common in athletes and is often difficult to treat. Refractory cases are often managed surgically with screw fixation or bone grafts, but such procedures are extremely invasive. Recently, positive results have been reported from the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for stress fractures or delayed fracture union. We report on our experience with ESWT used in five cases of refractory fifth metatarsal base fracture where bone union had not been ach...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710026

Mitchell Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus Using Trans-Osseous Capsulorrhaphy for Stabilization

Adnan A Faraj FRCS (Orth)

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 20, 2019

The fixation method of Mitchell's osteotomy after displacement is controversial. In the current study, we evaluated a previously described technique of using transosseous capsulorrhaphy. In this series, foot plaster slipper was used for six weeks. Twenty-seven feet (21 patients) underwent the technique for symptomatic hallux valgus was included in this study. Retrospective and consecutive series. Mitchell's step cut osteotomy was performed without metal fixation, trans osseous capsulorrhaphy was...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710025

Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Achilles tendon and Related Pathology: Qualitative & Quantitative Investigation

Muna Al Mulla, PhD, Allison McGee, MSc, Prof. Stephen Eustace, and Louise Rainford, PhD

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 28, 2019

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an MRI technique that has shown to be a very promising in facilitating the differentiation of subtle pathological changes within different tissue. However, to date, a conclusive physical basis for the signal contrast on DWI of the Achilles tendon (AT) is yet to be available in literature. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the diagnostic impact of echo planar DWI in distinguishing normal and abnormal AT using ADC mapping as a qualitative and quantitative ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710024

The Role of Interfragmentary Compression Screw on Union Rates and Shortening of the First Ray in Lapidus Arthrodesis: A Comparative Study

Andre Busch, Marcus Jager, Florian Dittrich, Andre Sander, Stephanie Herbstreit and Sascha Beck

Article Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE | First Published: February 18, 2019

Hallux valgus (HV) is a common deformity of the forefoot in which a deviation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint arises. HV has been described to be characterized by a number of structural factors including radiographic angles, metatarsal length, metatarsal head shape, sesamoid position, first metatarsocuneiform joint flexibility and pes planus. The etiology is not fully resolved. However, HV is associated with gender, age and family history. Moreover, it is limited to shoe-wearing cultures ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710023

Calcifying Tendonitis of the Ankle, Effectivenness of 5% Acetic Acid Iontophoresis and Ultrasound over Achiles Tendon: A Prospective Case Series

Marcos E Fernandez-Cuadros, Olga S Perez-Moro, Maria Jesus Albaladejo-Florin, Ruben Algarra-Lopez and Luz Casique-Bocanegra

Article Type: Prospective Case Series | First Published: February 13, 2019

To conduct a prospective Multicentre Quasi-experimental before-and-after study (Non-Randomized Control Trial) to demonstrate the effectiveness of Acetic Acid Iontophoresis and Ultrasound in the treatment of Calcifying Tendonitis (CT) of the ankle. Prospective, multicentre, quasi-experimental before-after intervention study, to 10 patients who attended to both Rehabilitation Departments, at Santísima Trinidad's General Foundation Hospital, Salamanca-Spain and at Santa Cristina's University Hospi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710022

MRI Diagnosis of Accessory Soleus Muscle: A Case Report and Review of the Literatures

Jun Zhang, Dapeng Hao, Chuanyu Zhang and Shaohua Wang

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 13, 2019

The accessory soleus muscle is a rare anatomical variant that usually occurs in adolescents or young adults. And it may manifest as an exertional ankle pain and swelling or as an asymptomatic posteromedial mass. However sometimes it may be mistaken as a soft tissue tumor at the ankle. The purpose of this study is to heighten awareness about the existence of accessory soleus muscle in a swelling at the posteromedial aspect of the ankle and to reduce the failure to recognize this muscle in MRI....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710021

