International Journal of Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine is an open access and bimonthly journal which globalizes the awareness of this medicinal and clinical information freely without any subscription for the online users. We process and accept all types of articles including original papers, reviews, short commentaries, case reports and many more. The board for the journal includes specialists, pharmacologists, scientists, practioners, and professors. Published articles undergo a detailed peer-reviewed process by professionals with the same backgrounds. We truly welcome kind suggestions from the readers which are within the scope of the journal.

The journal mainly focuses on human pulmonary and respiratory health. Focus topics include the lungs, respiration (oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange), respiratory diseases, epidemiology, treatments, recent advances and therapeutic interventions. Tobacco usage, family history, obesity, HIV/AIDS, diet, and chemical exposures that are the major risk factors for respiratory diseases constitute a significant portion of the scope of the journal. Through open access, published work is freely available, and upon acceptance and formatting, becomes immediately available to other professionals.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine

ISSN: 2378-3516

Editor-in-chief: Haibin Wang, Shufeng Zhou, Jian Fu

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Respir Pulm Med

ICV: 84.44

ISO abbreviation: Int J Respir Pulm Med

Other titles: IJRPM

Category: General Medicine

DOI: 10.23937/2378-3516

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410191

The Impact of Comorbidities and Obesity on the Severity of COVID-19 and Risk Factors for Mortality, A Prospective Study in Hospitalized Patients

Abdelbassat Ketfi, Rachida Yahiaoui-Sidi Said, Ghania Malki and Rama Touahri

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2024/02/04

The studies of the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients around the world have made it possible to observe a rich semiology, which implicated obesity as a factor in the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, and can lead to intensive care or even death. Some biomarkers have been identified as risk factors for mortality. The aim of this study is to verify obesity and the risk factors for mortality of COVID-19 infection....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410192

A Case of Resistant Status Asthmaticus: Resistant to Steroids and Responsive to IV Epinephrine

Saeed S, Hong D, Salam E, Adams W and Harris M

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2024/01/06

Status Asthmaticus, is a medical emergency, an extreme form of asthma exacerbation characterized by hypoxic and hypercapnic respiratory failure with resistance to standard therapy including inhaled selective beta-adrenergic agonists, low dose systemic steroids and usually responds to high dose systemic steroids with continuous nebulization of bronchodilators. Epinephrine, while not significantly advantageous in cases of mild to moderate asthma compared to standard therapy, can be significantly u...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410190

Catamenial Pneumothorax

Marina Gabriela Alves

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/12/06

Catamenial pneumothorax is the most common form of thoracic endometriosis syndrome. It is a form of spontaneous recurrent pneumothorax, occurring mostly in women of reproductive age, typically within 72h from the onset of menstruation. Although aetiology is unknown, several hypothesis have been raised trying to explain the pathogenesis behind it. We present two cases of women in reproductive age, with episodes of recurrent right pneumothorax. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410189

Risks Factors of Nosocomial Transmission of Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Kaduna State, North Western Nigeria

Chiroma Laminu, Adesola Z. Musa and Tubosun A. Olowolafe

Article Type: Clinical Research | First Published: 2023/10/28

Prolong exposure to pulmonary tuberculosis patients, poor provision and effective implementations of tuberculosis infection prevention and control as well medical conditions like cancer and HIV are the risks factors of nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis among healthcare workers....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410188

Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Clinical Efficacy of Podo-Whan and Tulobuterol in Mild to Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Jae-Hoon Lee, Sung Hoon Jin and Jun Bae

Article Type: Clinical Research | First Published: 2023/08/13

The airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) does not respond well to the anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids. However, Podo-Hwan, a prescription in Korean traditional medicine, has been clinically used since the early 1900s for COPD and has reported sustained efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Podo-Hwan and tulobuterol patch (a transdermal patch formulation designed to provide continuous 24-hour beta 2-agonist effects) treatment...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410187

The HRCT Imaging Findings of the Peripheral Pulmonary Vessels in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

Nobukata Kazawa, MD, PhD and Tetsuro Sugiura, MD, PhD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/04/16

The prominence of the pulmonary vasculature and/or tortuosity (n = 16) and dilatation of the central PA (n = 39) with RV hypertrophy were frequently observed. The interlobular septal thickening (n = 18, 45%), and centrilobular (perivascular) ground glass opacities (n = 6, 15%) were clearly depicted on gapless HRCT. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410186

Factors Associated with the Peak Flow Variation Generated during Forced Manual Hyperinflation Technique

Luan Rodrigues da Silva, Ana Paula Felix Arantes, Fernando Guimarães Cruvinel and Renato Canevari Dutra da Silva

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2023

Manual hyperinflation is one of the most used respiratory physiotherapy techniques in critically ill patients and consists of administering a higher volume of gaseous fluid than the patient performed using a self-inflating balloon (AMBU). This technique was developed with the objective of removing bronchial secretion and re-expansion of atelectasis lung areas, thus improving pulmonary compliance and oxygenation in mechanically ventilated patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410185

Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Adults

James A Wright

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 13, 2023

With patients for whom it is difficult or near impossible to maintain adequate oxygenation by conventional means, it may become necessary to oxygenate the blood outside the body. One method used with moderate success is the procedure of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ECMO in adult patients suffering from conditions associated with respiratory failure that is refractory to conventional means of treatment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410184

Effectiveness of Prone Positioning versus Supine Positioning in Patients Suffering from Refractory ARDS: A Meta-Analysis

James A Wright

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 25, 2023

Prone positioning (PP) was advocated more than 40 years ago as a means of improving the oxygenation status in patients exhibiting acute respiratory failure (ARF) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine if prone positioning (PP) is a more effective way of treating ARDS patients than supine positioning (SP) in patients that are refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410183

Methylene Blue Instillation for the Evaluation of Bronchopleural Fistula

Lorijn Verbrugghe, MD and Peter Driesen, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 21, 2023

A bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a pathologic communication between a bronchus and the pleural space. BPF has a high morbidity and mortality, therefore a timely diagnosis is of great importance. Methylene Blue has been used for the localization of BPF for decades and although other diagnostic tools are available, it remains favorable because it is widely available, safe and easy to perform. In this case report we would like to stress the ongoing relevance of this diagnostic method by presenting...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410182

Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy for Maintenance Therapy of Interstitial Lung Disease Due to Antisynthetase Syndrome

Angad Deengar, MD and Rahul Mutneja, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 03, 2022

Antisynthetase syndrome (AS) is a rare autoimmune condition characterized by fever, Raynaud’s phenomenon, hyperkeratosis, inflammatory polyarthritis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). The development of ILD in patients with antisynthetase syndrome (AS-ILD) portends a poor prognosis to an already rare and difficult to diagnose autoimmune disorder. We present the case of a 67-year-old Caucasian male who initially presented for evaluation of an abnormal chest radiograph, taken a few weeks afte...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410181

Investigation of Sirtuins-1 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels in the Bronchiectasis Patients

Deniz Kuruçay, Mustafa Doğan Bedir, Zehra Seyfikli and Dilara Ülger Özbek

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 23, 2022

Bronchiectasis refers to abnormal, usually permanent, dilatation of the bronchi and it is a clinical syndrome that usually presents with cough, sputum production, and recurrent chest infections with symptoms such as malaise, chest discomfort, hemoptysis (cough of blood), and weight loss. The aim of this study was to determine sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels in the serum of patients with bronchiectasis and to reveal whether there was a possible relationship betwee...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410180

SARS Cov-2 Infection-Related Persistent Air Leaks Managed By Endobronchial Valves

Mukund Tiwari, MBBS, Nikita Tangella, MD, Archana Sreekantan Nair, MD and Killol K Patel, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 05, 2022

There have been recently documented reports of pneumothorax and persistent air leaks as complications associated with SARS CoV-2-related ARDS. Alveolar-pleural fistulas and broncho-pleural fistulas can lead to the development of pneumothorax. In more recent times, bronchoscopy-guided interventions, specifically Endobronchial Valves (EBV), have been established to serve as a treatment modality for these fistulas....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410179

Laryngeal Foreign Body for 20 days without a Catastrophic Event

Ved Narang, Sambiagio Giovanni and Balaji Natarajan

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 22, 2022

We present successful management of an unusual foreign body (FB) case in the larynx for 20 days. A 45-year old man presented with complaints of hoarseness of voice and coughing up a few pieces of silver-colored flakes. He had unresolved dyspnoea and wheeze for three weeks and was managed as an asthmatic with partial resolution of symptoms....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410178

Outcomes of Robotic Surgery for Patients with Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

Erin McGuire, MD, Ashwin Basavaraj, MD, Robert Cerfolio, MD and Doreen Addrizzo Harris, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 06, 2022

Treatment for patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease includes long, multi-drug, and toxic medication regimens. Surgical resection is an alternative treatment for patients with localized or refractory NTM infection. Robot-assisted operations have not been performed routinely in this population....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410177

Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Is a Distinct Clinical Entity, Not a “Misdiagnosis Waste Basket”

Ademola E Fawibe, Olufemi O Desalu, Olalekan A Agede, Olutobi B Ojuawo, Taofeek Oloyede, Adeniyi O Aladesanmi and Alakija K Salami

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 30, 2022

PTB can mimic many chronic lung diseases resulting in misdiagnosis with serious consequences....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410176

Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and Lung Function Parameters among Apparently Healthy Adults in a Nigerian University

John Jeneviv Nene, Nwosu Chiamaka Justina, Okezue Obinna Chinedu, Anyachukwu Canice Chukwudi, John Davidson Okwudili and Mgbeojedo Ukamaka Gloria

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2022

Lung function reportedly differs between ethnic groups in infants, children and adults. More so, a reduction in lung function has health implications that go beyond diagnosable lung disease. As a result, it is imperative to understand the circumstances that can cause variations in lung function. This study investigated the relationship between anthropometric variables and lung function (LF) parameters of apparently healthy adults....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410173

Mimicry of EVALI during the Times of Covid-19 Pandemic. Another Preventive Public Health Concerns In Young Adults

Azkia khan, MD, Nadir Siddiqui, MD, Hashim Ejaz, MBBS and Nazir Lone, MD, MPH

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2022

The global healthcare has been challenged to provide adequate care during COVID 19 pandemic. There is increased public anxiety and knowledge gaps that have created major dilemmas in health care delivery....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410175

Hypercoagulable State in COVID-19 Severe Symptoms and Non Cardiac T-Wave Invertion: A Case Report

Adipta K, Gantira WD, Ari S and Kolanda M

Article Type: Cas e Report | First Published: June 17, 2022

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as it is now called, is rapidly spreading from its origin in Wuhan City of Hubei Province of China to the rest of the world....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410174

The Unusual Occurrence of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis in Pulmonary Tuberculosis-Case Report

Hingolikar Ankita Prashant, Shah Preet Mukesh and Shah Bharat

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2022

We present a case of 19 year old girl who presented to us with 4 weeks history of anorexia, weight loss and acute onset (3 days) of papular rashes over both lower extremities and swelling and pain in ankle and knee joints. Broncho-alveolar lavage revealed presence of acid fast bacilli and culture showed growth of mycobacterium tuberculosis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410172

How Do Hospitalized Patients Tolerate Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Pilot Patient-Centered Survey

Joanne Tsang, MD, Calvin H Hwang, MD, Kuhokee K Das, BS, Kathleen R Yan, BA, Paul J Christos, DrPH and Cynthia X Pan, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 06, 2022

Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is increasingly used to treat in-patients with acute respiratory failure. NIPPV tolerability is often overlooked because it is usually thought of as a life-saving intervention. Studies examining patient tolerability of NIPPV are scarce and mostly qualitative. Our objective was to understand the hospitalized patient’s experiences and NIPPV tolerability. We conducted a pilot study using a novel NIPPV Tolerability Survey tool and conducted a cros...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410171

Medical Chest Drain Insertion-Considerations for a Pleural Service

Ying Tung Liu, MBChB, FRACP, Zi Wei Goh, MBChB, FRACP and Lutz Beckert, MD, FRACP

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 11, 2022

To review local chest drain insertions, the indications, use of fibrinolytics, and the success rate of talc pleurodesis in a tertiary hospital in New Zealand. This is an observational study of all patients requiring chest drain insertion in the respiratory unit in Christchurch Hospital from January 2015 to December 2016. We analysed patient characteristics, type of drain inserted, and the nature of pleural fluid. We report the success of fibrinolytic therapy for empyema and pleurodesis for malig...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410170

Free Testosterone Levels in Patients with Covid-19 and its Association with Disease Severity

Jesus Alan Guardado Vindiola, MD, Gisel Viviana Licon Martinez, MD, Marina Estrada-Rodriguez, Katya Lorena Wilhelmy-Ledesma, Joaquin Córdova Erberk, Álvaro Lozano Castañeda, Miguel Angel Gaxiola-García, MD, MSc and Hiram Javier Jaramillo-Ramírez, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 11, 2022

The TMPRSS2 protein is an entry pathway for SARS-CoV-2, its expression is up-regulated by testosterone. Men have 7 to 8 times higher serum testosterone than women. We propose that patients hospitalized with COVID-19, with higher levels of testosterone, have worse outcomes than those with lower levels. A prospective, observational analysis of patients over 18-years-old with COVID-19 admitted to the internal medicine department in Mexicali’s General Hospital from January to April 2021. 49 patien...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410169

