Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care is an international, open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes wide variety of clinical information in all the interdisciplinary aspects of Nephrology. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a podium for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community in various aspects of renal care. We aim to publish highest quality clinical content via open access platform providing the readers at no cost, immediate and unlimited access.
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care is an open journal, accelerates research updates in various aspects such as discovery and innovation in Pediatric Nephrology, Basic Nephrology, Clinical Nephrology, Dialysis, Renal Anatomy, Physiology, Pathophysiology, functioning, Development and Histology, Glomerular/Tubulointerstitial Disease, Diuretic Pharmacology, Acute and Chronic Kidney Injury, Kidney Failure, Urinary Tract Infections, Tumors, Nephrolithiasis, etc. The journal accepts manuscript formats such as Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Clinical Image, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their work in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510080
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 03, 2022
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2) is a single stranded RNA virus and is the cause of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and although its main targets are the immune and respiratory systems, acute kidney injury (AKI) has been observed in a high percentage of cases. This is a syndrome which manifests morphologically with the hallmark being acute tubular injury/necrosis and also clinically with the appearing of proteinuria, hematuria, etc. However, this document will focus more...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510079
Daniela Alferes, Vitória Paes de Faria, Clemente Sousa, Paulo Teles, Clara Almeida and Ana Ventura
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 25, 2022
The benefits of dialysis in the octogenarian are dubious. This study aimed to investigate whether initiation of chronic hemodialysis (HD) changes the rate and duration of hospitalizations in a Portuguese cohort of octogenarian patients. A single-centre, retrospective, observational study was performed....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510078
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 16, 2022
Albuminuria followed by a decline in glomerular filtration rate has been described to be the classical phenotype of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). A new phenotype, non albuminuric diabetic kidney disease (NADKD), has recently been observed in patients with decreased renal function and a urine albumin excretion rate < 30 mg in 24 hours or a urine albumin creatinine ratio of < 30 mg/g....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510077
Dawlat Sany, Wael Ahmed Yousry, Heba Mohammed Abdelfattah and Yasser Elsahawi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 12, 2022
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis in endemic areas, yet least diagnosed aetiologies of acute viral hepatitis. Highlights the importance of early consideration of HEV in all patients with acute hepatitis who have originated from endemic regions....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510076
Raiani Feu Cassandro, Mirela Dias Gonçalves and Filipe Martinuzo Filetti
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 22, 2022
Renal failure is a chronic disease of complex treatment and has a great impact on people’s quality of life. Pregnancy in women on renal replacement therapy is considered high risk, requiring specific care to promote adequate treatment and improvement in maternal and fetal outcomes. This study consists in evidencing the effects of the increase of hemodialysis sessions on the health of pregnant women with Chronic Renal Insufficiency....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510075
Souhir Khemiri, Sonda Masmoudi, Sonda Mezghanni, Wala Ben Kridis, Adnene Hammami and Afef Khanfir
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 28, 2022
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in patients with cancer. It may occur at different phases of the disease and results from the interaction of several factors. The objective of our study was to determinate the particularities of these infection in this special population....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510074
Haider Omer and Abdulmalik Alhomrany
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 28, 2022
This study aimed to determine the frequency of renal involvement following snake envenomation and the risk factors that contribute to the development of such complications. This retrospective study was carried out at Asir Central Hospital, a tertiary and referral hospital located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510073
Rostislav Axenciuc, MD, Igor Sai, MD, Anatoliy Bondarenko, MD, Vasyl Kopcha, MD, and Kateryna Metersky, PhD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 13, 2022
The study aim was to study the histological picture of damaged kidneys in patients who died from COVID-19, as well as to attempt to find the objective causes of renal pathology at COVID-19. Kidney damage in this disease is still considered mainly secondary and associated with multiple organ failure, hypoxia, ischemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) at severe and extremely severe disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510072
