Rethinking HIV Risks among Women on the US/Mexico Border: Alcohol and Latina Sex Behavior
Michael Parsa, Robert Woolard, Dustin Corgan, Susana Villalobos, Paul Chisolm, Lisa Montgomery, Jiayang Liu, Israel Alba and Patrick Tarwater
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 31, 2015
Most young Latina ED patients were unconcerned about risk of HIV infection in spite of their reports of HIV sex risk behavior. Latinas who were RAPS4 positive were more likely to report HIV sex risk behavior, but they had no greater concern about their HIV risk and no greater use of condoms. Preventive interventions should be developed to decrease alcohol use and to increase concern about HIV risk among Latinas....
Glycemic Disturbances on Admission as a Predictor of Inpatient Mortality
Daniel Saenz-Abad, Jose Antonio Gimeno-Orna, Maria del Carmen Lahoza-Perez, Elena Rivero-Sanz, Marta Jordan-Domingo, Artur Juan-Arribas, Maria del Mar Becerra-Mayor and Cristina Baquer-Sahun
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: October 30, 2015
This is a case-control retrospective analytical study. The cases were patients deceased during hospitalization and controls where those discharged in the same time period. Patients were age-matched and the final outcome of the study was hospital mortality. Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) and Charlson comorbidity index as well as blood analysis (full blood count, glucose, renal function, ions) were determined. Abnormal glucose levels (dysglycemia) were those considered to be < 70 or > 200 m...
Ventricular Arrhythmias in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Therapy of Electrical Storm
Tobias Willich and Andreas Goette
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 01, 2015
This review provides an overview of the available therapeutic options for acute care and management of malignant ventricular arrhythmias (VA) such as ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and electrical storm (ES). As therapeutic options antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy, implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy (ICD), radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) and neuroaxial modulation like stellate ganglion blockade or renal denervation are available. AAD therapy is lim...
To Give or Not To Give - Is that the Question?: The Changing Face of Emergency Oxygen Therapy
Carol Ann Kelly and Dave Lynes
Article Type: Non-systematic Review | First Published: September 14, 2015
Oxygen's image, together with its reputation, is changing. No longer is it regarded as a benign panacea for all clinical presentations; indeed it is now increasingly evident that oxygen has the potential to contribute to clinical deterioration and mortality. There is an emerging recognition that oxygen is a drug when administered as a therapeutic intervention and should be used with caution. Contemporary guidelines offer criteria and directives for administration and prescription of oxygen, depe...
A Constrained Non-inferiority Approach for Assessing Clinical Efficacy to Establish Biosimilarity
Jason JZ Liao
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 3, 2015
To develop a biosimilar product, it is necessary to demonstrate biosimilarity between the proposed biosimilar product and the reference product in terms of the purity, potency, efficacy, and safety. In this paper, clinical efficacy data required for establishing biosimilarity are considered. Non-inferiority (NI) and equivalence methods are commonly used for analyzing clinical trials to meet this requirement. The equivalence approach often requires large, costly, and lengthy clinical trials....
Cross-Sectional Exploration on Feeding Practices of Feeders towards Preschoolers' Picky Eating Behaviors
Louisa Ming Yan Chung and Shirley Siu Ming Fong
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 14, 2015
Picky eating is quite common among preschoolers, which may lead to imbalanced diet. Picky eating behavior among preschoolers was found associated with feeding style. With the complex family structure of 2-career parents in Hong Kong and unique authoritarian Chinese feeding style, this study aimed to explore the differences in feeding practices among different preschoolers' feeding persons and to investigate if preschoolers' picky eating showed differences if they are fed by different feeding per...
Effect of Race/Ethnicity and Smoking on Diurnal Variations in Testosterone Levels
Ram B Jain
Article Type: Research article | First Published: December 10, 2015
The effect of race/ethnicity and smoking on diurnal variations in total serum testosterone level (T-TST) was evaluated by analyzing data from NHANES for 2011-2012 for adolescent and adult males. For adolescent males, diurnal variability in T-TST levels was substantially smaller among smokers than nonsmokers for non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanics but the reverse was true for non-Hispanic black (NHB). For adult males, morning levels of T-TST were 21-31% higher than the T-TST levels during even...
Thyroid Profile of the Reference United States Population: Data from NHANES 2007-2012
Ram B Jain
Article Type: Research article | First Published: November 16, 2015
Objective: This study was undertaken to describe the thyroid profile of reference U.S. population including generating reference ranges for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), and thyroglobulin. Design and methods: Publically available data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the cycles 2007-2012 were analyzed for this purpose....
The Impact of Renal Transplantation on Lower Limb Perfusion
Paul Alexander, Emma Aitken, David Mansouri and David Kingsmore
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 25, 2015
The benefits of renal transplantation are now more accessible to older, more comorbid patients. Currently, those with peripheral vascular disease are often excluded partly due to the theoretical risk of post transplantation limb ischemia, where blood is diverted away from an already under-perfused leg. This study aims to determine if renal transplantation affects lower limb perfusion....
Infection after Pediatric Living Related Liver Transplantation: Timing, Types and Risk Factors
Behairy El-Sayed Behairy, Hatem Abdel-Sattar Konsowa, Haidy Mohammed Zakaria, Osama Hegazy Abd-Elsalam and Mostafa Mohamed Sira
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2015
The study was a retrospective cohort. It included 27 pediatric patients underwent liver transplantation (LTx). All patients' records were reviewed. A wide range of potential risk factors for infection and post-transplant complications were recorded. Follow-up data were collected for 1.5 years post-transplant, every infection attack during this period were subjected to detailed risk analysis....