Evaluation of Patient Outcomes of High Flow versus Low Flow Nasal Oxygen during Outpatient Bronchoscopy under Conscious Sedation at Thoracic Procedure Suite in Lyell McEwin Hospital

Singankutti Mudalige Thanuja Nilushi Priyangika, Moayed Alawami and Shanka Karunarathne

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 05, 2022

High flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) has been shown to reduce desaturations during flexible bronchoscopy. We evaluated outcomes of HFNO vs. low flow nasal oxygen (LFNO) on intraprocedural hypoxemia, the demand of sedative and reversal medications, postprocedure complications, procedure conversion to general anaesthesia and patient comfort during outpatient standard and EBUS (Endo Bronchial Ultrasound) guided bronchoscopy under conscious sedation. A Prospective open-label study where the first 42 patien...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410168

Sarcoidosis Presenting as a Case of Pulmonary Thrombotic Disease- An Unusual Presentation

Muhammad Haseeb ul Rasool, MBBS, Sara Z Khan, MD and Pervaiz Iqbal, MD, FCCP

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 24, 2022

Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving multiple organ systems for which the inciting stimulus is unknown. It is characterized by elevated markers of inflammation and disseminated granuloma in the affected organs. Factor V Leiden deficiency has been long associated with an elevated risk of thrombosis, however, it has been observed in the patients having sarcoidosis, a secondary inciting stimulus is required to trigger the thromboembolic phenomenon, as to date only a few cases of ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410167

A Novel Approach to Confirm Endotracheal Tube Depth Using Ultrasound Color Doppler: A Cadaveric Model

Ariel Daube, MD, Leroy Phillips, MD, Erin West, MS, Lorraine Ng, MD, Lindsey T Chaudoin, MD, Arthur Smerling, MD and David Kessler, MD, MSc

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 24, 2022

Proper endotracheal tube (ETT) depth must be confirmed immediately after intubation. We developed a novel point-of-care ultrasound examination called the cuff puff (CP) and hypothesized it would accurately confirm appropriate ETT depth in a cadaveric model. CP comprises visualization of cuff inflation using color Doppler sonography. On a single fresh frozen cadaver, a well-positioned tube was defined as the tip lying between 6.5 cm below the vocal cords and 3 cm above the carina. The ETT was pla...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410165

A Unique Presentation of Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Varun Srivatsav, MD and Kelsey Tallon, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 10, 2021

Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a diffuse lung disease that primarily affects young adults, with cigarette smoking playing a significant role in developing the disease. Patients with PLCH present with characteristic CT chest findings of small irregular nodules and upper zone cysts. Previously, larger nodules greater than 10 mm and cavitation have only been reported a few times in the literature. We describe the case of a 69-year-old male who presented with dyspnea, non-producti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410164

Pneumonia Due To Stenotrophomonas maltophila in the Immunocompetent Patient: A Case of Environmental Exposure

Ana Cardoso

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: December 10, 2021

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multi-resistant gram-negative bacterium, an opportunistic agent generally associated with nosocomial infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients, being usually found in the intensive care setting. However, its prevalence in patients without predisposing risk factors is very rare. We have identified and successfully treated a healthy, immunocompetent patient who developed a community acquired severe S. maltophilia pneumonia. We report the case of a 24-...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410163

Prevalence and Outcomes of Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease at a Tertiary Level Hospital in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa: A Retrospective Review

Salah Tanish, Kennedy Nyamande and K de Vasconcellos

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 10, 2021

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most serious complications among patients with scleroderma. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the epidemiology of scleroderma associated ILD in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, we aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with scleroderma -ILD. A retrospective electronic chart review was conducted of patients with systemic sclerosis seen between January 2010 and Decem...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410162

Diagnostic Challenges of Binax Urinary EIA for Detection of Legionella pneumophila

Christian Lee, MSc, Heather N Yerdon, BS and Bolaji Akinbola, MD, MSc

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 30, 2021

A middle-aged African American male with a history of stage 2 chronic kidney disease status post double kidney transplant was admitted after developing symptoms of respiratory infection during the peak of COVID-19. The patient rapidly developed acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Differentials for the patient included COVID-19, opportunistic infection such as mycoplasma, and legionella. During the admission, the patient had numerous infectious disease screening tests run including a COVID-19 te...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410161

Presence of a Hernia Sac Does Not Impact Lung Perfusion in CDH

Akila B Ramaraj, MD, Guy Jensen, MD, MPH, Bre Anna Kinghorn, MD, MS and Rebecca A Stark, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 30, 2021

There are variable long-term pulmonary outcomes of children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Diagnostic modalities evaluating pulmonary function can be limited by patient compliance. Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy is a diagnostic tool to evaluate lung development in younger children. Presence of a hernia sac is known to correlate with less severe disease but little has been reported on any correlation with lung size and function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relatio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410160

Streptococcus Constellatus Empyema Presenting With Undulant Fever Pattern- A Case Report and Literature Review

Bistees George, BS, BA, Nouman Tanveer, DO and Michael Boyars, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 29, 2021

Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG), or milleri group streptococci (MGS), is an uncommon group of bacteria that has been increasingly affecting the adult population. It is an interesting organism in that it is intensely pyogenic when pathogenic-much in the same character as Staphylococcus aureus. SAG includes three species: Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus constellatus. Members of the SAG are usually part of the indigenous oral, gastrointestinal, and genitour...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410159

Hemithorax Opacification & Large Volume Thoracentesis: A Novel Predictor of Re-Expansion Pulmonary Edema

Victor E Prado, MD, Shasha X Chen, DO, Anupam Basu, MD, Connor J Wakefield, BS, Shashvat Sukhal, MD, Sanjay A Patel, MD and Sean B Smith, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 21, 2021

Symptomatic pleural effusions are a common reason for hospital visits. Guidelines recommend draining < 1.5 L with large-volume thoracentesis (LVT) to avoid re-expansion pulmonary edema (REPE). Hemithorax opacification by pleural fluid on chest X-ray (CXR) has not been studied as predictor of REPE. We evaluated the incidence of REPE using hemithorax opacification on CXR. We reviewed LVTs with pre- and post-procedural chest CXR from 2008 to 2019 at a tertiary urban hospital. Image J software was u...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410158

Pulmonary Carcinosarcoma Diagnosed on CryoProbe® Biopsy

Fatima Ali, DO, Steffi Lena, DO and Jay Kirkham DO

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2021

A 57-year-old female with a 43-year pack-a-day smoking history presented to the hospital with cough, right sided pleuritic chest pain, three episodes of hemoptysis each less than a quarter size and unplanned 20 lb. weight loss in the last month. On admission, CT Chest demonstrated an 11 cm right upper lobe (RUL) heterogeneous mass with severe central necrosis and complete obliteration of the right upper lobe bronchus as well as encasement of the RUL pulmonary artery, invasion of the lateral wall...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410157

Burden of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis at a Single Respiratory Centre of Sri Lanka

Chanaka Rathnayake, Sugeesha Wickramasinghe, Harshana Bandara, Thushara Bandara, Thanuja Tissera, Sanjeewa Malinda, Dawpadee Dharmasena, Dilanka Tilakaratne, Saman Kularatne, Amila Rathnapala, Nirasha Jayathilaka, Eshantha Perera, Bandu Gunasena and Sumudu Palihawadana

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 16, 2021

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) is a diffuse parenchymal lung disease due to an inflammation of air spaces and airways secondary to an exposure to organic dust, bioaerosols, microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, protozoa) or certain reactive chemical species. Previous studies done in Sri Lanka recognized that it accounts for about one forth of ILD cases in total. Though the previous studied done in Sri Lanka looked into ILD patients in overall, no single study...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410155

Mycophenolate Adverse Effect Masquerading as Extensive Pneumatosis Intestinalis (PI) after Lung Transplantation

Fahid Alghanim, MD, Janaki Deepak, MBBS, Aldo Iacono, MD and Irina Timofte, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 13, 2021

Pneumatosis Intestinalis (PI) is a rare post lung transplant complication which is characterized by the presence of gas within the wall of the small and large intestine. PI in lung transplant recipients has been previously described and is associated with disease of varying clinical trajectories. Here we describe a case of PI in a lung transplant recipient that was attributed to immunosuppression with Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) as evidenced by the presence of increased crypt epithelial apoptosi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410154

The Mysterious Case of Missing Food from the Fridge: Sleep Eating on a Combination of Melatonin and Eszopiclone

Leilani Hernandez, MPH and Himanshu Agrawal, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 13, 2021

Here we present a case of SRED induced by addition of melatonin to eszopiclone. For this patient, melatonin time release 3 mg was added to eszopiclone 3 mg at night for treatment of insomnia. He reported taking the melatonin for two nights and both mornings he found evidence that he had been up at night eating with no memory of it. He stopped the melatonin after these two nights and his sleep eating immediately resolved. Notably, he continued taking the eszopiclone after melatonin discontinuatio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410153

Has COVID-19 Changed Medical Publications?

Macedo A, MD, PhD and Febra C, MD

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: May 13, 2021

The COVID-19 pandemics took over our every-day lives with overwhelming consequences. Being this particularly manifested at people’s ordinary activities and social fields ranging from world politics to stock markets, arts, education or sport, it is also true with respect to scientific publications in the area of medicine. The number of medical publications in indexed journals has been increasing year after year, reaching, in 2019, the number of 1,268,272 indexed papers in PubMed. In the first h...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410152

Efficacy of Initial Large-Volume Thoracentesis for Malignant Pleural Effusions

Victor E Prado, MD, Shasha X Chen, MD, Shashvat Sukhal, MD, Sean B Smith, MD and Sanjay A Patel, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2021

Large malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are common and can cause respiratory distress. Large-volume thoracentesis (LVT) is the most readily available initial procedure, but its efficacy for large MPE with acute respiratory symptoms is unknown. We reviewed LVT for MPE causing ≥ 50% opacification of the hemithorax who presented with acute respiratory symptoms. LVT was defined as draining ≥ 1.5 liters (L). We catalogued volume removed and percent opacification of the hemithorax after LVT in ord...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410151

Extensive Pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 Pneumonia

Adetiloye Oluwabusayo Adebola, MD, Beketova Tatyana, MD, Williams Tabatha, NP and Agarwal Sanket, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2021

Pneumomediastinum, defined as the presence of air in the mediastinum often occurs due to trauma, mechanical ventilation or surgical procedure. It may also occur spontaneously due to predisposing lung diseases such as asthma and Chronic obstructive pulmonary airway disease (COPD). In this report, we present a case of a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia without any underlying lung conditions or usual risk factors for pneumomediastinum who developed extensive pneumomediastinum with pneumopericardium ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410150

Incidence of Post-Procedural COVID-19 at an Urban Academic Medical Center during High Prevalence Months

Joanne Szewczyk, MD, Dao M Nguyen, MD, MSc, Prem R Warde, MSIE, Bhavarth Shukla, MD, MPH, Tanira Ferreira, MD, Dipen J Parekh, MD and Hayley B Gershengorn, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2021

In the beginning of the pandemic, after elective procedures resumed in Florida, we tested all patients for COVID-19, nasal pharyngeal swab PCR 72 hrs prior to any procedure. We conducted a retrospective cohort to see the incidence of COVID-19 post-procedural. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adult cases of same day or hospital-based procedures at the University of Miami Hospital and Clinics from April 1-September 23, 2020 who were COVID-19-negative (by SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410149

Etiology of Pleural Effusion among Adults in Three University Hospitals in Beirut: A One-Year Retrospective Cross Sectional Analytical Study

Ali IBRAHIM, Amrou RIDA, Ibrahim MALASS and Loubna Tayara

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2021

Pleural effusion, the pathological accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, is very common. It has a wide differential diagnosis, and a delayed etiological diagnosis can be associated with markedly higher morbidity and mortality. It is divided into two main types: Transudative and Exudative, depending on the mechanism of fluid accumulation. The most common causes of pleural effusion are: Congestive heart failure, infections, malignancy, liver and kidney failure. Thoracentesis may be indicated...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410148

Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome Following Resection of an Intrathoracic Extrapulmonary Thymoma

Joseph Kojo Kittah and Anne Marie Matelski

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2020

We report the case of a 76-year-old female with no significant past medical history who developed Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) following thoracotomy with thymoma resection. Patient underwent right thoracotomy with resection of a 12 cm right lower lobe mass. The mass was “peeled gently from the pericardium and the aorta”, and compressed the right upper, middle, and lower lobes. No lung tissue was resected. Pathology indicated a type B1 thymoma. She was discharged on post-op day #4 wit...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410147

The Role of Intermediate Respiratory Care Units in Preventing ICU Collapse during the COVID Pandemic

Sarah Heili Frades, MD, María del Pilar Carballosa de Miguel, MD, Alba Naya Prieto, MD, Itziar Fernández Ormaechea, MD, Farah Ezzine de Blas, MD, Pablo Lopez Yeste, MD, Francisco Jos Laso Del Hierro, MD, Ainhoa Izquierdo Perez, MD, Marwan Mohamed Choukri, MD, Herminia Ortiz Mayoral, MD, Abdulkader El Hachem Debek, MD, Andres Gimenez Velando, MD, Marcel Jose Rodriguez Guzman, MD, Elena Cabezas Pastor, Pablo Minguez, PhD, Ignacio Mahillo Fernández, PhD, Antonio Herrero González, Lorena de la F

