International Journal of Foot and Ankle is an open access, peer reviewed journal bringing high quality clinical information for foot and ankle caregivers where the approach is broad including all aspects of the subject from basic science to clinical management. The journal aims in promoting the recent advancements and awareness with diagnosis, care, and treatment of patients with disorders of the musculoskeletal system of the foot and ankle.
The journal is open for possible publication of original articles, reviews, communication, short articles, case reports and clinical images covering the aspects related to foot and ankle. The journal includes a variety of topics that fall but not limit to the areas of achilles tendinitis, adult acquired flatfoot, ankle fracture, arthritis of the foot and ankle, bone health in foot, bunions, charcot-marie-tooth disease, claw toe, clubfoot, corns, diabetic foot, flexible flatfoot in children, foot care, hammer toe, heel pain, ingrown toenail, in toeing, knee arthroplasty, morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis and bone spurs, podiatric medicine, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, toe amputation, etc. We encourage this as a common platform for the researchers, surgeons and orthopedicians to share and explore the recent clinical advancements.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710040
Kirmanj Atrushi PGY-3, DPM
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 17, 2020
Evaluating and treating soft tissue masses is a component of podiatric practice that few will be able to avoid. Indeed, of all soft tissue masses, ganglion cysts appear to be the most common. Many of these can be adequately treated with fine-needle aspiration. However, in other cases, surgical excision may be indicated, particularly when the cyst is pressing against a nerve or similarly sensitive structure. In this case report we seek to analyze one case of a painful soft tissue mass that was or...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710039
Susan Vaughan Kratz, OTR, CST-D
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 14, 2020
Describe how lymphatic drainage (LD) resolved obligatory toe walking gait and stance in a boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The treatment plan was generalized from an identical treatment given to a collegiate athlete with chronic spasms of gastronemii. A single treatment of LD. No literature suggests a fluid anatomy model for manual therapies as treatment options for toe walking. This case highlights an effective method discovered to quickly reverse functional deformities despite several ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710038
Innocent Okpe, Ejiofor Ugwu, Olufunmilayo Adeleye, Ibrahim Gezawa, Marcelina Enamino and Ignatius Ezeani
Article Type: Research article | First Published: December 16, 2019
Considerable advances have been made in the field of diabetic foot care over the past 25 years in developed countries. On the contrary, diabetes foot ulceration (DFU) still remains a common diabetes related complication of substantial public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Diabetic foot outcome in Nigeria is reportedly poor, with high amputation and mortality rates. Proper foot care education is known to impact positively on both DFU prevention and outcome in the developed societies. Ho...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710037
Bruce N Elliott, PT, EdD, DPT, MS, COMT and Juan C Garbalosa, PhD, PT
Article Type: Rese arc h art icle | First Published: December 04, 2019
A biomechanical foot orthosis is commonly used for the management of lower extremity injuries that are related to flexible flat feet. The purpose of this study was to document the effect of a maximal arch supination stabilization (MASS) orthosis on foot motion in individuals with flexible flat feet who experience lower extremity exertional pain. 30 subjects with flexible flat feet and lower extremity exertional pain received a pair of custom orthoses. Intersegmental foot kinematics were recorded...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710036
Reema Alhussein and Mohammed Alshouli
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 02, 2019
Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare congenital anomaly causing localized or generalized gigantism. Characterized by an abnormal excessive growth of mesenchymal elements in particularly fibro-adipose tissue, bone, tendon, nerves and vessels. We report our experience in surgical management of a case with Macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving the second toe of the left foot. A through clinical and radiological assessment followed by surgical second ray amputation and soft tissue debulking of the le...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710035
David H Sherwood, DO, Jason-Flor V Sisante, PhD and Neil A Segal, MD, MS
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 20, 2019
Cryoneurolysis is a minimally invasive, low side effect profile, evidence-supported intervention currently with FDA approval to produce lesions in peripheral nervous tissue, including for relief of pain associated with knee osteoarthritis. The mechanism of action on a peripheral nerve is temporary axonal signal disruption via Wallerian degeneration. While the axon and myelin sheath degenerate, the endoneurium, perineurium and epineurium are unaffected. Schwann cells and macrophages clear debris,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710034
Cuervas-Mons Manuel, Alvarez Baena Lucia, Garcia Ruano Angela and Arnal Burro Javier