Midfoot Charcot Neuroarthropathy

Mohamad Alqubaisi and Carlo Ross

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 29, 2018

Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) is a syndrome that was first described over 300 years ago. Sir William Musgrave was the first person to define neuropathic osteo-arthropathy in 1703 as an arthralgia whereby he described that syphilis was the supreme cause. 178 years later, Jean-Martin Charcot, (1825-1893) gave a thorough description on the condition in the year 1886. Consequently, the condition was named after him. Charcot defined the condition as a continuous, denervation-induced decadence of the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710020

Herpes Zoster: An Atypical Cause of Foot Drop - Case Report and Review of the Literature

Coogan MK, Mobley T, Hagemeijer NC, Abbott B, Guss D, Johnson AH and DiGiovanni CW

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2018

We report on an 81-year-old female who presented with acute, atraumatic right foot drop four weeks after developing herpes zoster in the ipsilateral L4 and L5 dermatomes treated with valacyclovir. Lumbar MRI revealed no explanatory abnormality, and the etiology of her right foot drop was presumed to be due to an outbreak of herpes zoster. After three months of physical therapy and bracing, her right lower extremity weakness greatly improved. We present a comprehensive literature review of atraum...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710019

Total Ankle Replacement: Indications, Rehabilitation and Results

Marco Massobrio, Giovanni Pellicano, Valter Santilli and Lucrezia Tognolo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 22, 2018

Even though fusion is the main form of treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) of the ankle, total ankle replacement (TAR) is increasingly being recognized as an effective alternative procedure, with favorable clinical results and improved quality of life. However, the results have been disappointing compared to those of hip and knee arthroplasty. In fact, the ankle is a more complex joint and its biomechanics and kinematics are strongly influenced by neighboring joints. The ankle joint comp...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710018

Does the Screw Grip Affect the Outcome of Screw Fixation of Malleolar Fractures?

Stamatios A Papadakis, Athanasios Koutroufinis, Dimitrios Pallis, Athanasios Badekas, Konstantinos Kateros, Olga Savidou and George A Macheras

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2018

The study -which is the first clinical according to the literature- included 136 patients with surgical fractures of the ankle. Patients presenting any evident factors influencing porosis as well as open fractures were excluded. Fibula reduced anatomically and fixed by a 1/3 tubular plate placed laterally. Proximal screws had bicortical fixation grip strength while distal screws had only unicortical. Screws with a reduced fixation grip strength during insertion were left in place. Numbers were a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710017

Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Associated with Medial Malleolar Fracture: Is it Still a Rare Injury? Case Report and Review of the Literature

Nicolas Fontecilla Cornejo, Hube Laurent Maximiliano, Bastias Bedoya Gonzalo, Fuentes Carvajal Patricio and Arancibia Mettais Mauricio

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 05, 2018

A 57-year-old male with unremarkable previous medical history, presented to the emergency department after a motorcycle accident. He described having suffered a violent ankle dorsiflexion with external rotation as the mechanism of injury resulting with pain and functional impairment localized in the left calf and ankle. He was unable to bear weight after injury. Clinically, he had a palpable defect at the midpoint of the Achilles tendon and a positive Thompson test. In addition, the patient comp...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJFA-2017/1710016

Suture Anchor Construct for an Exogenous Ligament Repair for Subtalar Joint Instability-A Novel Technique

Paul J Carroll and Jonathan J Sharpe

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 10, 2018

Subtalar joint ligament sprains are often missed in the setting of chronic inversion ankle injuries. This can lead to pain and instability of the subtalar joint. In many cases, without proper identification, the patient may eventually undergo an unnecessary subtalar joint fusion rather than a ligament reconstruction. Achilles, peroneus brevis, and gracilis tendon grafts have been described to repair subtalar ligament instability in the literature. To our knowledge, the use of exogenous ligament ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJFA-2017/1710015