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 30, 2020

There is limited information describing features and outcomes of patients requiring Intermediate Respiratory Care Unit (IRCU) hospitalization for COVID19 disease and as of yet, no mechanical or medical treatments have clearly demonstrated efficacy in IRCU. Demographics and clinical variables on admission, as well as medical and mechanical therapeutic interventions, were extracted from Electronic Clinical Records in 274 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients attending a third level hospital IRCU. Using mul...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410146

Anti-PL-12 Associated Antisynthetase Syndrome-A Less Recognized Clinical Entity

Melcy Cleetus, Dantis Emmanuel, Rajesh Venkitakrishnan, Jolsana Augustine and Divya Ramachandran

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 06, 2020

Interstitial lung diseases, (ILD) or diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD) are umbrella terms used collectively to denote aetiologically heterogeneous group of disorders sharing clinical, radiographic and physiologic similarities. The treatment choices and prognosis vary substantially among the different causes of ILD and hence determining the correct etiology is of paramount importance. Connective tissue diseases are important causes of DPLDs and ILD is an important cause of morbidity and mo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410145

The Potential Role of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Managing COVID-19 Associated Lung Complications Review of Literature

Dunia Alhareth, MD and Sanaa Badour, MD, MSc

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 09, 2020

The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 21, 2020. As of June 16, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported near eight million cases and half a million deaths worldwide. The majority of cases have spontaneously resolved. However, some have developed various fatal complications including organ failure, septic shock, pulmonary edema, severe pneumonia, a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410144

Validity and Reliability of Greek Version of Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Comparison of FOSQ with Questionnaires Measuring Sleepiness, Anxiety and Health Status

Maria Saroglou, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Theodora Drakou, Michalis Agrafiotis, Efi Vlachogianni and Stavros Tryfon

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 08, 2020

We developed the Greek version of the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (G-FOSQ) and investigated its reliability and validity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) patients. This is a prospective study, included all 311 consecutive adults, who visited sleep laboratory of a tertiary hospital for evaluation of suspected OSAS in a year period. Participants underwent standard polysomnography study and completed a battery of questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410143

A Simplified Approach to Covid-19 Disease in Adult Patients for General Practitioners

Ehsan Yahia Sabry

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 08, 2020

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents a challenge to all doctors worldwide for detection of disease, differentiating it from those with similar presenting symptoms. The initial evaluation of the patient with suspected Covid-19 disease is usually performed by general practitioners; who, unfortunately; as their knowledge about the on growing changing faces of this pandemic disease presenting sym...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410142

Rare Endobronchial Polyps due to SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Raghavendra Sanivarapu, MD, James Kang, MD, Javed Iqbal, MD and Fatima Anjum, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 24, 2020

Since its discovery in December 2019, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to more than 70 countries around the world. The United States alone has seen more than 1.5 million cases, with more than 100,000 deaths to date. The most common presenting symptoms are fever, cough and shortness of breath with median incubation periods of 5 days. Severe symptoms can develop as a result of the aggressive inflammatory response. The role of bronchoscopy has been limited in severe cases and resu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410141

Recurrent Spontaneous Pneumothorax Secondary to Marijuana- Induced Extensive Bullous Emphysema

Samar Aboulenain, MD, Nakeya Dewaswala, MD, Huzefa Bhopalwala MD and Shaun Isaac, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 24, 2020

Marijuana is the world’s most commonly used illicit drug. Its use is estimated to be around 2% to 5% of the worldwide population and the most commonly used route of use is inhalation. Although not completely elucidated, marijuana has been linked with lung damage and bullous formation. We report a case of a young man with a significant history of marijuana smoking who presented with a recurrent large spontaneous pneumothorax refractory to non-surgical management....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410140

COVID-19 and Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: A Case Series

Alex Diaz, DO, Dolly Patel, DO, Najia Sayedy, MD, Javed Iqbal, MD and Fatima Anjum, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 05, 2020

COVID-19 is a relatively new and rapidly emerging disease. Given current knowledge of the disease process, it is of the utmost importance to gain further insight into its different clinical manifestations. In this report we describe three cases involving Hispanic males with COVID-19 all of whom developed pneumomediastinum during their hospital course. We want to emphasize the importance of this adverse event despite their non-smoking history and the exclusion of positive pressure ventilation. We...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410139

Protective Bronchoscopy Tent for the Pandemic Proceduralist

Tom Recker, RRT and Thomas J Gross, MD

Article Type: Short Report | First Published: August 13, 2020

During the evolving SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, occupational exposure and infection for first responders and health care workers remains a major concern across the globe. Regional shortages in personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly high-level particulate filter masks such as N95, has led to creative interventions to reduce airborne viral exposure while caring for infected patients. Procedures that result in patient-generated aerosols such as nebulizer medication treatments, intubation, bronc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410138

Valproic Acid in Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19

Shweta Singh and Krishna K Singh

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 07, 2020

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a serious threat to the global public health. Respiratory failure, followed by cardiovascular complications with wide-spread endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, is rapidly emerging as a key threat in COVID-19. ACE-2 receptors are the cell-entry gate for SARS-CoV-2. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate Valproic Acid (VPA) as a potential drug to treat COVID-19 and look into its mechanism of action....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410137

A 53-Year-Old Woman with a Rapidly Progressive Lung Mass

Richard H Zou, MD and Christopher N Faber, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 17, 2020

A 53-year-old Caucasian nurse with a history of emphysema presented with 6 months of recurrent fever, generalized fatigue, exertional dyspnea, and non-productive cough. She reported a 15 pack-year smoking history but quit 3 months prior to evaluation. She previously worked with patients with chronic tracheostomies in a long-term acute care facility. She denied hemoptysis, sputum production, chest pain, pleurisy, abdominal pain, or unintentional weight loss. She reported no recent travel, inhalat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410136

Effect of Intervention on Metered Dose Inhaler Use Technique and Determinants among Adult Asthmatic Patients Attending in Outpatient Clinic, Ethiopia: Interventional Study

Bezie Kebede Zelalem, Gima Mamo and Dessalegn Feiysa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 18, 2020

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It is an affecting 1-18% of the population in different countries. It can be treated mainly with inhaled medications in several forms, including the pressurized Metered-Dose Inhaler (MDI). MDI use can, unfortunately, be difficult for patients to use and even with repeated demonstration and some patients will still find co-ordination of the whole technique challenging, failing to master it despite repeated de...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410135

Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations of Late Revelation

Adil ZEGMOUT, Abdelhalim BOUCAID, Youness AMCHICH, Yassir BENBABA, Hicham SOUHI, Hanane EL OUAZZANI, Ismail Abderrahmane RHORFI and Ahmed ABID

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 29, 2020

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are scarce and hard to diagnose. We report a case of a very late discovery at an advanced age. Recent vascular imaging techniques (Three-dimensional Computed Tomographic Angiography) have largely contributed to their diagnosis. The patient is treated with arterial embolization which is effective and carries a low complication rate in skilled hands. This case illustrates the clinical circumstances of diagnosis, the diagnostic algorithm, and the differential d...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410134

Effusions Everywhere

Robert Maximos and Lisa N Glass

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 26, 2020

The use of immunotherapy agents is expanding in oncology patients. These medications, known as checkpoint inhibitors, promote patient T-cell based immune responses against malignancy. The currently available classes include PD-1 inhibitors, PDL-1 inhibitors and CTLA4 inhibitors. As the use of the immunotherapy agents is increased, more knowledge of adverse reactions is gained. Immune related adverse events in multiple organ systems may occur. The most common toxicities associated with checkpoint...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410133

Effect of Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Lung Function in Taxi Drivers: A Cross Sectional Study

Loubna Tayara, Fida Charif, Ali Hajj Diab and Ali Toufaily

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 03, 2020

We conducted a cross sectional analytic study that included 120 employees and 200 taxi drivers recruited from the 4 main taxi stations in the Greater Beirut area. Fifty taxi drivers were recruited randomly from each taxi station as well as 30 employees working in stores near every station. We assessed their respiratory symptoms by using a modified version of a standardized questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were performed using an ambulatory validated spirometer (COPD6, Vitalograph)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410132

Rheumatoid Arthritis Associated Interstitial Lung Disease in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A Retrospective 5-Year Review

Hosam Ghammo, Mohammed Mitha, Catherine Connolly and Kennedy Nyamande

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 25, 2020

The demographic distribution, symptom profile and treatment outcomes in Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) has not been well described in South Africa due to a paucity of data. The aim of the study was to determine the demographic profile of the disease, symptom and radiological presentation, as well as treatments used and their outcomes at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH), a specialised public government hospital treating the majority of patients wi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410131

Classification Models of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients

Mohammed Alqawba, Luis R Rodriguez, Norou Diawara, Rebecca T Beuschel, Maryann Kaler, Amisha V Barochia, Stewart J Levine, Steven D Nathan and Geraldine Grant

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 16, 2020

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and fatal interstitial lung disease with no current cure. Progression of IPF is difficult to predict as the clinical course can be highly variable and range from a rapidly deteriorating state to a relatively stable state, or may be characterized by a slow progressive decline. Therefore, the need for an accurate diagnosis and improved tools for monitoring and managing IPF is of paramount importance, all for understanding the mitochondrial structure...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410130

Bacterial Contamination from Intraoperative Endotracheal Suctioning in Songklanagarind Hospital

Kwanruthai Narunart, MD, Wirat Wasinwong, MD, Sirikarn Siripruekpong, MD, Amphan Chantarokorn, BNS and Riam Kosem, BNS

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 17, 2020

This prospective randomized controlled trial in 276 patients of age more than 18-years-old who had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I-III and scheduled for elective surgery and had no risk of aspiration were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups. The patients with general anesthesia with oroendotracheal intubation were included. Endotracheal suctioning was performed by the decision of anesthesiologists or anesthetic nurses with sterile or clean technique regarding the g...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410129

Vaping Associated Lung Illness: A Case Series

Joanna Sesti, MD, Safiyya Quintiliani, MD, Christine Minerowicz, MD, Delyse Garg, MD, Shabiah Martin, MD1, Karim Akl, MD, Claudio Guerrieri, MD, Sabiha Hussain, MD, Christina Migliore, MD, Pratik Patel, MD, Marc Linder, MD, Thiruvengadam Anandarangam, MD and Subroto Paul, MD, MPH

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: January 25, 2020

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, also known as vaping, has gained popularity among young adults. It has been promoted as a safer alternative to conventional cigarette smoking. Recent reports, however, have linked e-cigarette use to lung dysfunction. We report a series of four patients who were recently treated within our hospital system for vaping associated lung illness (VALI). All four were young, healthy individuals with no significant past medical histories. Lung biopsies were perform...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410128

Giraffe Patterns in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Adem Dirican, MD, Pinar Yildiz Gulhan, MD, Duygu Zorlu, MD, Hulya Bayiz, MD, Yagmur Saritas, Medical Student, Tugce Uzar, Medical Student, Sevket Ozkaya, MD and Nurhan Koksal, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 27, 2020

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by severe fibrosis and poor prognosis. We aimed to reveal to different radiological findings of IPF and to describe a different perspective on the complexity of diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF between January 2015 and April 2019 in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, VM Medical park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey. Totally 51 patients were included in this study; 35 (68.6%) wer...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410126

Paediatric Empyema Thoracis: Roles and Outcomes of Surgical Intervention in Advanced Disease

YL Ho, M Fauzi, Sothee K, A Salleh, AY Khamis and Basheer A Kareem

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 03, 2020

Empyema thoracis has become increasingly common in paediatric population. Antibiotics and thoracostomy have been the cornerstones in managing stage 1 empyema, where as management of stage 2-3 empyema remains controversial. Surgical intervention is perceived to be associated with high morbidity and protracted recovery. This paper reviews the roles and outcomes of surgical decortication, and to provide data for comparison with other treatment modalities. Thirty children (median age 5.2 years, rang...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410125

Association between Cigarette Smoking and Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Level

Dongcheol Lee, Hyun Wuk Kang and Yu Il Kim

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: Lee D, Kang HW, Il Kim Y (2019) Association betwee

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is an enzyme mainly produced from the cells of the hepatobiliary tract. And, it has been introduced as a biomarker for oxidative stress mainly by alcohol consumption and current smoking. This study was performed to evaluate the association between smoking status and serum GGT concentration. The effect of cigarette smoking on serum activities of the enzyme, GGT was investigated using the data of the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (5th KN...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410124

Age and Incidence of Pharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy

Victor Omiwole, Sardar Ali and Junaid Ali

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 09, 2019

Candidiasis is a type of fungal infection that often spreads to the skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, and vagina. It is caused by the build-up of yeast called Candida. There are multiple types of Candida that can be infective agents, with C. albicans being the most prevalent. When it spreads to the mouth and throat, it is called thrush or otherwise known as Oropharyngeal Candidiasis. In this retrospective study, the frequency of candidiasis in the throat (pharyngeal), was examined exclusively in 1...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410123

Steroid Induced Psychosis in a Rare Case of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