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 19, 2019
Essential thrombocythemia is a chronic myeloproliferative syndrome characterised by excessive proliferation of platelets and megakaryocytes, with a relatively favourable course. We present a case of extreme thrombocytosis resulting from minimally invasive foot surgery with forefoot necrosis. A 72-year-old female patient presented with hallux valgus and metatarsalgia. A platelet count of 560,000/ µL was detected as an unexpected finding. Minimally invasive surgery was performed, and in the first...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710033
Lowri Bowen, Rhodri Evans, Owen Bodger, Joshua Howard and Anne-Marie Hutchison
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 14, 2019
We retrospectively identified two groups of patients; Group A consisted of patients with an Achilles tendon rupture and Group B included patients with a clinically intact Achilles tendon but with a lateral ankle ligament sprain. Three clinicians independently reviewed all patients’ x-rays for each of the radiological features under investigation to determine whether a rupture was present or not. Inter-rater and Intra-rater reliability were calculated using the Kappa coefficient (Kc.) To determ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710032
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2019
The plantar fascia is an important structure in the foot, which helps, stabilizes the arch of the foot during motion and provides shock absorption when the foot hits the ground. Inflammation of the plantar fascia has been high in incidence, with multiple factors attributed to it. However, occurrence of the plantar fascia rupturing is not common. Corticosteroid injection to the plantar fascia has long been advocated as the major cause of this. Nonetheless, in recent literatures, corticosteroid in...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710031
Daniel Pollack, DPM, FACFAS
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 17, 2019
Foot pain is debilitating and common, especially in the geriatric population. It causes difficulty, or an inability, to ambulate which may lead to further issues such as weight gain, reliance on others for assistance, and imbalance which can lead to falls. It is important to consider Freiberg's infraction as a cause of foot pain in the elderly, even if it normally occurs in younger patients. Freiberg's infraction (also known as Freiberg's disease) is premature bone death, or osteonecrosis, of mo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710030
Christopher W Kinter, MD, Kevin J Kinter, MS and Christopher W Hodgkins, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 12, 2019
Traumatic dislocation of a lesser metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is a rare case for a foot and ankle surgeon to encounter. These dislocations can be difficult to reduce due to the surrounding connective tissues that may be interposed in the joint space. These include the plantar plate, deep transverse metatarsal ligament, flexor tendons, and lumbricals. When the clinician is unable to reduce the phalanx, surgery is required to prevent sequelae such as further swelling, ecchymosis, joint damage,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3885/1710029
Daniel Dawson, A Walls and J Wong
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 24, 2019
Elective reconstruction in the valgus hindfoot is a complex and varied field of orthopaedic surgery. Often multiple procedures, both bony and soft tissue are required. The surgical aims are to create a plantigrade foot, restore hindfoot alignment and re-create the medial longitudinal arch in an attempt to allow more normal biomechanical function. Invariably a calcaneal osteotomy is required to correct hindfoot alignment. There are various methods of performing a calcaneal osteotomy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710028
Brian Curtin, DO, Xue-Cheng Liu, MD, PhD, Roger Lyon, MD and Scott Van Valin, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 10, 2019
One of effective therapeutic treatment involves the use of inserts to alter the foot biomechanical alignment and reduce the pain. It is essential to select an appropriate insert based upon foot functions by dynamic plantar pressure measurements. The goal of this study was to evaluate children's kinetic abnormalities in feet with tarsal coalition using plantar pressure measurements. The design of this study was a prospective cohort with normal control, which is considered as Level 3 Evidence....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710027
Kenta Tanaka, Akihiro Kanamori, Masaya Kajiwara, Tomofumi Nishino, Yusuke Nishida, and Masashi Yamazaki
Article Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE | First Published: March 22, 2019
A fifth metatarsal base fracture is common in athletes and is often difficult to treat. Refractory cases are often managed surgically with screw fixation or bone grafts, but such procedures are extremely invasive. Recently, positive results have been reported from the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for stress fractures or delayed fracture union. We report on our experience with ESWT used in five cases of refractory fifth metatarsal base fracture where bone union had not been ach...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710026
Adnan A Faraj FRCS (Orth)
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 20, 2019
