Towards a Biological Definition of Alzheimer Disease
Kurt A Jellinger, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 08, 2020
Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a heterogenous syndrome with various pathobiologically defined subtypes. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is enabled by the recent ATN biomarker system, but the definite diagnosis is only possible at post-mortem according to the updated NIA-AA criteria. The recent developments in the clinical and neuropathological diagnosis of AD including its specific subtypes improving the evaluation of AD and its impact on public health are briefly discussed. Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia that currently affects arou...
Polymyositis in Adamantiades-Behcet's Disease
Carlos Arteaga Rodriguez, MD, MSc, Otto J Hernandez Fustes, MD, MSc, Renato Puppi Munhoz, MD, PhD and Olga Judith Hernandez Fustes, MD, MSc
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 04, 2020
Although Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease (ABD) has a worldwide distribution, it is considered rare in the Americas, with a prevalence of 0.12-0.33:100.000 in the United States. The characteristic triad of recurrent oral aphthous lesions, genital ulcers and iridociclitis occurring more often in young adults during their third or fourth decade of life was initially described by Hippocrates but gained it's classic eponym to acknowledge the Greek ophthalmologist from Asia Minor (nowadays part of Asian Turkey) Benediktos Adamantiades and Turkish dermatologist Hulusi Behçet, who in first identifi...
Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life and Communicative Participation in Individuals with Dysarthria from Parkinson’s Disease
Kristie A Spencer, Clare Friedlander and Katherine A Brown
Article Type: Researc h Article | First Published: January 03, 2020
The motor and non-motor deficits of Parkinson’s disease (PD) can cause daily challenges and have been associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HrQoL). A number of variables have been consistently, though not unequivocally, identified as important in influencing overall HrQoL in individuals with PD, such as demographic factors, cognitive decline, and level of motor impairment. However, the presence and severity of dysarthria is often overlooked, despite the potentially adverse influence on HrQoL. The primary purpose of this study was to understand the predictors of HrQoL, as we...
Candidate Genetic Polymorphisms and Haplotypes Associated with Endometrial Cancer Risk (United States)
Jane A McElroy, Robin L Kruse, J David Robertson, Helen Yampara-Iquise, Elizabeth C Bryda and Jeremy F Taylor
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 30, 2019
Exploration of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that alter the expression or function of a gene may enable the development of diagnostics for endometrial cancer susceptibility. We evaluated eleven candidate SNPs that have previously been reported in the literature or that are associated with cadmium sequestering (i.e., metallothionein) for their effects on endometrial cancer risk. We also predicted haplotypes for SNPs within genes on chromosomes 6, 14 and X and tested haplotype effects for cancer risk. Our population-based study comprised 480 cases and 513 controls with 96% non-Hispanic ...
General Anesthesia Affecting on Developing Brain: Evidence from Animal to Clinical Research
Xinyue Liu, MD, Jing Ji, MD and Guo-Qing Zhao, MD, PhD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 04, 2020
As the recent update of General Anaesthesia compared to Spinal anaesthesia (GAS) studies has been published in 2019, together with other clinical evidence, the human studies provided an overwhelming mixed evidence of an association between anaesthesia exposure in early childhood and later neurodevelopment changes in children. Pre-clinical studies in animals provided strong evidence on how anaesthetic and sedative agents (ASAs) causing neurotoxicity in developing brain and deficits in long-term cognitive functions. However pre-clinical results cannot translate to clinical practice directly. Thr...
How Long Do We Need to Restrict Weight Bearing after Fixation of Pediatric Femur Fractures?
Amy N Ford, MD, Elizabeth A Harkin, MD, Joseph Romano, MD, William D Lack, MD, Hobie D Summers, MD and Joseph B Cohen, MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 06, 2020
Surgical management of pediatric femur fractures is accomplished with intramedullary nailing or plate fixation. These fractures heal quickly with a low incidence of complications, although there is a paucity of evidence on how long postoperative weight bearing restrictions need to be in place or whether they are even necessary at all. The objectives of this study are to compare methods of fixation of pediatric femur fractures and postoperative weight bearing protocols and to correlate these with healing time and complication rates....
Turkish Nursing Students’ Ecocentric, Anthropocentric and Antipathetic Attitudes towards the Environment
Media Subasi Baybuga, RN, PhD and Serap Gokbel Sonmez, RN, MSN
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 23, 2019
Environmental problems have become global and begun to threaten life on the planet, which has led humans to reconsider their relationship with the environment, and their attitudes, behaviors, duties and responsibilities towards it, and to redefine the importance of ecological culture and environmental awareness. Using the environment in which we live in a more effective, sustainable and efficient manner is only possible by creating a society with environmental awareness...
Strategic Framework to Promote Rationale Use of Medicine in Lmics: A Policy Perspective
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 06, 2020
Through the application of a strategic framework, the paper attempts to sharpen the focus, coordination and dissemination of promotion of rational use of medicines (PRUM) framework. The purpose of this strategic framework is to guide and organize the systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation of irrational use of medicines and other efforts aimed at improving rational use of medicines and reducing and, ultimately, eliminating irrational use of medicines. The suggested framework efforts include those aimed directly at irrational use of medicines and related health problems...
A Rare Case Report: Pancreatic IPMN and Lung Adenocarcinoma with Elevation of CA 19-9 in an Asymptomatic Individual
Dorovinis P, Roumpou A and Dimitroulis D
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 30, 2019
An 85-year-old man presented to our hospital because of an elevated value of CA 19-9 of 2000 U/ml, free of any symptoms. CT scan of the thorax and abdomen revealed a lesion in the upper lobe of the right lung and a cystic lesion located in the tail of the pancreas, comprised with dilation of the pancreatic duct, being indicative of peripheral pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN). The pulmonary lesion was examined histologically through EBUS and had no specific signs of atypia or malignancy. Therefore, the patient underwent only peripheral pancreatectomy and splenectomy. Al...
Erector Spinae Plane Block for Peripartum Analgesia in a Patient with Tarlov Cysts
LT Scott B Hughey, MD/MBA, MC(FS), USN, LT Jacob H Cole, MD, MC, USN, LCDR Thomas F Olson, MD, MC(FMF), USN and LCDR Victor A Rivera, MD, MC(FS), USN
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 21, 2019
Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts which occur in up to 4.6% of the population. Neuraxial anesthesia is relatively contraindicated in these patients. Similarly, many of these patients have chronic pain from the cysts, often requiring chronic opioid use. Pain during labor may be difficult to control in these patients due to concerns regarding neuraxial analgesia and submaximal benefit from systemic remifentanil infusions. The Erector Spinae Plane (ESP) Block has recently been described as a regional technique for thoracic and abdominal procedures which can decrease both somatic and viscer...