Bryn Dhir and Rachit Kumar

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 07, 2019

We report a case of an 84-year-old female with altered mental status and known Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia suspected from high dose steroid who presented for medical management of acute psychosis. This case centers on the inpatient management of older patients in the setting of steroid use with consideration given to dosing, supportive care and therapy during management. Iatrogenic psychiatric conditions due to therapeutic medical management of pulmonary diseases can be complic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410122

A Rare Cause of Respiratory Distress in Infants: Double Aortic Arch

Tolga Bacak, Sebnem Ozdogan, Seda Geylani Gulec and Evrim Ozmen

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 21, 2019

Vascular ring, which is a rare cause of respiratory distress in infants, results in respiratory and gastrointestinal findings due to tracheal and/or esophageal compression, but the diagnosis may be delayed because of the nonspecific symptoms. Double aortic arch is the most common vascular ring anomaly. A case of double aortic arch presented with respiratory distress, stridor, and feeding intolerance during infancy is discussed. Vascular ring is seen with an incidence of 1% in all congenital card...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410121

Treatment Adherence and Factors Affecting among Adult Asthmatic Patients at Soddo Christian General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study

Hailu Chare Koyra and Tamirat Chinasho

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 14, 2019

Evidences reveal that bellow half of asthma patients are adherent to their medications. Striving for improved adherence and asthma control is of vital concern in today’s asthma management. In a recent document, the world health organization recognized lack of adherence as a major problem in management of chronic disease and concluded that improving adherence would have more beneficial impact on health outcome than improving specific treatment. But, study findings addressing its magnitude and a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410120

Acute Liver Injury: Due to a Rare Case Accompanied by Cardiac and Pulmonary Complications

Fatih Zengin, Vafa Suleymanova, Mehmet Rasih Sonsoz and Mustafa Erelel

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 30, 2019

One of the most important causes of acute hepatitis is vascular pathologies of the liver. There are several well-recognized forms of vascular injury to the liver, including Budd-Chiari syndrome, ischemic hepatitis, hepatic infarction and passive congestion due to hemodynamic instability. We present a case of acute liver injury accompanied by hemodynamic and respiratory pathologies. A 53-year-old lady was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting for...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410119

Effectiveness and Safety of Tunneled Pleural Catheter Placement in Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusions

Francisco Leon-Roman, Beatriz Pintado-Cort, Diana Chiluiza-Reyes, Edwin Mercedes- Noboa, Carmen Rodriguez-Calle, Diurbis Velasco-Alvarez, Andrea Perez-Figuera, Esther Barbero-Herranz, Paola Arrieta-Narvaez, Carlos Almonacid-Sanchez, Andres Quezada-Loaiza, Beatriz Prieto-Gonzalez and Deisy Barrios-Barreto

Article Type: Review article | First Published: September 26, 2019

Malignant pleural effusion (PE) is a frequent complication that worsens the quality of life and prognosis of patients with end-stage oncologic disease. Preceded only by parapneumonic PE, malignancy is one of the most common causes of pleural exudates and lung cancer accounts for as much as 37% of these cases. We used the modified scale of the Medical Research Council (mMRC) to assess for degree of dyspnea, the scale of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) to measure the functional capac...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410118

Posterior Vitreous Detachment Prevalence in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Hatice Daldal, Musa Yigit and Yavuz Bardak

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 31, 2019

142 eyes of 71 consecutive patients with COPD who are applied to ophthalmology clinic were included in the retrospective study from January 2012 to August 2013. Trauma, ophthalmologic surgery history, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, chorioretinitis, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment and tears in the anamnesis and ophthalmologic examination were excluded from study. The visual acuity of the patients was assessed using Snellen chart. Intraocular pressure was measured with applanation tonomet...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410117

Management of Obstructive Bronchial Fibrolipoma Bronchoscopically

Sinem Nedime Sokucu, Cengiz Ozdemir, Ozlem Kahya, Seda Tural Onur and Levent Dalar

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 29, 2019

Lipomas are unsual tumors endobroncially and they make 0.1 - 0.5% of lung tumors. Diagnosis is often misleading due to these non-specific symptoms and the appearance of the mass on imaging studies. Biopsy is the key feature for the diagnosis. The treatment for endobronchial lipoma is surgical or endoscopic resection. Early treatment may prevent distal lung damage. A patient with a mass lesion as a coincidental finding after chest trauma diagnosed as endobronchial fibrolipomatosis. Endobronchial ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410116

Diagnostic Yield of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy for the Evaluation of Chronic Cough in Patients with Normal Chest X-Ray

Zainab Syed, Ro- Jay Reid and Roberto Solis

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 25, 2019

Approximately 30 million annual clinic visits are attributed to cough in the United States. Moreover, evaluation and management of persistent cough in pulmonary clinics account for roughly 40% of patient volume. The most common etiologies are: Upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), asthma, non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) - all of which are treatable. However, despite avoidance of triggers and medical therapy, there remains an elusive diagnosi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410115

A Case of Pregnancy in a Patient with Idiopathic Fibrosing Mediastinitis

Jeffrey Miller and Jean Elwing

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 11, 2019

We report a case of a 36-years-old female with known Fibrosing Mediastinitis (FM) suspected from prior Histoplamosis infection who presented for medical induction of first pregnancy. The case centers on the outpatient and peripartum management of pregnant patients in the setting of FM with consideration given to method of delivery and anesthetic options during delivery....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410114

Unilateral Pleural Effusion, Secondary to Germinal Teratoma: A Case Report

Ramirez-Galindo Maria del Rayo, Isis Areli Lopez-Garcia, Marlenne Perales-Garcia and Fernando Vazquez-Alaniz

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2019

Pleural Effusion is a common medical problem with more than 50 recognized causes including disease local to the pleura or underlying lung, systemic conditions, organ dysfunction, and drugs. The majority of malignant PEf is caused by metastatic disease: Most commonly lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. However, few germinal teratomas have been reported as the main cause of unilateral PEf....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410113

From Triumph to Tribulation: A Granulomatous Polyangiitis Case Report

Albert Iruthiaraj Lourdesamy Anthony, Zainal Abidin Ibrahim and Li-Cher Loh

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 14, 2019

We report the case of a 62-years-old woman with symptoms of cough and significant loss of weight with radiological findings to support a left lower lobe lung mass. The patient was initially suspected to have metastatic lung malignancy until biopsy results suggested necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. A diagnosis of limited GPA was made when the cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, (c-ANCA) and antiproteinase-3 antibodies (anti-PR3) was elevated. The patient was treated with com...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410112

Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Mimicking Lung Cancer: A Case Report

S Guerrini, M D'Ascanio and A Ricci

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 14, 2019

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunologically mediated lung disease caused by principally spores of Aspergillus fumigatus especially in asthmatic patients. Various set of diagnostic criteria has been advocated in different studies without a prevailing definition Treatment is based mainly on oral corticosteroids with the possible addition of antifungal agents....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410111

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) Registry in Alberta, Canada: Initial Results

Ronly Har-Even Cohn and Israel Amirav

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 13, 2019

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous and multi-organ disorder, caused by impaired structure and/or function of motile cilia. Impaired ciliary function results in recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections (due to ineffective clearance of mucous secretions and inhaled particles). Clinical manifestations of PCD are diverse and include recurrent and chronic infections in the lung, ear, nasal and sinus and involvement of other systems such as cardiovascul...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410110

Association of Pulmonary Function with Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) among the Students of Management & Science University, Malaysia

Aniruddha Bhattacharjee, Aye Aye Myat, Shakunthala VT and Rajeev Sharma

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 10, 2019

Obesity is rapidly escalating in Malaysia in all age groups. Prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in adults and in children in both developed and developing countries. Obesity is a risk factor for many conditions including respiratory disorders regardless of BMI. However, studies investigating pulmonary functions in obese adolescents in Malaysia are few. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate pulmonary function variables in the adolescent obese students of management and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410109

Seric Markers and Cell Profile in Blood and Sputum in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations (AECOPD)

Juliana Gjerazi, Eritjan Tashi, Irma Tashi and Jul Bushati

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 01, 2019

AECOPD have major implications on the quality of life, morbidity and mortality of COPD patients. In addition to their assessment on clinical presentation, which can be variable and difficult to predict, a large number of biomarkers are used. Inflammation increases during exacerbations of COPD and there are changes in systemic markers like CRP, IL 6 and PARC/CC18, as well as the cell structure in sputum and blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of pla...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410108

Simulation Training on Mechanical Ventilation Using a High-Fidelity Ventilator Mannequin for Residents and Respiratory Therapists

Yasmin Leigh, Christian de Elia, Murali Krishna, La Tanya Taylor, Rachel Morales, Beth Kellogg and Frank Salvatore

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 01, 2019

Simulation-based education is thought to be more effective than traditional teaching and recent studies have described its benefits on physician performance in several clinical areas. Despite this, not many studies have researched the benefits of simulation training in teaching mechanical ventilation. With that said, this study was composed to assess the approach of mannequin simulation- based training as a method to provide an interactive learning experience for residents and respiratory therap...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410107

An Investigation of Various Inspiratory Times and Inflation Pressures during Airway Pressure Release Ventilation

Tim W Gilmore, Robert E Walter, Patrick C Hardigan, Clifton F Frilot II and Guy M Nehrenz

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: May 16, 2019

There are few recommendations how best to apply certain modes of mechanical ventilation, and the application of Airway Pressure Release Ventilation (APRV) requires strategic implementation of specific inspiratory (I-time) and expiratory times (E-time) and particular mean airway pressures (MAWP), neither of which is standardized. We sought to identify whether an ideal I-time or MAWP could be identified to favor more positive clinical outcomes. A retrospective analysis of archived electronic healt...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410106

The Bronchoscopy Role for Malignant Central Airway Obstruction

Francisco Leon-Roman, Alfonso Lopez-Frias Lopez-Jurado, Beatriz Pintado-Cort, Joaquin Asensio-Sanchez, Edwin Mercedes-Noboa, Beatriz Prieto-Gonzalez and Deisy Barrios-Barreto

Article Type: Clinical Case Report | First Published: April 26, 2019

We present the case of an active smoking 44-years-old woman (10 pack/years) diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma T4N3M1a (stage IV) in the right upper lobe (RUL) in January 2017. She received four cycles of cisplatin-pemetrexed and radiosurgery of brain metastasis. The patient had a body mass index (BMI) of 28, with no other significant comorbidities. In July 2017, tumoral growth with secondary airway stenosis and invasion of the superior vena cava was evidenced. Given the progression of the disea...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410105

Determination of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), KRAS and BRAF Mutation in Non Small Cell Lung Cancers Using Biofilm Chip Based Microarray Technology

Ozlem Ceren Gunizi, Gulay Ozbilim and Mualla Ozcan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 26, 2019

Of the 96 patients included in the study, 58 were adenocarcinomas, 30 were squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and 8 were large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC). While EGFR mutation was detected in 14 (24.1%) of the adenocarcinoma patients, KRAS mutation was detected in 12 (20.6%) patients. BRAF mutation was observed in 1 patient with adenocarcinoma (1.7%). KRAS mutation was observed in only 1 of the SCCs (3.3%). KRAS mutation was observed in 1 of the LCNECs (12.5%). EGFR mutation in adenocarc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410104

Forced Mid-Expiratory Flow Can Predict Ventilatory Limitation and Exercise Capacity

Mandeep Hundal, Christian Ghattas, Lori Lyn Price, Peter Lacamera and John Unterborn

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: April 03, 2019

Exercise limitation associated with most lung diseases is multifactorial and is due to complex interactions between impaired ventilatory, cardiovascular, and peripheral muscle responses. Cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) are often required to ascertain the primary cause of exercise limitation particularly in patients with multiple co-morbidities. CPETs are generally offered only at tertiary care medical centers. To evaluate if forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410103

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Chronic Bronchitis among Aboriginal Children and Adolescents in Canada - Results from 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey

Punam Pahwa, Khalid Amin, Chandima Karunanayake, Sylvia Abonyi and James Dosman

Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 25, 2019

There is limited knowledge about determinants of chronic bronchitis (CB) among Aboriginal children and adolescents in Canada. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of chronic bronchitis in Aboriginal children (6-11 yrs.) and adolescents (12-19 yrs.). Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS)-2012 data were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis with appropriate weight variable to estimate regression coefficient and the balanced repeated replicatio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410102

Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia: An Epidemiological and Clinical Review

Joanna V Santeliz

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 11, 2019

Pulmonary diseases associated with parasitic infections of the lung are unusual. However, the rise in immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV/AIDS, use of antineoplastic agents and post-transplant medications among others associated with the phenomenon of globalization which entails frequent traveling and migration, has raised their prevalence both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a neglected tropical disease of predominantly filaria...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410101

Is A Body Shape Index (ABSI) Predictive of Lung Functions?