Relationship between Toe Flexion Movement and Center of Pressure Position

Y Otake, A Yozu, T Fukui, M Sumitani and N Haga

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 29, 2018

In humans, the toes are important for stability while standing. We aim to elucidate the role of the toes in posture control by examining the relationship between the action of the flexor muscles and the center of pressure (COP) positions in the standing posture. The subjects were 16 healthy young adults who were free of musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. We measured the toe plantarflexion movements, COP positions, and floor reaction force components in the standing and forward loading ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJFA-2017/1710014

First Metatarsophalangeal Arthrodesis Malunion Revision to Silicone Implant Arthroplasty

Paul J Carroll and Jonathan J Sharpe

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2018

A shortened first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) fusion can be a debilitating complication of arthrodesis surgery. The most commonly accepted treatment is revision of the first MTPJ revisional arthrodesis with lengthening utilizing bone graft. To our knowledge, there is no published literature on first MTPJ short malunion correction using monorail distraction and arthroplasty with a silastic implant. A case is presented of a young active 32-year-old individual who presented to our office follo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710013

Common Anomalies Associated To Congenital Vertical Talus: A Single Center Experience

Elmas Muhsin

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 29, 2018

Congenital vertical talus is defined as a foot deformity in which the calcaneus is in equinus, the talus is plantarflexed, and there is a rigid and irreducible dislocation of the talonavicular joint complex, with the navicular articulating on the dorsolateral aspect of the talar neck. It is often associated with systemic involvement. To identify the most common anomalies accompanying to CVT (Congenital Vertical Talus). No literature investigating similar clinical data was found in the literature...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710012

First Metatarsophalangeal Arthrodesis or Silastic Arthroplasty in the Management of End-Stage Hallux Rigidus: A Comparison of Outcomes Including Proms

Eastwood Sarah E, Kingman Angela, Gray William K, Kakwani Rajesh and Townshend David

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 27, 2018

Both first metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis and Swanson silastic arthroplasty are established treatments for the management of end-stage hallux rigidus; identifying the specific outcomes and complications associated with each can represent a challenge when consenting patients. PROMs data and clinical outcomes were compared for consecutive series of patients who had received either procedure as surgical management of end-stage hallux rigidus....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710011

Novel Ways to Save the Foot in Malignant Melanoma

Laoise Coady, Khalid Merghani Salih Mohamed, Denis Evoy and Robert Flavin

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 28, 2018

The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly. Following clinical diagnosis, excisional biopsy is performed to confirm the diagnosis. Wide local excision down to the deep fascia must be performed in order to completely remove the melanoma. Large plantar soft tissue defects are often a consequence of resection for oncological purposes. In order to reconstruct the weight bearing sole of the foot, the tissue used must be resistant to weight, shear stress and pressure....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710010

A Minimally Invasive Modified Procedure for Ankle Chronic Instability Repair: A Case Series Report

Jose Cymet-Ramirez and Julio Cesar Vazquez-Mondragon

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: July 21, 2018

A number of surgical procedures for treating chronic ankle instability have been described. Most of them are only to repair the anterior talofibular ligament (ATL) without considering the calcaneofibular ligament (CFT) injury and both chondral injuries of talus and tibia. We aim to describe a modified procedure as an alternative to already described surgical techniques that offer some advantages that we have observed....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710009

Playing Basketball on Wooden and Asphalt Courts-Does Court Surface Affect Foot Loading?

PW Kong, DZ Nin, RKK Quek and YK Chua

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 20, 2018

This study aimed to examine the influence of court surface on foot loading when executing typical basketball tasks. Thirteen male basketball players performed three basketball-related tasks: Layup, jump shot, and maximal effort sprint on wooden and asphalt courts. In-shoe plantar loading was recorded during the basketball movements and peak force (normalised to body weight) was extracted from eight-foot regions. Perceptions of discomfort at the ankle, knee, and back were surveyed using a 10-cm v...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710008

A Comparative Prospective Study of Platelet Rich Plasma vs. Corticosteroid Injection in Plantar Fasciitis not Responding to 6 Weeks of Conservative Treatment

