Oxidative Stress and the Epigenome in Human Disease
Adriana Arita and Max Costa
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 15, 2014
Epigenetics refers to the study of the changes in gene expression that occur without changes in the DNA sequence. There is growing evidence that epigenetic modifications such as changes in the levels of DNA methylation or post-translational histone modifications are involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including cancer. Oxidative stress as a result of metabolic or environmental factors leads to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS plays a role in many human diseases including cancer and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases by promoting DNA damage and/or al...
Discordant Disease Course in a Monozygotic Twin Pair with Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia
Silvia Bresolin, Paola De Filippi, Claudia Cagioni, Simone Cesaro, Annamaria Di Meglio, Anna Leszl, Fiorenza Aprili, Chiara Cugno, Chiara Frasson, Marco Zecca, Cesare Danesino and Geertruyte Kronnie
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 14, 2014
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare neoplastic disorder occurring in early childhood often showing an aggressive progression. We report a case of a twin pair with concordant JMML but an extremely different disease course. Both twins presented with somatic aberrations of chromosome 7 and mutations in PTPN11. Analysis of sorted BM and PB cell populations revealed the clonal nature of the disease and indicated that genomic aberrations arise from common hematopoietic precursor cells. PTPN11 mutations in oral swab specimens of both patients during the active phase of the disease were attribu...
Eicosapentaenoic Acid Decreases Histamine Receptor 1 Expression on Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Cell Permeability during LPS Stimulation
Takaaki Osako, Michiko Aoyama-Ishikawa, Hayato Yamashita, Makoto Usami, Atsunori Nakao and Joji Kotani
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 26, 2014
Introduction: During acute lung inflammation, the lung microvasculature becomes hyperpermeable, resulting in immune cell infiltration and tissue edema. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), when used as a supplement in parenteral nutrition, can attenuate Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. In this study, we examined the effects n-3 PUFAs on lung microvascular cell permeability. Material and methods: Human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) were seeded on fibronectin-coated transwell inserts. The cells were pretreated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic ...
Infective Endarteritis in a Patent Ductus Arteriosus
John Fani Srour
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 15, 2014
The ductus arteriosus, an essential fetal structure, normally closes spontaneously soon after birth. It's persistence into late adulthood is considered rare; infective endarteritis complicating a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an even rarer event. The clinical picture of an infected PDA could be subtle, and the diagnosis is frequently delayed. Symptoms may well be attributed to community acquired pneumonia, pleurisy, or pulmonary infarction from pulmonary embolism. Occasionally, especially in the case of silent PDA, the correct diagnosis can be reached after an extensive work up of fever of...
Development of A Cellular Hepatocarcinoma Animal Model for the Evaluation of Pt(Acac)2/Tio2 Nanoparticles Effect
Tessy Lopez Goerne, Mayra Alvarez Lemus, Gustavo Jardon Guadarrama, Paola Ramirez Olivares, Aurora Sanchez Garcia, Daniel Rembao Bojorquez, Ruben Arguero Sanchez and Octavio Novaro Penalosa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 16, 2014
Because of the worldwide increasing incidence of cancer new alternative therapies are needed. The use of nanotechnology for clinical applications is constantly growing. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of platinum inorganic nanoparticles over livers from Wistar rats. In order to reach this goal cellular Hepatocarcinoma was fist induced with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and Carbon tetrachloride....
Time and Motion Study Assessment of Simulated Rapid Sequence Intubation
Trung Du, David Bramley, Justin Nazareth and David T Andrews
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2014
We carried out an observational study using a system of time and motion analysis that was developed to critically evaluate work systems by correlating the number and type of hand and equipment movements that were associated with the time taken to perform the stereotypical anaesthetic technique of rapid sequence intubation (RSI). The number and type of hand movements required to complete RSI exhibited significant correlation with, and were linearly related to, the time taken to carry out the RSI procedure....
Robotic Surgery, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Difficult Airway - A Challenging Combination for the Anesthesiologist! : A Case Report
Uma Hariharan, Shagun Bhatia Shah and Binod Kumar Naithani
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 23, 2014
The introduction of robotic surgery has heralded new challenges for the anesthesiologists. The daVinci TM robotic system provides a three-dimensional view and better work ergonomics for the surgeon, especially in complex and radical cancer surgeries. Innovation of robotic surgery has opened the doors for newer concerns in patient safety for the anesthesia team. This is of greater importance in patients with concurrent serious conditions like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The challenge becomes greater when difficult airway compounds the situation....
Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV-Infected Patients: Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors
Antonio Diaz-Sanchez, Pilar Miralles, Ana Matilla, Teresa Aldamiz-Echevarria, OscarNunez Ana Carrero, Beatriz Merino, Cristina Diez, Rafael Banares, Gerardo Clemente and Juan Berenguer
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 26, 2014
We analyzed 53 HIV-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed at our institution from 1998 to 2012. All patients were coinfected with hepatitis virus (77% HCV; 12% HBV; 11% HCV+HBV), and 95% had liver cirrhosis. HCC was diagnosed under surveillance in 41% of patients. Potentially curative therapy was given to 32% of patients and palliative therapy to 30% patients. Median survival was 2 months in those diagnosed from 1998 to 2005, and 11 months in those diagnosed from 2006 to 2012; P=0.16. Survival was independently associated with HCC stage, alpha-fetoprotein serum levels,...
The Superhero Drugs for Choroidal Neovascularization; Anti-VEGF Agents
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 29, 2014
A decade ago, the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to various macular diseases like age related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and angioid streaks was a crucial challenge. Laser photocoagulation could might be performed for juxtafoveal and extrafoveal CNVs and different surgical treatment options like macular translocation surgery and subretinal CNV excision were available. Th published studies usually were about neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), and we tried to adapt them to the other causes of CNV. However, the outcomes of these treatment...