Mohsen Soltanifar, Chandima Karunanayake, Dinesh Khadka, Raina Henderson, Niels Konehnck, Sylvia Abonyi, James A Dosman, Punam Pahwa, Mark Fenton and the First Nations Lung Health Project and Saskatchewan Rural Health Research Teams

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 19, 2019

The available spirometric lung function equations in Canadian context have been limited to age and height as predictors and Caucasian ethnicity. The plausible equations with other individual predictors and First Nations populations are missing in the current literature. To set an initial investigation in terms of study sample size and simple reference spirometric equations on the association of the set of conventional predictors in companion with two new predictors BMI and ABSI with spirometric ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410100

Emergency Removal of Sludged Blood from Main Bronchus with Cryotherapy through Bronchoscope in Rescuing an Acute Respiratory Failure Caused by Massive Blood Clot Obstruction

Enqing Fu and Yan Wang

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2018

Massive hemoptysis (over 200 ml at one go or over 500 ml in twenty-four hours) is considered as a serious case. If the blood cannot be expectorated out from bronchus, sludged blood will form and obstruct the bronchus in a matter of a few minutes. Then an acute respiratory failure would be the immediate result, which might lead to a critical state or death of the patient. The most effective method to rescue patient is to suction off the sludged blood with a bronchoscope. But bronchoscopy normally...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410099

Heart-Lung Acting Together

Robert S Fitzgerald

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 12, 2018

Most frequently medical education treats the pulmonary system and the cardiovascular system separately. And this is, indeed, quite understandable because each system's pathologies and their treatments differ in so many ways. However, from another perspective, the physiologist's, both systems are the evolutionary product for capturing oxygen from the external environment and delivering it to the mitochondria in the body's cells for the generation of the energy needed for life's operations. Bound ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410098

A Comparison between Two Pathophysiologically Different yet Microbiologically Similar Lung Diseases: Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Daniel E Fenker, Cameron T McDaniel, Warunya Panmanee, Ralph J Panos, Eric J Sorscher, Carleen Sabusap, John P Clancy and Daniel J Hassett

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 29, 2018

Cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic pulmonary diseases that affect ~70,000 and 251 million individuals worldwide, respectively. Although these two diseases have distinctly different pathophysiologies, both cause chronic respiratory insufficiency that erodes quality of life and causes significant morbidity and eventually death. In both CF and COPD, the respiratory microbiome plays a major contributing role in disease progression and morbidity. Pulmona...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410097

Correlation between Pentraxin-3 and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Jie-Ru Li, Xiu-Hua Gao, Ju-Qiang Han, Wen-Yan Luo and En-Sheng Ji

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 23, 2018

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of independent dangerous factors for cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Recent studies demonstrated that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) are early signs for development of heart failure. The objective of our study was to estimate the relation between OSA severity and LVDD and PTX-3. Sixty-six OSA patients and 25 healthy people who underwent polysomnography to diagnose OSA were enrolled. Ninety-one participant...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410096

The Importance of Posture and Gravity in the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Murat Kayabekir

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 19, 2018

The objective of drafting this case report is to delineate the relationship between elephantiasis disease rarely encountered in clinical practice and sleep disordered breathing, to try to understand how this specific condition influences the quality of sleep, to review the mechanisms for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome which is the most common sleep disordered breathing seen and to underline its importance once again. Lymphedema is a chronic condition stemming from the insufficient drainage of ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410095

Analysis of Clinical Data and Identification of Variables Associated with the Success of Decannulation in Neurocritic Traqueostomized Patients

Escalier N, Papazian AC, Grimaldi S, Gambetta MX, Spath MB, Lebus J and Salvador Diaz Lobato

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 07, 2018

Tracheostomy is a common procedure in long-term ventilated patients and frequent in those with severe stroke. Decannulation not only involves removal of the tracheostomy cannula, but also evaluation of upper airway protection. The predictors of success provide an objective guide to minimize the time of permanence of the same. Currently there are no studies on predictors of decannulation success in neurocritical patients. To analyze clinical and demographic data in a cohort of tracheostomized neu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410094

A Rare Case of Pulmonary Embolism Due to Endovascular Coil Embolization and Review of Literature

Francisco X Leon, Beatriz Alba, Alvaro Arribas, Raquel Garcia, Isabel Garcia and Carlos A Quezada

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 26, 2018

Coil embolization is an effective and safe treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome. Cases of coil pulmonary migration have been reported after pelvic embolization. However, most cases are usually asymptomatic and do not require specific treatment. We present the first case of pulmonary coil migration after pelvic embolization and concomitant acute pulmonary embolism in a symptomatic patient. The patient was treated with standard anticoagulation and conservative measures without incidences after ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410093

Leukopenia Induced by Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment

Belloumi N, Ben Bdira B, Bachouche I, Kacem M, Chermiti Ben Abdallah F and Fenniche S

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 25, 2018

Poor compliance to anti-tuberculosis treatment is sometimes related to its adverse effects. By reporting any unusual or severe treatment related accident, we try to enlarge our background in order to manage better any similar case. By writing this paper, up further evidence is provided for a better knowledge and management of ATT adverse events. Here we report a case of leukopenia induced by an anti-tuberculosis oral treatment. Our 43-years-old patient was diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis. B...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410092

Identification and Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterial Isolates in Kayseri/Turkey

Murat KARAUZ, A Nedret KOC and Altay ATALAY

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 17, 2018

Early diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) patients are the most effective ways to protect society from this disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of mycobacterial strains by repetitive sequence PCR (rep-PCR) using the DiversiLab System method at Kayseri in Turkey. A total of fifteen clinically sample isolated Mycobacterial strains were identified as M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) by the rep-PCR method (bi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410091

Pulmonary Functions in Volleyball and Basketball Players of Kolkata, India

Sohini Basu, Rishna Dalui, Anindita Singha Roy and Amit Bandyopadhyay

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 13, 2018

Assessment of lung function is an indispensable tool for determination of the health status in case of the athletes. Present study focused on evaluating the lung function parameters for the state-level male basketball players and male volleyball players of West Bengal, India apart from comparing the data with their age-matched healthy, sedentary male counterparts. Fitness of an individual may be adjudged by employing a battery of physiological test manoeuvres, and lung function test is one such ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410090

Well-Controlled Narcolepsy Patient Sleepy Again

Dmitriy Kogan and Kavita Ratarasarn

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 12, 2018

Narcolepsy is associated with high prevalence of comorbid sleep disorders. Overlap in symptoms of different disorders may confound management. Sleep Medicine practitioners need to be vigilant for presence or new development of comorbid conditions to provide effective and comprehensive care. We present a patient with Narcolepsy Type 2 who developed worsening hypersomnolence due to new onset Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement of hypersomnolence without requirin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410089

Lipid Profile Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Association with Disease Severity

Sneh Arora, Rashi Jain, Anant Mohan, Pawan Tiwari and Randeep Guleria

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018

Dyslipidemia is considered as the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may contribute to the higher mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the prevalence and consequences of dyslipidemia in COPD is still unclear. We studied comprehensive lipid profile panel including serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in COPD patients to study the r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410088

Occupational Rhinitis and Asthma in the Textile Sector of the Central Region of Tunisia

Maoua M, Gaddour A, Rouis H, Kacem I, Guedri S, Aissa S, Ghammem M, Boughattas W, Brahem A, Kalboussi H, El Maalel O, Chatti S and Mrizak N

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 12, 2018

The association between occupational asthma (OA) and occupational allergic rhinitis (OAR) is often described in the literature supporting the concept of "United airways disease" based on a parallel significant reaction of the nose and lungs after challenges with occupational agents and involving several occupational, host-related and environmental factors and thus exacerbating the medical and socio-economic impact of the OR. In Tunisia, only limited studies were carried out to explore associatio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410087

Supine Sleep during Polysomnography and the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Dandan A, Dettenmeier P, Chang J and Espiritu JRD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 23, 2018

Since the supine position worsens obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by promoting upper airway collapse, patients may avoid supine sleep in order to mitigate its effects. However, the avoidance of supine sleep during polysomnography (PSG) may result in a missed diagnosis of OSA. This study aims to examine the association between the presence/absence of supine sleep and the diagnosis of OSA during PSG....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410086

An Incidental Case of Pulmonary Amyloidosis

Fatih Uzer and Hulya Dirol

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 23, 2018

Amyloidosis is characterized by extra-cellular deposition of an insoluble fibrillary protein, amyloid in organs and tissues. It is classified as either primary or secondary based on the presence of concomitant diseases, ranging from chronic infection or inflammation to malignancy and as limited or systemic based on the extent of organ invasion. The clinical and radiological manifestations of amyloidosis are varrious and often nonspecific, making amyloidosis a diagnostic challenge....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410085

The Effect of Atorvastatin on Right Ventricular Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Hoorak Poorzand, Fariba Rezaeetalab, Masoud Sadeghipour Marvy, Aida Javanbakht, Monavar Afzalaghaei and Majid Jalalyazdi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 17, 2018

Inflammation has an important role in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and statins are believed to have anti-inflammatory effects beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction. This study aimed to assess the effect of statin on the function of the right ventricle and inflammatory markers in COPD patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410084

Visual HRCT Score to Determine Severity and Prognosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Ricardo Peris Sanchez, Estrella Fernandez-Fabrellas, Gustavo Juan Samper, Maria Luisa Domingo Montanana and Lidia Navarro Vilar

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 16, 2018

High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an essential technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but it is not routinely used to evaluate severity. A semi-quantitative HRCT score was developed to determine its relation with physiologic variables, to assess severity and fibrosis progression, and to establish prognostic factors....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410083

A Case of Primary Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma

Chiyo Yano, Masaki Tominaga, Keisuke Miwa, Yoshiko Naito, Yuki Sakazaki, Takuma Koga, Masaki Okamoto, Tomotaka Kawayama, Tomoaki Hoshino, Reiji Muto, Koichi Ohshima and Masanori Hisaoka

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 26, 2018

A 28-year-old Japanese woman complained of right chest pain, fever, and cough. Chest radiography revealed consolidation in her right lower lobe with a pleural effusion. She was diagnosed with pneumonia and treated with antibiotics, but her condition did not improve. She was referred to our hospital for evaluation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a large saddle filling defect extending into the right pulmonary artery as well as the proximal lower lobe pulmonary artery bran...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410082

An Asymptomatic Haemorrhagic Pleural Effusion Mimicking Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Young Woman with Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome: A Case Report

Vipula R Bataduwaarachchi, Jayani Jayawardhana, Champa Weerasinghe, Aflah Sadikeen, Roshana Constantine and Kirthi Gunasekara

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 14, 2018

A young woman presented with an asymptomatic recurrent right sided pleural effusion. Pleural fluid full report showed neutrophilic and haemorrhagic effusion. Adenosine deaminase level in the pleural fluid was elevated and the Mantoux test was positive. Microbiological diagnosis was negative, and she was started on anti-tuberculous therapy on clinical grounds for extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnostic Thoracoscopy revealed characteristic appearance suggestive of thoracic endometriosis which was ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410081

Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Private Independent Laboratories in Kampala- Uganda Implications for TB Control in the City

D Lukoye, D Okello, S Namatovu, A SSebagereka, K Mutesasira, Mabumba Eldad, M Nandala and P Suarez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2018

Tuberculosis remains the greatest killer globally. Uganda, one of the highest TB burden countries has a rapidly growing private medical sector. Although a large proportion of patients first seek care from the private sector, there is very little if any literature about participation of private independent laboratories in diagnosis of TB. We aimed at assessing this and the extent to which diagnosed TB patients are linked to care....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410080

Respiratory Disorders in Aluminum Extrusion Workers

Ammar Awad Elshiekh Elmajzoup, Abdel Rouf Ahmed Abbas Elbadawi and Faiz Abel Wahab Mohammed

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 14, 2018

The present study determined the prevalence of work-induced respiratory symptoms among Sudanese extrusion workers in an aluminum (Al) extrusion plant where the health effects of exposure duration, S-Al, and U-Al concentrations were evaluated. A total of 109 workers were enrolled in our study. Ambient Al fumes was estimated using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Varian, Spectr AA-250)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410079

Fibrosing Mediastinitis: A Review of Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Management

Abraham O Kuranga, Andrea M Eubank and Mark R Bowling

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 14, 2018

Fibrosing Mediastinitis (FM) is a rare but increasingly recognized complication that has been mainly associated with chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis, granulomatous diseases, infections and autoimmune processes. Symptoms vary depending on compromised structures, mainly structures within the mediastinum. This review will focus on the etiology, clinical presentation and management of fibrosing mediastinitis based on multiple case series published to date....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410078

Different Perspective in Managing Airway Obstruction Secondary to Giant Tracheal Pyogenic Granuloma

YT Liew, KN Lorna Ting, AB Zulkiflee and N Prepageran

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 26, 2018

Pyogenic granuloma, or lobular capillary haemangioma is common in skin and mucosal surface such as oral cavity. It hardly occurs in tracheal mucosal, and even more rare to cause life threatening tracheal obstruction. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment with multidisciplinary support....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410077

A Review of the Benefits, Challenges and the Future for Interfaces for Long Term Non-Invasive Ventilation in Children

Nicki Barker, Matt Willox and Heather Elphick

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 23, 2018

Long Term Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) is increasingly common and is benefitting children with a wider range of conditions. It improves quality of life and life expectancy and reduces hospital admissions and length of stay. Children are at risk however of adverse effects caused by NIV interfaces such as skin injury, facial flattening and eye problems....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410076

Case Report of Lipoid Pneumonia: An Unusual Etiology of a Lung Cavity

Sravanthi Nandavaram and Dragos Manta

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 17, 2018

Lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon non-infectious condition that results from the accumulation of lipids of animal, vegetable or mineral origin, in the lungs. Most often it is a result of aspiration from altered swallowing or cough mechanism. Children with palatal abnormalities debilitated older adults or adults with neurological or gastrointestinal disorders are commonly affected....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410075