The fixation method of Mitchell's osteotomy after displacement is controversial. In the current study, we evaluated a previously described technique of using transosseous capsulorrhaphy. In this series, foot plaster slipper was used for six weeks. Twenty-seven feet (21 patients) underwent the technique for symptomatic hallux valgus was included in this study. Retrospective and consecutive series. Mitchell's step cut osteotomy was performed without metal fixation, trans osseous capsulorrhaphy was...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710025
Muna Al Mulla, PhD, Allison McGee, MSc, Prof. Stephen Eustace, and Louise Rainford, PhD
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 28, 2019
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an MRI technique that has shown to be a very promising in facilitating the differentiation of subtle pathological changes within different tissue. However, to date, a conclusive physical basis for the signal contrast on DWI of the Achilles tendon (AT) is yet to be available in literature. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the diagnostic impact of echo planar DWI in distinguishing normal and abnormal AT using ADC mapping as a qualitative and quantitative ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710024
Andre Busch, Marcus Jager, Florian Dittrich, Andre Sander, Stephanie Herbstreit and Sascha Beck
Article Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE | First Published: February 18, 2019
Hallux valgus (HV) is a common deformity of the forefoot in which a deviation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint arises. HV has been described to be characterized by a number of structural factors including radiographic angles, metatarsal length, metatarsal head shape, sesamoid position, first metatarsocuneiform joint flexibility and pes planus. The etiology is not fully resolved. However, HV is associated with gender, age and family history. Moreover, it is limited to shoe-wearing cultures ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710023
Marcos E Fernandez-Cuadros, Olga S Perez-Moro, Maria Jesus Albaladejo-Florin, Ruben Algarra-Lopez and Luz Casique-Bocanegra
Article Type: Prospective Case Series | First Published: February 13, 2019
To conduct a prospective Multicentre Quasi-experimental before-and-after study (Non-Randomized Control Trial) to demonstrate the effectiveness of Acetic Acid Iontophoresis and Ultrasound in the treatment of Calcifying Tendonitis (CT) of the ankle. Prospective, multicentre, quasi-experimental before-after intervention study, to 10 patients who attended to both Rehabilitation Departments, at Santísima Trinidad's General Foundation Hospital, Salamanca-Spain and at Santa Cristina's University Hospi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710022
Jun Zhang, Dapeng Hao, Chuanyu Zhang and Shaohua Wang
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 13, 2019
The accessory soleus muscle is a rare anatomical variant that usually occurs in adolescents or young adults. And it may manifest as an exertional ankle pain and swelling or as an asymptomatic posteromedial mass. However sometimes it may be mistaken as a soft tissue tumor at the ankle. The purpose of this study is to heighten awareness about the existence of accessory soleus muscle in a swelling at the posteromedial aspect of the ankle and to reduce the failure to recognize this muscle in MRI....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710021
Mohamad Alqubaisi and Carlo Ross
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 29, 2018
Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) is a syndrome that was first described over 300 years ago. Sir William Musgrave was the first person to define neuropathic osteo-arthropathy in 1703 as an arthralgia whereby he described that syphilis was the supreme cause. 178 years later, Jean-Martin Charcot, (1825-1893) gave a thorough description on the condition in the year 1886. Consequently, the condition was named after him. Charcot defined the condition as a continuous, denervation-induced decadence of the ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710020
Coogan MK, Mobley T, Hagemeijer NC, Abbott B, Guss D, Johnson AH and DiGiovanni CW
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2018
We report on an 81-year-old female who presented with acute, atraumatic right foot drop four weeks after developing herpes zoster in the ipsilateral L4 and L5 dermatomes treated with valacyclovir. Lumbar MRI revealed no explanatory abnormality, and the etiology of her right foot drop was presumed to be due to an outbreak of herpes zoster. After three months of physical therapy and bracing, her right lower extremity weakness greatly improved. We present a comprehensive literature review of atraum...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710019
Marco Massobrio, Giovanni Pellicano, Valter Santilli and Lucrezia Tognolo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 22, 2018
Even though fusion is the main form of treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) of the ankle, total ankle replacement (TAR) is increasingly being recognized as an effective alternative procedure, with favorable clinical results and improved quality of life. However, the results have been disappointing compared to those of hip and knee arthroplasty. In fact, the ankle is a more complex joint and its biomechanics and kinematics are strongly influenced by neighboring joints. The ankle joint comp...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710018
Stamatios A Papadakis, Athanasios Koutroufinis, Dimitrios Pallis, Athanasios Badekas, Konstantinos Kateros, Olga Savidou and George A Macheras