Nishanth Shetty, Vikram Shetty and Siddharth Shetty

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2018

There are various modalities for the treatment of plantar fasciitis that include rest, orthotics, night splints, extracorporeal shockwave therapy and casting. If all conservative methods fail; a corticosteroid injection over the medial tuberosity of the calcaneum is an effective treatment modality. In recent years the use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) a component of blood that is bioactive with a platelet concentration 2-5X the baseline platelet count of the patient....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710007

A Case Study on Antibiotic Loaded Calcium Sulphate Beads in the Management of Diabetic Foot Complications

Rajesh Kesavan, Changam Sheela Sasikumar and Vimalkumar Ramachandran

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 07, 2018

A 62-year-old Female patient with Type 2 diabetes (Hb A1 C > 7) of 12 years duration with controlled hypertension and was referred to our Hycare Wound Care Centre for immediate assessment due to a limb threatening foot infection. The diabetologist had counselled the patient with regards to the likelihood of amputation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710006

Chosen Conservative Treatments on the Symptoms of Calcaneal Spur: A Short Review

Pawel Lizis

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 21, 2018

Calcaneal spur (CS) occurs when calcium deposits build up on the underside of the heel bone, a process that usually lasts for many months. CS often causes foot muscle strain, inflammation of the plantar fasciitis, repeated tearing of the membrane that covers the heel bone and pain. CS decreases physical activity, social capacity, reducing the quality of life, and becomes the cause of frequent absence from work due to sickness. It is a disease commonly appearing in adults, and it is also a seriou...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710005

Foreign Body in the Foot: An Unusual Case of Tibialis Posterior Tendinitis - A Case Report

Purnajyoti Banerjee and Adam Ajis

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 03, 2018

We report an unusual case of tibialis posterior tendinitis in an active man with a history of puncture wound in the sole. Although no definite cause of the problem was initially identified, surgical exploration of the tendon revealed a foreign body in the tendon sheath. This case emphasizes the principle of treating the patient's symptoms and signs rather than relying solely on investigations. Similar diagnosis should be kept in mind in anyone considered for patients with a history of inexplicab...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJFA-2017/1710004

Freiberg Disease Presenting as Forefoot Pain

Ferit Dogan, Mustafa Turgut Yildizgoren and Pelin Zeynep Bekin Sarikaya

Article Type: Letter To The Editor | First Published: December 16, 2017

Freiberg's disease is typically described as a vascular necrosis of a metatarsal head. It most commonly affects the second metatarsal. Bilateral involvement has been published in the literature. The classical location of this disorder is the second MT head (68%), although it can also be found in the other lesser MTs, most commonly the third (27%), followed by the fourth (3%)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710003

Active Flatfoot Phenomenon Caused by Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

Tomomasa Nakamura, Ichiro Sekiya, Takeshi Muneta and Haruyasu Yamamoto

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 25, 2017

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) is considered the major cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. We report a case of PTTD showing "active flatfoot" phenomenon in which a patient can voluntarily transition from a normal foot shape to flatfoot deformity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710002

Treatment of Resistant Planter Fasciitis: Comparsion of Three Techniques

Medhat Maaty and Ayman M Ali

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2017

Planter fasciitis is the most common cause of inferior heel pain that may cause significant discomfort and disability. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the results of combining the percutaneous partial planter fasciotomy and drilling the body of the calcaneus to either driiling or partial planter fasciotomy alone in resistant planter fasciitis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710001

"Fleck Sign": Traumatic Avulsion Fracture of the Medial Cuneiform by Anterior Tibialis Tendon

David H Kim, Mark J Berkowitz and Jeff M Hrutkay

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 12, 2017

We describe a case of avulsion of the tibialis anterior tendon in association with a complex midfoot fracture. Although cases of attritional tibialis anterior tendon ruptures exist in the literature, avulsion/rupture of the anterior tibialis in the setting of an isolated midfoot injury has not been previously reported in the English literature....


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021


International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021