Infections in Invasive Pleural Procedures: A Single Centre Experience

Anna Duffy and Avinash Aujayeb

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 24, 2017

We are an established pleural centre offering medical thoracoscopy and indwelling pleural catheters. Our infection rates with prophylactic antibiotics were lower than the national average and given the era of antibiotic stewardship and lack of evidence to support the administration, we stopped giving them....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410074

Antiplatelet Exposure and Bleeding Events in Patients Undergoing EBUS-TBNA

Kevin Swiatek, Rachel Guthrie, John O Elliott and Kim Jordan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 11, 2017

Periprocedural management of aspirin and clopidogrel, antiplatelet agents, for Endobronchial Ultrasound with Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) remains unclear. Discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy has been questioned given the low risk of hemorrhagic complications reported with this procedure....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410073

Pulmonary Complications of Sickle Cell Disease in the Pregnant Patient

Kevin G Lazo, Joanna B Eldredge, Anne Press and Bushra A Mina

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 14, 2017

Respiratory complaints are common symptoms in pregnancy, and it is important to delineate whether the causative factor is cardiac, pulmonary, or physiologic in origin. The pathophysiology of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) can further complicate the differential diagnosis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410072

Impact of Adopting 2014 Guidance for Palivizumab Prophylaxis for Children Previously Considered at High Risk for Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease

Rachel D Quick, Kathryn Merkel, Don K Murphey, Marisol Fernandez and Sarmistha B Hauger

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 22, 2017

This is a report of pediatric patients hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) during the season prior to, and 2 seasons following the 2014 palivizumab prophylaxis guidance release. The primary aim was to determine the effect of the 2014 guidance on children no longer considered eligible for prophylaxis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410071

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: What Do We Know about Pulmonary Injury? A Compilation of Evidence

Francisco X Leon-Roman Ismael Carrillo-Martin, Gema Fernandez-Plana and Salvador Diaz-Lobato

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 12, 2017

Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a lethal vector-borne viral infection produced by a Nairo virus, a genus of the Bunyan viridae family. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three segments (large, medium, and small), two envelope proteins (Gn and Gc) and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410070

The Hepatic Hydrothorax

Aujayeb A and Miller J

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 12, 2017

A 74-year-old with burnt out autoimmune hepatitis, portal hypertension with thrombocytopenia, oesophageal varices and previous hepatic encephalopathy has presented with a recurrence of a left sided pleural effusion. She was very breathless at rest and therapeutic aspiration of 1.1 litres of straw coloured fluid has good symptomatic benefit....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410069

Pleural Lipoma

Pankaj Mathur, Vinod Namana, Sushilkumar S Gupta, Barbara Berger and Elliott Bondi

Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: April 13, 2017

A 31-year-old male presented with complaints of a mild non-productive cough for 2 months. He had no history of smoking, fever, chills, rigors, weight loss, dyspnea, chest pain and hemoptysis. There was no history of exposure to occupational hazards or medications use. He was hemodynamically stable and had no significant findings on physical examination....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410068

A Rare Case of Simultaneously Occurring Pulmonary Fungal Infections

William Li, Bhaskara Madhira and Michael Kosters

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 09, 2017

Endemic infections produce a spectrum of illness ranging from being subclinical to severe progressive disseminated diseases with Immuno compromised individuals being increased risk. In those with an apparently non-improving infection, a simultaneously occurring second infectious source should be considered....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410067

A Single Center Review of Pleural Fluid Samples

C Walker, J Mackenzie, J Aust, J Port, D Cooper, S Parker, S Bourke, J Miller, M Weatherhead and A Aujayeb

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 20, 2017

All pleural aspirations done between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015 were analyzed for fluid biochemistry, microbe, cytology and final diagnoses (n = 264). Light's criteria were applied wherever possible. The fluid biochemistry, microbiology and cytology results were assimilated from the local electronic results system. The patient diagnosis was taken from clinic letters electronically uploaded to another system called SingleView. Local governance approval was sought and obtained....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410066

Seromucinous Hamartoma Presenting as an Obstructive Endobronchial Mass

Guang-Qian Xiao and Sapna Patel

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 10, 2017

Seromucinous hamartoma is an extremely rare entity that has been described in the sinonasal cavity and nasopharynx. We here present a case of seromucinous hamartoma manifesting as an obstructive endobronchial mass in a 65-year-old male and active smoker, who presented with dyspnea upon prolonged exertion and atelectasis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410065

Effects of Chest Physical Therapy in Patients with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria

Basavaraj Ashwin, Segal Leopoldo, Samuels Jonathan, Feintuch Jeremy, Feintuch Joshua, Alter Kevin, Moffson Daniella, Scott Adrienne, Addrizzo-Harris Doreen, Liu Mengling and Kamelhar David

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 21, 2017

Antibiotic therapy against non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is prolonged and can be associated with toxicity. We sought to evaluate whether chest physical therapy (PT) was associated with clinical improvement in patients with NTM not receiving anti-mycobacterial pharmacotherapy. A retrospective review of 77 subjects that were followed from June 2006 to September 2014 was performed. Baseline time point was defined as the first positive sputum culture for NTM; symptoms, pulmonary function, and r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410064

Inhaler Technology

Gumani D, Newmarch William, Puopolo Angelica and Casserly Brian

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 12, 2016

Inhalers are a commonly used device to deliver medication to individuals with airway disease. With correct use, inhalers are very effective at providing quick and effective symptomatic relief within the lung, avoiding high levels of systemic exposure. These pharmacokinetic characteristics widen the therapeutic index, thus allowing for maximal therapeutic benefit with minimal adverse effects. However, this theoretical advantage is somewhat attenuated by incorrect use of the inhaler device....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410063

New Guidelines, Less Guidance, and the End of an Era: Healthcare -Associated Pneumonia in 2016

Jeena Jacob and Matthew Crotty

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: November 28, 2016

The 2005 guidelines recommended classification of patients based on their risk of infection by resistant bacterial pathogens. The now abandoned HCAP entity included any patient hospitalized in an acute care hospital for two or more days within 90 days of the infection; residing in a nursing home or long-term care facility; exposed to recent intravenous antibiotic-therapy, chemotherapy, or wound care within the past 30 days of the current infection; or on hemodialysis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410062

Relationship between Documented Confirmation of Endotracheal Tube Position and Mortality in the Emergency Department

Michael P Phelan, Jonathan M Glauser, Fredric M Hustey, Motunrayo Mobolaji-Lawal and Stephen W Meldon

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 21, 2016

We analyzed an emergency department (ED) performance improvement (PI) database from an airway registry that was developed to monitor the care of patients undergoing endotracheal intubation in prehospital settings or in the study site ED. PI initiatives included implementation of electronic health record (EHR) documentation templates for ETT placement/confirmation, an online educational module, and performance feedback....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410061

Smoking Habit in Adult Population from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

Valmore Bermudez, Edgar Miquilena, Juan Salazar, Robys Gonzalez, Luis Carlos Olivar, Maria Jose Calvo, Roberto Anez, Jose R Rivas-Rios and Joselyn Rojas

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 06, 2016

A descriptive, cross-sectional research study, framed in the study Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Maracaibo city conformed by 2,212 adults of both genders; based on the medical information the individuals were classified in smokers, non-smokers and former smokers. Quantitative variables were expressed as medians and qualitative variables as absolute and relative frequencies, using χ2 for significance and Z test for difference of proportions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410060

Possible Complication of Marking Hook Wire Entry into the Systemic Circulation during Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery

Hiromasa Arai, Michihiko Tajiri, Kohei Ando, Koji Okudela, Tae Iwasawa and Munetaka Masuda

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 17, 2016

A 63-year-old Japanese male suffering from interstitial pneumonia underwent computed tomography (CT) guided tumor localization using a hook wire and a suture system for a small pulmonary nodule suspected of being lung carcinoma. He underwent subsequent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The cut suture connecting to the metal head of the hook wire in the lung parenchyma was visible at the beginning of the procedure. During the surgery, the suture was not able to be visualized....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410059

Clinical and Radiological Predictor of Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

Tomoo Kishaba, Hiroaki Nagano, Yuichiro Nei, Shin Yamashiro and Harumi Ito

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 03, 2016

Background: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) often have interstitial lung disease (ILD) and progression of ILD is important cause of death. Objectives: This study is conducted to clarify the important clinical, radiological factors of PM/DM ILD patients. Methods: We reviewed medical records, pulmonary function test (PFT), chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2014 retrospectively at Okinawa Chubu Hospital....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410058

Drainage using Chest Tubes Smaller than 20 French is Suitable for Patients with Thoracic Empyema

Ryo Matsunuma, Kazumasa Kase, Nobuhiro Asai, Satoshi Watanabe, Yuko Waseda, Norihiro Kaneko, Masahiro Aoshima, Masaki Fujimura and Kazuo Kasahara

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 01, 2016

Background: Patients with thoracic empyema occasionally require chest tubes for drainage. Several studies have reported that smaller chest tubes are effective and cause fewer complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of patients with empyema who underwent drainage using a smaller-size chest tube. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients at 2 institutions with thoracic empyema. We performed both univariate and multivariate analysis to examine the relation betwe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410057

Cross-Antigenicity of Paragonimus Westermani Egg Yolk Cells with Antibody against Surfactant Protein-D (SP-D) in Pulmonary Necrotizing Granuloma in a Native Japanese Woman

Yuji Ohtsuki, Shinji Fujioka, Masashi Uomoto, Yasuki Hachisuka, Masataka Korenaga, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Ichiro Murakami and Mutsuo Furihata

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 19, 2016

A native Japanese woman in her 60's complained of hemosputum and had an irregular nodular shadow in her chest radiograph. The nodule was surgically removed, and the histopathological findings of the pulmonary lesion showed a necrotizing granuloma with central irregular geographic necrosis associated with parasite eggs. The results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of her serum confirmed Paragonimus westermani (Pw) infection as the cause, owing to her history of ingesting uncooked wild boa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410056

Sarcoidosis Presenting with Severe Thrombocytopenia

Yusuf Kayar, Nuket Bayram Kayar, Nurcan Unver and Iskender Ekinci

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 02, 2016

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown causes. Haematological manifestations in sarcoidosis are uncommon and may include haemolytic anemia, leukopenia, eosinophilia and peripheral lymphopenia, but severe thrombocytopenia is rare. Causes of thrombocytopenia in sarcoidosis were identified a few mechanisms. There are no current guidelines concerning the treatment of thrombocytopenia in sarcoidosis. However, in emergency situations with major thrombocytopenia, it seems reasonabl...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410055

Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Morbidly Obese Patients; Single Centre Experience and a Literature Review

Muhammad Ali Karim, Muhammad Josheel Naveed, Amir Hussein and Abdulmajid Ali

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 01, 2016

Purpose: Bariatric surgery is an established treatment of morbid obesity and effectively controls symptoms of OSAHS. The aim of this study was to evaluate impact of bariatric surgery on OSAHS. Methods: Validated Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and STOP-Bang questionnaires were used to assess the impact of bariatric surgery on OSAHS in morbidly obese patient's undergone bariatric surgery from May 2008 to December 2011. Change in ESS, STOP-Bang score, weight and BMI, co-morbidities and CPAP require...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410054

The Role of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Myocardial Infarction

Ping Zeng and Jian Yang

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 25, 2016

Myocardial infarction is usually recognized as the final stage of coronary artery stenosis or occlusion in response to coronary atherosclerosis and thrombosis involving dysfunction and activation of resident vascular cells as well as the release of t-PA. As a member of family proteins for deacetylation of core histones in eukaryotic cells, Histone deacetylases are implicated in various biological processes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410053

Role of Tissue Doppler, Strain and 3D Echocardiographic Parameters in Pulmonary Hypertension

Marta Afonso Nogueira, Luisa Moura Branco, Ana Agapito, Ana Galrinho, Alexandra Borba, Ruben Ramos, Duarte Cacela and Rui Cruz Ferreira

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 23, 2016

Several echocardiographic parameters study right ventricular (RV) function, which has a prognostic impact on pulmonary hypertension (PH). Our goal was to evaluate the correlation between known prognostic markers and standard, as well as advanced echocardiographic parameters, including Tissue Doppler (TDI), strain imaging and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410052

Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage as a Initial Manifestation of Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in Adults

Carmen Carrasco Cubero and Chamizo Carmona

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 22, 2016

Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis that affects small-sized vessels, characterized by non-thrombocytopenic purpura, along with other clinical manifestations such as arthritis, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding and renal disease. Although the presence of subclinical alterations of pulmonary function has been noticed, the appearance of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rather an unusual symptom. We report a case of HSP with DAH as initial manifestation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410051

Extubation Outcome using Cough Expiratory Flow in Surgical Patients: An Observational Study

Ming-Shian Lu, Tsung-Ming Yang, Cheng-Chih Chang, Chien-Chao Lin, Yao-Kuang Huang and Ying-Huang Tsai

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 16, 2016

We conducted a one-year prospective observational study of adult post-surgical patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit and mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hours. Forced cough peak expiratory flow (FCPEF) was assessed by using a digital peak flow meter placed in-line with the endotracheal before extubation after passing previously a spontaneous breathing trial....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410050

An Unusual Case of Recurrent Post-Obstructive Pneumonia from Spontaneous Granulation Tissue Formation