Sameena Iqbal, Barama Dalila, Davine Yang, Khashayar Rafat Zand and Celena Scheede Bergdahl
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 05, 2022
Hypothyroidism has been identified as a comorbidity related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The retrospective study investigated thyroid function and CKD and assessed the relationship between TSH and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), the slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), stratified by CKD grades....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510071
Kanjaporn Sirisomboonlarp, Ankanee Chanakul and Tawatchai Deekajorndech
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 11, 2022
Children with a solitary kidney are at risk of developing hypertension due to decreased nephron number with a consequence of hyperfiltration of the remnant. In patients with high-risk conditions, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), which records blood pressure (BP) for 24 hours, is helpful in detecting hypertension. To investigate the prevalence of hypertension in children with solitary kidney using 24-h ABPM and comparing with the office blood pressure (OBP). Twenty-three patients age...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510070
Kunal Bhuta, Kriti Devkota2 and Haris Mobeen
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: April 24, 2022
Cocaine is an addictive stimulant drug. In 2014, about 913,000 Americans met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for dependence or abuse of cocaine. Approximately 69% of Cocaine has been contaminated with Levamisole. Levamisole has been found to be immunogenic causing anti-neutrophil cyto-plasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated cutaneous vasculitis in 88-100% patients. 24-year-old male with a history of polysubstance abuse including IV drug abuse presented with complain...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510069
Abigail M Servais, PharmD, Eric D Langewisch, MD, Scott G Westphal, MD, and Clifford D Miles, MD
Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: March 17, 2022
Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and liver transplant recipients (LTR) are at risk for elevation in serum potassium post-transplant. Patiromer is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperkalemia, but there is limited safety and efficacy data for its use in solid organ transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed adult KTR and/or LTR transplanted between October 2015 and September 2019 treated with patiromer. 17 KTR, 13 LTR, and 2 simultaneous liverkidney recipient...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510068
Peter Kehinde Uduagbamen, FWACP, FMCP, John Omotola Ogunkoya, FMCP, Chukwuwer Igwebuike Nwogbe, MBBS, Solomon Olubunmi Eigbe, MBBS and Oluwamayowa Ruth Timothy, MBBS
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 23, 2021
The ultrafiltration volume, a surrogate maker of inter-dialytic weight gain and extraction ratio plays a significant contributory role in the dialysis dose but in very large amount can lead to intradialysis hypotension and its consequences of myocardial ischemia and stunning and further diminution of kidney function. Measures are needed to prescribe the optimal quantity for each session. A thousand six hundred and eighty eight dialysis sessions for 287 participants were studied. Pre and postdial...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510067
Ahmed Akl, Mohammed Zammo, Ghofran Qorban and Mohammad F Tungekar
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 06, 2021
The association of Per-hilar FSGS with type 2 diabetes is not uncommon and represent a form of podocytopathy. Nephropathy in diabetic patients is not content in diabetic nephropathy and various primary glomerulonephritis have been reported. The trend of aggressive urinary abnormalities with rapid deterioration in renal function raises the possibility of nondiabetic renal disease. The association of podocytopathy in the form of heavy proteinuria, muscle weakness and arteriolopathy suggest mitocho...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510066
Klaus Fuerste, Friederike Kessler and Rolf Dario Frank
Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: June 28, 2021
A 77-year-old male presented to our hospital with a two week history of worsening ulcerations on the dorsum of his left hand (Figure 1a). No deficit in sensory or motor function was detected. The patient suffered from end-stage renal disease and was treated with hemodialysis via a tunnelled catheter in the right jugular vein. Five months before, a left brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) had been created. At presentation, the blood flow in the left brachial artery was 900 ml per minute. P...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510065
Joana Cristóvão Marques, Rui Barata, Joana Lemos Garcia, David Navarro, Mário Góis, Helena Sousa, Patrícia Cotovio, Francisco Ribeiro and Fernando Nolasco
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 05, 2021
Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are common and extendable to all organs. Kidney and lower genitourinary system occurs in 4-23% of cases. This may be dependent on inflammatory bowel disease activity, secondary to metabolic disorders, drugs or others. We present a case of a 68-year-old man with ulcerative colitis for 22 years admitted in our department for acute nephritic syndrome. Urinary microscopy suggested glomerular injury. A kidney biopsy was performed and was co...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510064
