Evidence Based Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Role of Lifestyle Intervention as Compared to Pharmacological Agents
V. Naik, R. Dave, J. W. Stephens and J.S. Davies
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 08, 2015
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most costly and burdensome of chronic diseases and is a global epidemic. Estimates by the International Diabetes Federation indicate that 387 million people have diabetes, and that this figure is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 with an additional 175 million cases currently undiagnosed. Individuals with T2DM are at a significantly higher risk of co-morbidities particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, pre-diabetes independently...
Why, When and How We Propose Withdrawal Insulin Treatment in Type 2 Insulin Resistant Diabetes
Andreu Nubiola, Imma Remolins and Miquel Nubiola
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 17, 2015
Insulin treatment is the choice in insulinopenic diabetic patients, in order to prevent or delay microvascular lesions, related to hyperglycaemia. However in insulin resistant type 2 diabetes, the improvement in glycaemic control with insulin, is not without side effects, especially weight gain and hypoglycaemia. Many retrospective or case-control studies of insulin treatment have reported a higher prevalence of CVD in insulin-treated patients. However, many of these patients started insulin the...
In Your Dreams - A Case of Presumed Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit
Michelle B Collier, Stephanie D Nichols and John J Campbell
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 01, 2015
Unlike dyssomnias that influence quality and duration of sleep, parasomnias primarily affect behavior. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep. Usually, atonia occurs through neural inhibition via pontine nuclei to spinal motor neurons. Dysfunction, due to lesions or neurodegeneration, can lead to dream enactment. Therefore, sleepers may act violently, including: hitting, jumping, or kicking......
Pain Management in Knee Arthroplasty: An Overview
Md Quamar Azam, Mir Sadat-Ali and Ahmed Bader
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 28, 2015
Perioperative pain management after knee arthroplasty has undergone a conceptual revolution in the last decade. Along with other exciting innovations, including minimally invasive techniques, computer-assisted procedures and a significant stride in tribology, understanding pain modulation and drug action at molecular level is recognized as the game changer in arthroplasty surgeries....
Anti-Rotational Plates with Intramedullary Nailing Stabilize Femoral Shaft Fracture Nonunion: A Biomechanical Study
Xianzhi Ma, Manyi Wang, Bosong Zhang, Zhendong Wang, Yunbang Lang and Xiaofeng Gong
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 28, 2015
Intramedullary nailing (IM) is the primary method for treating nonunion of femoral shaft fractures. However, with the advancement of IM technique and the increasing clinical indications, the incidence rate of femoral shaft fracture nonunion, according to the literature review, was 0.8-2%. Regarding its treatment, exchanging intramedullary nailing is considered as the golden standard treatment for femoral shaft fracture nonunion, with a cure rate of up to 70-100%....
Current Aspects of ABO-Incompatible Liver Transplantation
Naoki Kawagishi, Noriaki Ohuchi and Susumu Satomi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 23, 2015
Liver transplantation is well recognized as treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Although the source of donors is limited, ABO blood type matched transplantation is commonly performed in deceased donor liver transplantation. On the other hand, where deceased donors are rarely available, a graft obtained from a family member of the recipient is mainly employed and thus ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) becomes unavoidable. This review article descr...
Ranking and Rating Analyses of Barriers to Surgical Care for Children in Guatemala
Brian C Gulack, Shirin Heydari, Ligia Figueroa, Shannon Tew, Brad M Taicher, Sherry S Ross, David Boyd and Henry E Rice
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 20, 2015
Barriers to surgical care in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain poorly understood. This is particularly true of surgical care for children, where families are required to make complex decisions amidst multiple obstacles. Unmet surgical care contributes to at least 11% of the global burden of disease. For many disease processes in children, surgery is a cost-effective health intervention, as it results in a high degree of averted disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) with costs compa...
Vancomycin and Imipenem Release from Nails Covered with Antibiotic-Loaded Acrylic Cement
Jorge D Barla, Sancineto F Carlos, Luciano A Rossi, Gimenez I Maria, Visus M and Elizondo Cristina
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 17, 2015
There is a lack of information in the literature regarding pharmacokinetic properties of nails covered with antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement. The aim of this research work was to describe the release of vancomycin and imipenem from nails covered with ALAC over a period of 6 weeks. Furthermore, we analyzed if an increased nail diameter associated to a thicker ALAC coat could result in an increased antibiotic elution from the cement and if the combination of the two antibiotics in the same cement ...
Shoichi D. Takekawa
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: December 31, 2015
Pathology and radiology have become pivotal in the clinical practice of daily medicine. Diagnostic radiology and pathology are indeed indispensable wheels of medical practice. Clinicians achieve tentative diagnoses based on laboratory data and medical images in addition to their physical findings and patient medical history. Based on all available findings and on patient characteristics, clinicians finally decide on further therapeutic management strategies, including medical and surgical therap...
Orbital Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma: A Case Report
Hind M. Alkatan and Abdul Elah A. Al-Abdullah
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2015
Xanthogranulomatous ocular and periocular lesions in adults have been reported in 3 main forms: adult-onset xanthogranuloma (AXG), necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG), and Erdheim-Chester disease. The three forms differ in regards to laterality, systemic associations, and prognosis. NXG is a rare chronic progressive disease considered to be systemic with mostly asymptomatic internal organ involvement. Ophthalmic manifestations include conjunctival, corneal and scleral involvement. We are presentin...