Radiation Protection in X-Ray Computed Tomography: Literature Review
Khalid G Alsafi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2016
The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation protection techniques in computed tomography (CT) scanning, address concerns on the increased population exposure during CT procedures, and provide a review on dose management and optimization procedures. Radiation protection in CT requires regular dose surveys and optimization of CT exposure parameters, establishing and/or implementing diagnostic references (DRLs), implementation of a comprehensive quality assurance program, reference dose levels,...
Low Dose CT of the Brain in the Follow-up of Intracranial Hemorrhage
Stella Blasel, Luisa Huck, Juergen Konczalla, Stephanie Lescher, Hanns Ackermann, Joachim Berkefeld and Marlies Wagner
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 16, 2016
Objectives: Adult patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are often young but receive serial cranial computer tomography (CCT). To lower their cumulative radiation dose risks, we evaluated applicability of low dose cranial CT (LD-CCT) in the follow-up of ICH patients compared to an initial standard dose cranial CT (SD-CCT). Methods: 53 ICH patients underwent initial SD-CCT (350 mAs/120 kV) and follow-up LD-CCT (either 220 or 240 mAs/120 kV). Iterative reconstruction used for both dose levels...
Which Guidance Method during Tracheotomy Procedure in Patients with Short Neck in the ICU? A Prospective Randomized Study
Esra Ozayar, Handan Gulec, Zehra Baykal Tutal, Munire Babayigit, Mehmet Sirin, Aysun Kurtay and Eyup Horasanli
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 20, 2016
Percutaneous tracheotomy is a common procedure in the intensive care units (ICU). Although majority of the complications related to this procedure are considered minor, serious complications secondary to tracheotomies are still being reported. Definition of short neck is not clear in the medical literature, but well known to anesthesiologists since they are flagged for possible difficult airway. Thyromental and sternomental distance, range of neck extension and neck circumference are some of the...
Pre-Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Sufentanil-2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex
Silvana Aparecida Calafatti, Marcelo de Macedo, Juliana Zampoli Boava Papini, Edvaldo Coelho, Cintia Maria Saia Cereda, Jose Pedrazzoli Junior, Eneida de Paula, Daniele Ribeiro de Araujo and Giovana Radomille Tofoli
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 18, 2016
Opioids are used for the postoperative period, cancer pain and for moderate to severe chronic noncancer pain. Sufentanil (SUF) is a highly lipophilic opioid that presents rapid and highly effective pain relief, but it presents short duration of action. Due to this short duration of action, SUF is currently used as an intravenous anesthetic agent and analgesic adjuvant for surgery and labor....
Ultrasound-guided Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum (TQL) Block for Pain Management after Caesarean Section
Nina Maenchen, Christian Kruse Hansen, Mette Dam and Jens Borglum
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 28, 2016
The ultrasound-guided transmuscular quadratus lumborum (TQL) block performed in the lumbar paravertebral region exerts its effect by spreading into the thoracic paravertebral space with blockade of both somatosensory and visceral nerves of the abdominal and retroperitoneal region. We discovered an inadequate management of post-operative pain by the conventional analgesic regimen among caesarean section patients in our hospital. In this report we present three cases where the TQL block is demonst...
Images and Text Operation Records: Xi'an Agreement
Xiaopeng Yan, Liang Han, Xuemin Liu, Lin Fan, Zheng Wu and Yi Lv
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: June 30, 2016
Operation notes are a very important part of a patient's medical record. They not only record the operation process during the surgery, but also objectively describe the organs lesions. They play a useful role in the referral disease communication, pathological diagnosis, medical practice education, and cases review. However, the current operation notes are hand-written texts therefore many deficiencies as follows: 1. It is difficult to describe the difficult and complicated operation process ac...
Hypercholesterolemic Diet: Its Effect on Colorectal Precancerous Lesions Induced by Dimethylhydrazine
Franciane da Silva Franca, Rodrigo Zeni Cora, Helena Cristina Ferreira Franz and Flavia Martinello
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 30, 2016
Objective: Evaluate the effects of dietary cholesterol, without the addition of cholic acid in the initial stage of carcinogenesis and on the bifidobacteria into the colon. Methods: Rats were grouped according to their diets and dimethylhydrazine treatment (DMH): standard diet (CN); CN + cholesterol 1% (CHOL); CN + DMH (CNDMH) and CN + cholesterol 1% + DMH (CHOLDMH). After eight weeks of treatment were analyzed weight gain, faecal pH, lipid profile, hepatic and faecal cholesterol, faecal bifidob...
Microbiological Safety of Food, Particularly for Vulnerable People
Barbara M Lund
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 25, 2016
Foodborne illness affects about one in six Americans each year. Certain groups of people are particularly susceptible to foodborne illness, these include the very young, the elderly, pregnant women and people whose immune system is suppressed by disease or medication. These groups are most likely to incur infection and to suffer severe consequences. Major foodborne pathogens and foods that are particularly associated with hazards are outlined. Factors leading to outbreaks are described and illus...
Obesity and Lifestyle Recommendations in the Light of Islam
Rahila Iftikhar, Muhmmad Albar and Mahdi Qadi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 20, 2016
The prevalence of obesity and, consequently, obesity-related disorders is increasing globally, imposing a burden on health care and costs. Lifestyle interventions are the mainstay of treatment owing to the risks associated with surgery and medications. Although Islam advocates a healthy lifestyle and dieting, Muslim countries are also plagued by a rise in the prevalence of obesity and its associated disorders due to substitution of the traditional diet for a Western diet, which is rich in fats a...
Alternatives to Liver Transplantation in Pediatric Liver Diseases
Clara T Nicolas and Scott L Nyberg
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 18, 2016
Inherited metabolic disorders and acute liver failure (ALF) are often indications for liver transplantation in pediatric patients. Liver transplantation, however, is limited by the shortage of donor organs, as well as by the need for chronic immunosuppression. This review focuses on the latest advancements made in the field of liver regenerative medicine as possible future alternatives to pediatric liver transplantation or as a means of temporary liver function support. Cell transplantation offe...