Georges Al-Helou, Sripooja Satya, Brian Senisi, Robert Maximos and Jalil Ahari

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 11, 2016

A 63-year-old man known to have human immune-deficiency viral (HIV) infection was referred for evaluation following three episodes of left upper lobe pneumonia. He was well controlled on his anti-retroviral medications. Physical exam showed left upper lobe wheezing. No evidence of obstruction could be seen on chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT). Bronchoscopy was done and showed an obstructing lesion that was biopsied then ablated. It was found to be due to a spontaneous formation of granulat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410049

Objective Quantitative CT Evaluation using Different Attenuation Ranges in Patients with Pulmonary Fibrosis: Correlations with Visual Scores

Shin Matsuoka, Tsuneo Yamashiro, Shoichiro Matsushita, Atsuko Fujikawa, Kunihiro Yagihashi and Yasuo Nakajima

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 30, 2016

Objective quantitative evaluation for the extent of fibrosis has been introduced using CT densitometry in patients with interstitial lung diseases, however, there have been no definitive attenuation cut-off values to evaluate the extent of ground-glass opacity and fibrosis separately. This study was conducted to investigate the relationships between quantitative CT measurements using different attenuation ranges and visual CT scores, and to determine whether the different attenuation ranges can ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410048

Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Southwestern Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

Su-Lun Hwang, Yu-Ching Lin, Su-Er Guo, Miao-Ching Chi, Chiang-Ting Chou and Chieh-Mo Lin

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: May 23, 2016

Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) poses a substantial burden of illness in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. However large-scale and community-based epidemiology studies of COPD in Taiwan are limited. This paper conducted a population-based study to investigate the prevalence of COPD in southwestern Taiwan. Methods: Data were conducted using a subset of medical claims data from the National Health Insurance Research database (NHIRD) from 2008 to 2010. The preva...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410047

Outcome Predictors of Severe Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Role of Inflammatory Biomarkers

Hanaa Shafiek, Nashwa Abd-elwahab, Manal Baddour, Akram Degady, Mohamed El-hoffy and Yehia Khalil

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: May 09, 2016

Objective: To assess the value of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in predicting the outcome of acute respiratory failure (ARF) on top of COPD. Patients and methods: Serum samples were collected from 33 COPD patients presented with ARF for IL-6, IL-8, and CRP analysis on admission, after 72 hours and after 14 days. Sputum samples were taken for microbiological evaluation. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410046

Left Hemi-Diaphragmatic Hydatid Cyst - A Rare Presentation and Diagnostic Challenge

Haris Hakeem, Ghulam Fareed, Muhammad Irfan and Saulat Fatmi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 22, 2016

Echinococcosis or hydatid cyst disease is among the oldest diseases known to man. Common presentations include involvement of liver and lungs. Hydatid cyst in diaphragm without hepatic involvement is rare and less than 100 cases are reported in literature. We are describing a case of a young female who presented with cough anddyspnea secondary to large cysts that appeared to involve the right lung and spleen on initial imaging studies. Peroperatively, however, the presumed spleenic cystwas surpr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410045

A Case Report: What is the Real Cause of Death from Acute Chlorine Exposure in an Asthmatic Patient?

Toprak S and Kalkan EA

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 21, 2016

This case report presents an acute and chronic inflammation process at the same time and resulted in death following exposure to chlorine gas. A 65-years-old woman died shortly after cleaning her bathroom with a mixture of various chemicals including bleach and an acid containing product. She was declared dead when she arrives to hospital. She is a non-smoker and has no significant medical history other than asthma. Toxicological analysis showed that paracetamol, methylprednisolone, venlafaxine ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410044

Prevalence of Depression/Anxiety among Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Association with Acute Exacerbations

Christopher M. Blanchette, Melissa Roberts, Hans Petersen and Anne Fuhlbrigge

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 19, 2016

A prevalent cohort of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65+ with COPD (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis, chronic airway obstruction) was constructed from a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Existence of depression/anxiety was identified via healthcare services or prescription drug claims. Baseline characteristics were assessed (1/1/2006-6/31/2006) and patients followed from first depression/anxiety claim until 12/31/2007 for all-cause and respiratory-related healthcare cost and utiliza...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410043

Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio as a Novel Prognostic Marker in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Sezgi Sahin Duyar, Yalcin Solak, Dilek Tekis, Jale Karakaya, Ferit Kuscu and Asuman Erarslan

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 31, 2016

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR) and platalet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are recently defined novel inflammatory markers which are readily available. Their prognostic signifigance has been shown for a number of inflammatory diseases. A recent study evaluated the role of NLR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Thus, we aimed to investigate the relations between NLR, PLR and severity of COPD in male patients who had stable disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410042

Respiratory Allergy as a Contributory Factor in the Development of Vocal Fold Nodules

Anica Jokic, Gordana Mumovic, Maja Buljcik-Cupic and Olga Popov-Dragin

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 17, 2016

Increasing evidence in the literature indicates that respiratory allergies are often a hidden contributory factor in vocal dysfunction. Although the precise allergic pathophysiological process within the vocal folds is not yet determined, modern understanding suggests that allergic changes in the lining of the larynx are an integral part of a systemic respiratory allergic reaction....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410041

Palliation of Refractory Dyspnea in a Patient with End Stage COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Sidra Anwar and Amy Case

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 15, 2016

Mr. M was a 74-year-old male Korean War veteran who presented to the hospital with an acute exacerbation of his Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The patient had a 50 pack-year history of smoking and continued to smoke one-and-a-half packs of cigarettes per day. He was frail with barrel chest and pursed lip breathing, tachypnea, and dyspneic at rest. He was on Albuterol, Ipratropium bromide, and Fluticasone propionate, in addition to home oxygen 3 liters, 24 hours per day. Recent pul...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410040

A Case Report of Endobronchial Ultrasound Needle Fracture

Som N Chalise, Craig Brown and Mark R Bowling

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 22, 2016

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has many potential complications though most occur infrequently. We encountered a case in which the EBUS needle broke during TBNA. The patient was a 65 year old man who underwent EBUS-TBNA for right paratracheal lymphadenopathy. During the procedure, the TBNA needle was found to be broken. We were able to completely recover it without any complications to the patient or to the EBUS scope....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410038

Clinical features of Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Japan

Hirofumi Matsuoka, Sachie Kume, Sayaka Inoue, Nao Oda, Yusuke Matsumoto, Koji Tamai, Nobuhiko Okada, Akiko Otsuka, Yasuko Koma, Kenji Kaihotsu, Harukazu Yoshimatsu, Masanori Iwahashi, Toru Miyajima and Yujiro Suzuki

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 08, 2016

The prevalence and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to increase, not only in Japan but also worldwide. The prevalence of COPD is estimated to be 8.6% in Japan; however, it is reported that many COPD patients remain undiagnosed and untreated. Because COPD is a treatable and preventable disease, early diagnosis and management are important....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410039

Electron Microscopic Analysis of Silicate and Calcium Particles in Cigarette Smoke Tar

R Steven Pappas, Mary M Halstead and Clifford H Watson

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 11, 2016

Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) supplies information that is complementary to those data traditionally obtained using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for analysis of inorganic tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents. The SEM-EDS approach was used to identify select inorganic constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke "tar". The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for microstructural analyses as it provides inform...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410037

Debilitating Disease in a Daring Child with Determined Parents - Impact on Survival

Marie Christy Sharafine Stephen, Eswaran Venkata Raman, Gnanam Aram and Anitha Kumar

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 02, 2016

Pompe disease is a rare and progressive lysosomal storage disorder, of autosomal recessive inheritance. Disease onset and progression range from early infantile onset which is fatal and rapidly progressive to the late onset formthatis slowly progressive, but leads to severe respiratory dysfunction and significant morbidity. Besides, scoliosis and other spine deformities cause substantial workload on the already compromised ventilation. This has a major impact on the quality of life and life-expe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410036

Endobronchial Lipoma in a Never-Smoker

Li Wang, Meenakshi Bansal and Guang-Qian Xiao

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 22, 2015

Endobronchial lipomas, usually found in the obese and in smokers, can cause patients significant distress with chronic cough, chest pain, dyspnea, and increased infection risk. Here we present a case of a 61 year-old obese, never-smoker gentleman who initially presented with chronic productive cough, hemoptysis, chills and night sweats; and was later found to have a right upper lobe lung parenchymal lesion. Biopsy demonstrated a picture consistent with obstructive endobronchial lipoma....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410035

Important Considerations for Providers Regarding the Use of Electronic Cigarettes

Lucinda England, Joseph G. Lisko and R. Steven Pappas

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: November 01, 2015

The use of electronic nicotine delivery systems such as electronic cigarettes has increased considerably in recent years among youth and adults. While the majority of adult electronic cigarette users are current conventional cigarette smokers, an increasing number of adolescents who have not previously smoked are using use electronic cigarettes. Despite these trends, many health care providers report feeling uninformed about the health risks associated with the use of these products. For example...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410034

An Unusual Case of Left-Sided Massive Biliothorax

Maria Jose Soler-Sempere, Nuria Vicente-Ibarra and Laura Heredia-Oliva

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 31, 2015

Biliothorax and pleurobiliary fistula are rare complications secondary to biliary tree diseases. We report the case of a patient with left massive pleural effusion secondary to biliothorax without fistula or ascites. To our knowledge, this is the first case to be described with left side biliothorax....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410033

Distinct Sex-Specific Gene Expression Changes in the Placenta in Association with Childhood Allergy

Astrud R Tuck,Luke E Grzeskowiak, Annette Osei-Kumah, Zarqa Saif, Suzanne M Edwards, Andrew Tai, Susan L Prescott, MeriTulic, Richard Saffery and Vicki L Clifton

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 29, 2015

The prevalence of allergic disease has risen significantly during recent years. A major component of the susceptibility to allergic disease is determined in prenatal life, when the placenta plays a central role in fetal growth and development. In this study, we aimed to identify the patterns of gene expression in the placenta that may program early immune function to increase susceptibility to allergy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410032

Iatrogenic Tracheal Rupture - The Role of a Thoracic Surgeon

Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, Mohamed. A Gulamhussein, Davide Patrini, Rajeev Shukla, Martin Lees, Martin Hayward, Shyamsunder Kolvekar and David Lawrence

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 28, 2015

Iatrogenic tracheal rupture following intubation is a rare, but potentially lethal complication. Usually patients present with the classical symptoms of mediastinal subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory distress. However, the timing or the onset of these symptoms is quite variable and differs between patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410031

Genetics and its Associated Pathways of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Rui Fan, Daniel Penny and Yuxin Fan

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 23, 2015

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease with significantly reduced survival. To date, no tested therapies have demonstrated an ability to reverse or cure the disease. The etiology of PAH is heterogeneous and incompletely understood. Genetics plays an important role in idiopathic and heritable PAH. Many germline gene mutations have been described as promoters of PAH and include mutations in the gene coding BMPR2, which has been identified in at least 50% of familial and 10-...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410030

A Pain in the Neck: A Pott's Disease Case Study

Caitlin Naureckas, Jonathan Movson and E Jane Carter

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 20, 2015

A 21-year-old Guatemalan male presented with six months of headaches and neck pain. MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated multiple inflammatory processes, both within the paraspinal soft tissue as well as within the bone itself, including the appearance of total destruction of C1. Microbiologic confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was made by fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated medically with appropriate anti-tuberculosis therapy coupled with aggressive pain control and carefu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410029

Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function among Danish Construction Workers. A Cross-Sectional Study

Dorte Jessing Agerby Hanskov, Charlotte Brauer, Nina Breinegaard and Lilli Kirkeskov

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: October 2, 2015

This study investigated whether Danish construction workers had an increased prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or affected lung function and if the prevalence differed between types of jobs within construction....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410028

Case Report: Laryngocele- A Rare Cause of OSAS and Respiratory Distress

Shlomo Merchavy and Nadav Bartal

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 16, 2015

Laryngocele is rare condition in which dilation of the laryngeal saccule that extends upward the false vocal cord, is filled with air, and is in communicating with the laryngeal lumen1. It can presents as neck mass or as cystic lesion in the neck. Awareness regarding this rare entity can help the physician in making the correct diagnosis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410027

Outcomes of Moderate-Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Impact of Systemic Steroids and Time to First Dose of Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy

Mazen S. Bader, Kassem Abouchehade, Annie A. Brooks, Yanqing Yi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 10, 2015

In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The primary objective of the study was to describe the clinical outcomes and risk factors for moderate-severe CAP in hospitalized patients with DM. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 156 hospitalized patients with DM and moderate-severe CAP at two tertiary medical centers....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410026

A Study to Determine the Level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on the Cause, Treatment, Prevention and Control of ILI Infections

Philip M Muthoka, Dismas Ongore and Mary Kinoti

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 07, 2015

ILI infections are infections of the human respiratory tract. They are caused by various viruses including corona viruses, adeno-viruses, influenza virus types A, B and C, among others (CDC- US, 2005). When these infections are circulating within the community, patients with ILI infections who have both cough and fever within 48 hours of symptom onset are likely to have influenza (A or B) infections. In Kenya, these infections cause significant morbidity leading to a lot of lost time of producti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410025

Differentially Expressed Proteins in Response to Resuscitation of NonCulturable Cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: Potential New Drug Targets