Mann Elate Lea Mbassi Yves, Wambe Gilles Verland and Paana Alima Marguerite Cebrael
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 11, 2021
Antiretroviral therapies (ART) have been reported to have renal toxicity. However, there is a lack of data on the toxicity of ART in sub-Saharan countries, especially in Cameroon. More studies on their contribution to renal dysfunction in natives from this region are required. HIV/AIDS patients undergoing eleven different first-line ART at two hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were selected in this study. Retrospective and prospective data of serum urea and creatinine were collected, and the esti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510063
Fouda Menye Epouse Ebana Hermine Danielle, Kowo Mathurin Pierre, Tchonang Tatke Ornella- Carine, Ndjitoyap Ndam Antonin Wilson and Ankouane Andoulo Firmin
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 25, 2021
While renal dysfunction has been reported in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with Sofosbuvir-based direct-acting antivirals in high income countries, the impact of this treatment on renal function has not been studied in patients from Sub-Saharan countries such as Cameroon. We conducted a prospective study over 6 months in a single heath care facility in Cameroon. All consenting patients ≥ 18 years treated with Sofosbuvir regimen for 12 weeks were included. Serum creatinine was measured a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510062
J Mark Stephens, David Barrus, PhD, Dennis Cotter, Martin J Ma, PhD, Mae Thamer and Jay B Wish, MD
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 11, 2021
In January 2011, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) introduced the End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System (ESRD PPS) with the goal of creating strong economic incentives for Medicare dialysis providers to improve efficiency in the delivery of dialysis treatments, but without compromising quality of care. To date, no formal evaluations have been published of the impacts of the new payment reforms on dialysis center efficiency in the quantity and quality of care deliver...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510061
T Balasubramaniyan, Hanock Unni Samuel, S Thirumavalavan, C Vasudevan, RP Senthil Kumar and V Murugesan
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 31, 2020
Renal disease is an important non-communicable disease in India. Lack of awareness, late diagnosis, less accessibility and higher costs for renal replacement therapy have led to increased morbidity and mortality. Though the common view of no or less awareness among rural population of India is true to some extent, awareness about renal diseases is low even in urban people. We decided to address the 'kidney health' of urban population of Chennai on the occasion of World Kidney Day 2020 the theme ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510060
Rukiye Demir Dikmen and Hakime Aslan, PhD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 17, 2020
This is cross-sectional study. The population of consisted of patients aged over 18 who received treatment at three hemodialysis centers in Elazig province and two in Bingol province. Sampling method was not used as it was aimed to reach the whole population. The research was carried out with 363 patients (84% of the population) meeting the research criteria. The data was collected between June-October 2019. Personal Information Form, Hemodialysis Comfort Scale (HDCS), and Dialysis Symptom Index...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510059
Asuri Krishna, Umar Maqbool, Mayank Jain, Om Prakash, Subodh Kumar, V Seenu, Sandeep Mahajan, Sanjay Aggarwal and Virinder Kumar Bansal
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 04, 2020
Living donor renal transplant with grafts having complex vascular anatomy is technically difficult with higher complications. We herein present our experience of complex vascular anatomy living donor renal grafts as compared to grafts with simple vascular anatomy. The is a retrospective comparative analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all the patients undergoing live related renal allograft transplant from January 2015 till Dec 2019. All adult transplants with graft with complex va...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510058
Filipa Cardoso, Joana Marques, Tiago Pereira, Marco Mendes and Fernando Nolasco
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 30, 2020
Although widely recognized and with increasing incidence, cardiorenal syndrome management remains a challenging topic. We report the case of a 49-year-old man with progressive chronic heart failure of ethanolic and valvular aetiology, further complicated by kidney disease, admitted with cardiogenic shock which resulted in acute kidney injury evolving into renal replacement therapy dependency. After 3 months on dialysis, the patient was submitted to a bioprosthetic mitral valve implantation and t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510057
Jose Carlos De La Flor Merino, MD, Alexander Marschall, MD, Belen Biscotti Rodil, MD and Miguel Rodeles del Pozo, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 28, 2020
SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) has dramatically increased since March 2020. There is insufficient data to establish the risk of acquiring the hyponatremia in patient with COVID-19 infection. The prevalence, clinical characteristics, severity, treatment and prognosis of hyponatremia in patients with pneumonia due to COVID-19 is not yet known, although several articles on kidney injury and electrolyte abnormalities have recently been described. IV fluid replacement should be administered with cauti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510056
Manisha Sahay, Alan Almeida, Syed Mujtaba Hussain Naqvi, Hariharan Venugopal, Ravindra Machhindra Kale, Pankaj Digambarrao Patil, Suyog Mehta and Amey Mane
Article Type: Clinical Trial | First Published: August 26, 2020
Xerostomia is a common symptom in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) undergoing hemodialysis and currently available treatments are of limited success. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of thirst-quenching lozenges (TQL) in patients with ESKD undergoing hemodialysis. Xerostomia is a subjective complaint of dryness of oral cavity and is frequently reported (28% to 67%) in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD); including those on chronic hemodialysis. Xerostomia may be attribu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510054
Amit Katyal and Rohit Tewari
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 29, 2020
The recognition of autoimmune manifestations during the course of an infection and the decision to add specific treatment for the secondary immunological abnormality are essential decisions which have to be taken timely. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a common presentation in tropical countries. The kidney is generally involved due to haematogenous spread of infection from the primary source. Glomerular involvement presenting as a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN), is extrem...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510055
Sneha Simon, DM, DNB, MRCP (UK) sce, Jose Thomas, DM and Vinayak Jayaram, MD, DNB
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 30, 2020
Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and Bilimbi fruit (Averrhoa bilimbi) are fruits under oxalidaceae and exhibits similar biochemical characteristics. There are several reports enumerating the harmful effects of these fruits in healthy persons leading to acute kidney injury and even chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy. There are occasional reports of neurotoxicity related to consumption of these fruits in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially those receiving mainte...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510053
Anushka Chadha, MD and Inderpal Chadha, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 11, 2020
Current first-line treatments for idiopathic membranous nephropathy often insufficiently reduce proteinuria and creatinine. Additional treatments options are needed for these refractory cases. Herein, we describe the case of a 68-yearold white male with worsening dyspnea and peripheral lower extremity edema with biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy, without any identifiable secondary causes of the disease. He failed to achieve partial or complete remission after initial therapy of enalapril, ato...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510052
Amit Katyal, Preet Shah and PM Dogra
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 16, 2020
Isolated renal mucormycosis is rarely reported in immunocompetent individuals. It carries a grave prognosis and the diagnosis is often achieved post-mortem. We report the case of a 22-year-old immunocompetent gentleman who presented with fever, abdominal pain and renal failure. He was managed with antibiotics, Amphotericin-B and underwent nephrectomy, with a favourable outcome. The case emphasizes that isolated renal mucormycosis may affect immunocompetent individuals. The aggressive nature of d...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510051
P Ravi Kumar, MD, Mitali Srivastava, MD and S Asmathulla, MD
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 15, 2020
This cross-sectional study, comprising of 120 CKD patients, attempted to determine, which of the two equations for estimating GFR, either by serum cystatin-C or by serum creatinine, is better related with lipid profile which is widely portrayed as a cardiovascular risk factor. The parameters evaluated included lipid profile, serum creatinine and serum cystatin-C among others. Staging was done by both the equations (MDRD equation by creatinine and CKD-EPI equation by cystatin-C) and compared, and...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510050
Christopher Farmakis, MD, Victor Canela, DO, Leigh Hunter, MD, FACP, Ravina Linenfelser, DO, Brooke Mills, MD, Kyawt Shwin, MD and Anne R Murray, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 09, 2020
Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is a complex and destructive disease process that affects multiple organ systems. The pathophysiology includes formation of immune complex deposits that create an inflammatory response in various organs, yielding distinct presentations such as purpura, arthralgias, neuropathy, fever, and pulmonary vasculitis. Over 30% of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis cases present with glomerulonephritis, which carries a worse prognosis. The majority of mixed cryoglobulinemia cases are ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510049