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 21, 2018
The study -which is the first clinical according to the literature- included 136 patients with surgical fractures of the ankle. Patients presenting any evident factors influencing porosis as well as open fractures were excluded. Fibula reduced anatomically and fixed by a 1/3 tubular plate placed laterally. Proximal screws had bicortical fixation grip strength while distal screws had only unicortical. Screws with a reduced fixation grip strength during insertion were left in place. Numbers were a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710017
Nicolas Fontecilla Cornejo, Hube Laurent Maximiliano, Bastias Bedoya Gonzalo, Fuentes Carvajal Patricio and Arancibia Mettais Mauricio
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 05, 2018
A 57-year-old male with unremarkable previous medical history, presented to the emergency department after a motorcycle accident. He described having suffered a violent ankle dorsiflexion with external rotation as the mechanism of injury resulting with pain and functional impairment localized in the left calf and ankle. He was unable to bear weight after injury. Clinically, he had a palpable defect at the midpoint of the Achilles tendon and a positive Thompson test. In addition, the patient comp...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJFA-2017/1710016
Paul J Carroll and Jonathan J Sharpe
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 10, 2018
Subtalar joint ligament sprains are often missed in the setting of chronic inversion ankle injuries. This can lead to pain and instability of the subtalar joint. In many cases, without proper identification, the patient may eventually undergo an unnecessary subtalar joint fusion rather than a ligament reconstruction. Achilles, peroneus brevis, and gracilis tendon grafts have been described to repair subtalar ligament instability in the literature. To our knowledge, the use of exogenous ligament ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJFA-2017/1710015
Y Otake, A Yozu, T Fukui, M Sumitani and N Haga
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 29, 2018
In humans, the toes are important for stability while standing. We aim to elucidate the role of the toes in posture control by examining the relationship between the action of the flexor muscles and the center of pressure (COP) positions in the standing posture. The subjects were 16 healthy young adults who were free of musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. We measured the toe plantarflexion movements, COP positions, and floor reaction force components in the standing and forward loading ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJFA-2017/1710014
Paul J Carroll and Jonathan J Sharpe
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2018
A shortened first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) fusion can be a debilitating complication of arthrodesis surgery. The most commonly accepted treatment is revision of the first MTPJ revisional arthrodesis with lengthening utilizing bone graft. To our knowledge, there is no published literature on first MTPJ short malunion correction using monorail distraction and arthroplasty with a silastic implant. A case is presented of a young active 32-year-old individual who presented to our office follo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710013
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 29, 2018
Congenital vertical talus is defined as a foot deformity in which the calcaneus is in equinus, the talus is plantarflexed, and there is a rigid and irreducible dislocation of the talonavicular joint complex, with the navicular articulating on the dorsolateral aspect of the talar neck. It is often associated with systemic involvement. To identify the most common anomalies accompanying to CVT (Congenital Vertical Talus). No literature investigating similar clinical data was found in the literature...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710012
Eastwood Sarah E, Kingman Angela, Gray William K, Kakwani Rajesh and Townshend David
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 27, 2018
Both first metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis and Swanson silastic arthroplasty are established treatments for the management of end-stage hallux rigidus; identifying the specific outcomes and complications associated with each can represent a challenge when consenting patients. PROMs data and clinical outcomes were compared for consecutive series of patients who had received either procedure as surgical management of end-stage hallux rigidus....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710011
Laoise Coady, Khalid Merghani Salih Mohamed, Denis Evoy and Robert Flavin
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 28, 2018
The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly. Following clinical diagnosis, excisional biopsy is performed to confirm the diagnosis. Wide local excision down to the deep fascia must be performed in order to completely remove the melanoma. Large plantar soft tissue defects are often a consequence of resection for oncological purposes. In order to reconstruct the weight bearing sole of the foot, the tissue used must be resistant to weight, shear stress and pressure....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710010
Jose Cymet-Ramirez and Julio Cesar Vazquez-Mondragon
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: July 21, 2018