Ravi Kr. Gupta, Bhavnesh Kumar, Deepa Bisht, Kiran Katoch, Kalyan Mitra and Ranjana Srivastava

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 03, 2015

The major obstacle in TB eradication is attributed to the dormant state of the TB bacilli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is characterized by asymptomatic, non-culturability and antibiotic resistant state of disease. Conventional antibiotic therapy is only applicable to the active form of the disease. These non-replicating cells can resume the growth in immunosuppression state and cause the symptomatic disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410024

Discharge Care Bundle for Patients with Acute Exacerbations of COPD: Benefit more likely to be seen beyond 30 Days

Shorofsky M, Lebel M, Sedeno M, Zhi Li P and Bourbeau J

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 03, 2015

Background: COPD is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. The implementation of COPD 'discharge care bundles' has been proposed as having an impact on readmissions. We developed and implemented a discharge care bundle and the aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on utilization of hospital services in a real life setting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review study from 2007-2013 to evaluate utilization of hospital services over three time per...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410023

Chronic Rhinosinusitis is Associated with Airflow Obstruction in Japanese Never-Smokers without Asthma

Keita Matsumoto, Tomotaka Kawayama, Takashi Kinoshita, Shuwa Minami, Kazuko Matsunaga, Masako Nagafuchi, Tomoaki Hoshino and Toru Rikimaru

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 22, 2015

Background: The relationship between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and airflow obstruction is still unclear. This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether CRS is an independent risk factor for airflow obstruction in never-smokers without asthma. Methods: One hundred fifty-eight subjects aged ≥ 40 yr without asthma were divided into 4 groups: 22 never-smokers with CRS, 27 smokers with CRS, 69 never-smokers without CRS, and 40 smokers without CRS. Subjects with airflow obstr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410022

Management of a Refractory Malignant Pleural Effusion in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report

Maria M Wilczynska and Helen E Davies

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 20, 2015

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common presenting feature of underlying malignancy and frequently results in debilitating symptoms. In chemosensitive malignancies, such as lymphoma, small cell lung or ovarian cancers, chemotherapy is often considered the fist line treatment, however if unsuccessful, pleural intervention to achieve fluid control is required. This may include therapeutic thoracentesis, chest drain insertion, thoracoscopy, chemical pleurodesis, and use of an ambulatory indwel...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410021

Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Rural Canadians

Chandima P Karunanayake, James A Dosman, Louise Hagel, Donna C Rennie, Joshua A Lawson, Punam Pahwa and Saskatchewan Rural Health Study Group

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: June 22, 2015

Background: Pulmonary function tests are used routinely to evaluate patients with respiratory diseases and those who are at risk of developing respiratory diseases. Lung function prediction equations are generally developed for urban populations and whether these differ on rural population is not well studied. There is limited information on prediction equations for rural populations. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to derive prediction equations for commonly used pulmonary funct...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410020

Spontaneous Bacterial Pleuritis from Respiratory Source and High Adenosine Deaminase Level

Alberto Garcia-Zamalloa, Mar Zabalo, Milagros Berruete and Elena Telleria

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 08, 2015

An obese 85 year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of extreme dyspnoea after one week with fever and cough. She had been previously diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic renal failure with creatinine 2 mg/dl, glomerular fitrate 25 ml/min; and cirrhosis with moderate persistent ascites despite diuretic treatment and mild pleural effusion reaching a fit of the right hemithorax....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410019

Unusual Case of Necrotizing Pneumonia

Rajapriya Manickam, Kabir Oladipo Olaniran and Raghu Loganathan

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 06, 2015

Coccidioidomycosis is caused by inhalation of Coccidoides spores which is endemic in south western parts of USA and an uncommon cause of pneumonia in non-endemic areas. We report a young Hispanic man who lives in New York presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410018

Preliminary Study of Expression of KL-6, FGF-10 and MMP-9 in the Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

Jinxin Cao, Jinbai Miao and Hui Li

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 03, 2015

Pathogenesis of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is unclear and has been rarely reported in the literature. Thus, we measured expression of Krebs Vonden Lungen-6 (KL-6), firoblast growth factor-10 (FGF-10), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in PSP samples and evaluated their significance on the development and progress of the disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410017

International Journal of Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine - A New Place to Publish Basic and Clinical Lung Research

Haibin Wang

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: April 02, 2015

It is true that pulmonary medicine is already well served by several specialist journals, but it is also true that it remains difficult to publish the overwhelming amount of research articles in this rapidly growing field. This is particularly the case for the researchers from the developing countries, who contribute only a limited proportion to the total research output published in leading medical journals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410016

Community Acquired Pneumonia

Sonia Akter

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 21, 2015

Community-acquired pneumonia is defined as an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma in a patient who has acquired the infection in the community. CAP remains a common and potentially serious illness. It is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and treatment cost, particularly in elderly patients. CAP causes problems like difficulty in breathing, fever, chest pains, and cough....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410015

Primary Mediastinal Goiter Resected via Cervical Approach

Benito Vargas-Abrego, Pablo Alvarez-Maldonado, Rosa M Alcazar-Lopez, Francisco C Lorente-Ludlow and Carlos Nunez-Perez Redondo

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 24, 2015

Primary mediastinal goiter is a rare entity. In most cases their finding is incidental. Excision is mandatory because of the risk of compression of vital structures within the chest. We report the case of a primary posterior mediastinal goiter that was resected through a cervical approach....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410014

Does the Body Mass Index Affect the Success of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure?

Esmehan Akpinar, Serdar Akpinar and Nazire Ucar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 15, 2015

Objective: Obesity has many negative effects on lung functions. It is not yet clear whether body mass index (BMI) affects the success of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in NIMV strategies, on the basis of BMI, in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure and the effect of BMI on the success of NIMV. Methods: A total of 86 patients who had acute hypercapnic respiratory failure were enrolled consecutively....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410013

The Use of Independent Lung Ventilation for Unilateral Pulmonary Hemorrhage

Ajit A. Sarnaik

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 08, 2015

Independent Lung Ventilation (ILV) has been used in the critical care setting as a rescue therapy for differential lung disease. The purpose of anatomic separation of the lungs is to prevent blood, purulent secretions, or other debris from one lung from contaminating the other lung. Physiologic separation of the lungs allows different ventilator strategies to be applied to each lung. We report the case of the successful use of ILV in a man with congenital heart disease with severe right sided pu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410012

New Treatment Strategies for Influenza

Luis del Carpio-Orantes

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: January 28, 2015

After the pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, there are many lessons learned regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by this virus. However, there have also been a number of contingencies that have greater concern to the world population, mainly by new types as infectious outbreaks, as well as the report of virus mutations that confer resistance to common treatment widely used. For new outbreaks have resulted in a new calamity, after the A (H1N1) pdm09, mainly mentioned the influenz...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410011

An Enlarging Airway Foreign Body

Vijay Hadda, Kavitha Venkatnarayan, Karan Madan, Anant Mohan and GC Khilnani

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 26, 2015

A 25-year-old female patient presented with dry coughs of 20 days duration and fever for four days. Examination of respiratory system revealed no significant abnormality. Chest radiograph was normal. CT scan of the thorax revealed endobronchial opacity in the right main bronchus suggestive of a foreign body. Patient retrospectively recollected history of betel nut aspiration just prior to onset of symptoms. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed a large sized blackish-brownish large foreign (betel nut) ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410010

Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Measurement: A Challenge for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

F. Zoreka, H. Bouvaist, E. Vautrin, S. Marliere, R. Guerbaai, J. Labarere, G. Vanzetto and C. Pison

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 11, 2015

Background: International registries report an aging population suffering from PAH (Pulmonary Artery Hypertension) engendering diagnosis difficulties linked with growing cases of group 2 related to left heart failure with preserved Ejection Fraction (PH-HFpE). Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP) measurement by right heart catheterization remains a technical challenge for patient classification; many centers still use digital PCWP given by cath lab software. Here, we have tried to demonstra...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410009

Halotherapy in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study

Morhaf AlAchkar, David E. Geller, Amanshe Perera Slaney and Daniel T Layish

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 04, 2015

Objectives: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex genetic disorder of the lower and upper respiratory tract. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Halotherapy on sinusitis symptoms, dyspnea, pulmonary function tests, and quality of life in CF patients. Study design: This was a pilot open-label before-and-after-study. Settings: The study was performed at the Orlando Salt Room. Participants were from a single CF care center, and were enrolled in the study between January and June, 201...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410008

Continuous Abstinence Rates at 3, 6, 9 and 12 Months in a Smoking Cessation Unit at the Albacete University Hospital Over 2 Years

Callejas Gonzalez FJ, Genoves Crespo M, Cruz Ruiz J, Tornero Molina AI, Esquinas Lopez C, Bermejo Lopez P, Garcia Castillo S, Martinez Garcia AJ, Rodriguez Montes JA5 and Tarraga Lopez PJ

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 04, 2015

838 patients referred 559 attended to and only 278 treated (33%); 55.4% males and 44.6% females; mean age of 46.4 years. The most important comorbidities were psychiatric (36.3%), cardiovascular (dyslipidemia 30.2%, hypertension 19.1%, diabetes 9.4%) and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 15.1%; Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS), 11.9%; asthma, 7.6%). Treatments included varenicline (VRN), 36.7%, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), 43.4%, bupropion, 13.3%, and psych...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410007

Eicosapentaenoic Acid Decreases Histamine Receptor 1 Expression on Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Cell Permeability during LPS Stimulation

Takaaki Osako, Michiko Aoyama-Ishikawa, Hayato Yamashita, Makoto Usami, Atsunori Nakao and Joji Kotani

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 26, 2014

Introduction: During acute lung inflammation, the lung microvasculature becomes hyperpermeable, resulting in immune cell infiltration and tissue edema. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), when used as a supplement in parenteral nutrition, can attenuate Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. In this study, we examined the effects n-3 PUFAs on lung microvascular cell permeability. Material and methods: Human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) were seeded on fibronectin-coat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410006

Infective Endarteritis in a Patent Ductus Arteriosus

John Fani Srour

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 15, 2014

The ductus arteriosus, an essential fetal structure, normally closes spontaneously soon after birth. It's persistence into late adulthood is considered rare; infective endarteritis complicating a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an even rarer event. The clinical picture of an infected PDA could be subtle, and the diagnosis is frequently delayed. Symptoms may well be attributed to community acquired pneumonia, pleurisy, or pulmonary infarction from pulmonary embolism. Occasionally, especially in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410005

The Differential Diagnosis of Asthma: Endobronchial Pulmonary Mesenchymoma

Mehmet Unlu, Pinar Cimen, Nuran Katgi and Salih Zeki Guclu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 06, 2014

A variety of airway tumours are reported to manifest with symptoms similar to those of asthma and may cause delays in exact diagnosis because of the increase in size at a slow rate. Pulmonary endobronchial mesenchymoma is one of the slow growing tumours which is associated with symptoms or signs of airway obstruction mimicking asthma. So, patients with chronic symptoms suggestive of asthma, poor response to asthma medications, and frequent exacerbations should be evaluated for endobronchial mese...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410004

A Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension to Assess the Role of Overnight Oximetry in the Diagnosis of Sleep Disordered Breathing

Neal M Patel, Vichaya Arunthari, Michael Heckman and Charles D Burger

Article Type: Original Retrospective Study | First Published: October 10, 2014

Background: In patients with Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the role of overnight oximetry as means to screen for Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) has not been well established. The aim of this study was to assess whether overnight oximetry was additive to a standard sleep questionnaire in the diagnosis of SDB. Methods: This retrospective study included 94 PH patients seen at Mayo Clinic Florida PH Center from 1992 to 2006. Analysis was performed on the following information: age, gender, body mas...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410003

Functional Characteristics of COPD Patients Admitted for Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Rodriguez DA, Orozco-Levi M, Miranda F, Mayoral A, Clements JA, Martinez-Llorens J, Ventin C, Bruguera J, Gea J and Molina LL

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 10, 2014

Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a known risk factor for pulmonary embolism (PE); however, neither the clinical nor the pulmonary function characteristics are well described in COPD patients admitted for PE. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 395 patients admitted for acute PE in a tertiary hospital setting. In COPD patients, clinical characteristics and pulmonary function were compared between the survivor and non-survivor groups during a 3-month ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410002

A Novel Approach to Investigate Functional Exonic SNPs Associated with Lung Diseases at Post-Transcriptional Stage

Tong Zhou and Ting Wang

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 18, 2014

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have resulted in the identification of novel genetic loci associated with a variety of diseases and clinical phenotypes, including complex lung disease such as asthma and COPD. However, the translational utilization of these expensive datasets has been restricted by multiple reasons including limited methodology to understand the exact molecular function of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3516/1410001

Should Endobronchial Ultrasound be Performed in All Patients with Suspected Sarcoidosis?

Omar Assasa, Mohamed Omballi and Fayez Kheir

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 06, 2014

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by noncaseating granuloma. Its incidence is 11 cases per 100,000 population in whites and 34 cases per 100,000 population in African Americans. Sarcoidosis most often involves the lung and intrathoracic lymph nodes but can occur in any other organ system. The most common respiratory complaints are dyspnea, shortness of breath and wheezing. However, many patients are asymptomatic and have incidental enlarg...


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24



Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42



Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69



International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97



Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55