A number of surgical procedures for treating chronic ankle instability have been described. Most of them are only to repair the anterior talofibular ligament (ATL) without considering the calcaneofibular ligament (CFT) injury and both chondral injuries of talus and tibia. We aim to describe a modified procedure as an alternative to already described surgical techniques that offer some advantages that we have observed....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710009
PW Kong, DZ Nin, RKK Quek and YK Chua
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 20, 2018
This study aimed to examine the influence of court surface on foot loading when executing typical basketball tasks. Thirteen male basketball players performed three basketball-related tasks: Layup, jump shot, and maximal effort sprint on wooden and asphalt courts. In-shoe plantar loading was recorded during the basketball movements and peak force (normalised to body weight) was extracted from eight-foot regions. Perceptions of discomfort at the ankle, knee, and back were surveyed using a 10-cm v...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710008
Nishanth Shetty, Vikram Shetty and Siddharth Shetty
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2018
There are various modalities for the treatment of plantar fasciitis that include rest, orthotics, night splints, extracorporeal shockwave therapy and casting. If all conservative methods fail; a corticosteroid injection over the medial tuberosity of the calcaneum is an effective treatment modality. In recent years the use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) a component of blood that is bioactive with a platelet concentration 2-5X the baseline platelet count of the patient....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710007
Rajesh Kesavan, Changam Sheela Sasikumar and Vimalkumar Ramachandran
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 07, 2018
A 62-year-old Female patient with Type 2 diabetes (Hb A1 C > 7) of 12 years duration with controlled hypertension and was referred to our Hycare Wound Care Centre for immediate assessment due to a limb threatening foot infection. The diabetologist had counselled the patient with regards to the likelihood of amputation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710006
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 21, 2018
Calcaneal spur (CS) occurs when calcium deposits build up on the underside of the heel bone, a process that usually lasts for many months. CS often causes foot muscle strain, inflammation of the plantar fasciitis, repeated tearing of the membrane that covers the heel bone and pain. CS decreases physical activity, social capacity, reducing the quality of life, and becomes the cause of frequent absence from work due to sickness. It is a disease commonly appearing in adults, and it is also a seriou...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710005
Purnajyoti Banerjee and Adam Ajis
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 03, 2018
We report an unusual case of tibialis posterior tendinitis in an active man with a history of puncture wound in the sole. Although no definite cause of the problem was initially identified, surgical exploration of the tendon revealed a foreign body in the tendon sheath. This case emphasizes the principle of treating the patient's symptoms and signs rather than relying solely on investigations. Similar diagnosis should be kept in mind in anyone considered for patients with a history of inexplicab...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/IJFA-2017/1710004
Ferit Dogan, Mustafa Turgut Yildizgoren and Pelin Zeynep Bekin Sarikaya
Article Type: Letter To The Editor | First Published: December 16, 2017
Freiberg's disease is typically described as a vascular necrosis of a metatarsal head. It most commonly affects the second metatarsal. Bilateral involvement has been published in the literature. The classical location of this disorder is the second MT head (68%), although it can also be found in the other lesser MTs, most commonly the third (27%), followed by the fourth (3%)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710003
Tomomasa Nakamura, Ichiro Sekiya, Takeshi Muneta and Haruyasu Yamamoto
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 25, 2017
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) is considered the major cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. We report a case of PTTD showing "active flatfoot" phenomenon in which a patient can voluntarily transition from a normal foot shape to flatfoot deformity....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710002
Medhat Maaty and Ayman M Ali
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2017
Planter fasciitis is the most common cause of inferior heel pain that may cause significant discomfort and disability. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the results of combining the percutaneous partial planter fasciotomy and drilling the body of the calcaneus to either driiling or partial planter fasciotomy alone in resistant planter fasciitis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ijfa-2017/1710001
David H Kim, Mark J Berkowitz and Jeff M Hrutkay
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 12, 2017
We describe a case of avulsion of the tibialis anterior tendon in association with a complex midfoot fracture. Although cases of attritional tibialis anterior tendon ruptures exist in the literature, avulsion/rupture of the anterior tibialis in the setting of an isolated midfoot injury has not been previously reported in the English literature....
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