Vivek Sood, Vivek Kumar, Raja Ramachandran, Shefali Gupta, Vikas Gautam, Manish Rathi, HS Kohli1 and KL Gupta
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 20, 2020
Peritoneal dialysis related peritonitis is a major risk factor for drop-out of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Data on factors affecting outcome of chronic peritoneal dialysis related peritonitis and microbiology is limited. In this regard, a retrospective, observational study was conducted at Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, wherein we reviewed medical records of chronic peritoneal dialysis patients for 3 years between 01 July ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510048
Hermine Danielle Fouda Menye, Gilles Wandji, Francois F Kaze, Denis G Teuwafeu, Yaya Kane, Marie Patrice Halle, Maimouna Mahamat, Hilaire Djantio and Gloria Ashuntantang
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 31, 2019
Studies in Cameroon reported high prevalence of urinary abnormalities in sickle cell anemia (SCA). There is a lack of data in this setting on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in SCA and Sickle cell trait (SCT). This was a cross-sectional study of six months durations (April-September 2017) involving SCA (HB SS) and SCT (HBAS) subjects at Douala Laquintinie hospital. CKD was diagnosed and classified according to 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Only pa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510047
Amy D Kennedy, MD, Alex J Liu, MD, Regan M Seipp, MD, Margaret S Ryan, MD, Shaun K Yang, MD, MPH and Leslie F Thomas, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 27, 2019
This case report examines two rare mechanisms of acute renal failure in a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with high-dose vitamin C. The first is oxalate nephropathy, which is an uncommon but known complication of highdose vitamin C therapy in naturopathic medicine. The second is due to melanuria and renal melanosis, which has been described in metastatic melanoma; however, acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy has not been reported previously. We report a patient with ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510046
Joana Monteiro Dias, Rita Valerio Alves, Mario Gois, Helena Viana and Fernando Nolasco
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 25, 2019
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been historically the major cause of kidney disease in diabetic patients. However, recent studies have found a high proportion of diabetic patients with biopsy proven Non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) or NDRD superimposed on DN. These findings have resurfaced the interest in establishing which of these patients may benefit most from a kidney biopsy. Our study aims to enlighten the prevalence and etiology of biopsy proven NDRD and to explore clinical and morphologic ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510045
Kane Yaya, Biao Hermann B, Faye Moustapha, Hamat Ibrahim, Lemrabott A Tall, Faye Maria, Sakho Diama, Camara Mame Selly, Cisse M Moustapha, Seck S Mohamed, Ka El Fary, Niang Abdou and Diouf Boucar
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2019
End-stage renal failure has a significant impact on patients’ daily lives, which can be measured by quality of life questionnaires. The objective of this study was to assess the health condition related to quality of life in hemodialysed patients in three semi-urban hospitals of Senegal and to determine the factors associated with it. During an observational, transversal, descriptive and analytical study conducted for 2 months, between March 1st and April 30th, 2016, the patients’ records, i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510044
JL Merino, MD, PhD, E Garcia, NP, S Castrillo, NP, S Mendoza, NP, V Sanchez, NP, B Bueno, MD, P Dominguez, MD, B Espejo, MD and V Paraiso MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 12, 2019
Administration of single dose of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is useful for both control of anemia in hemodialysis patients and end stage renal disease. Its use in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is not as well known. We report our experience of FCM administration in PD patients. PD patients treated with i.v. in the last three years in our unit were analyzed retrospectively. Main reasons for administration of i.v. iron therapy were evaluated. Previously oral iron therapy or erythropoietic stimu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510043
Rui Hong Chen, Fen Song, Yu Gan, Ting Ting Li, Lin Ye, Wei Jing Liu and Hua-Feng Liu
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 29, 2019
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) is regarded as the important factor in many fibrotic kidney diseases. Autophagy is a vital mechanism which maintains intracellular homeostasis in eukaryotic cells and involves in various renal physiologic and pathological processes. Current studies indicate that autophagy in renal tubular epithelial cells serves as a renoprotective mechanism which modulates the course of diverse kidney disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510042
Mohamed A Sheta, MD, Axita Patel, OMS and John R Ross, MD
Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: February 23, 2019
Fifty years after the creation of the first arteriovenous access, little is known about the deleterious cardiac effects of this pathological circuit. Understanding the pathophysiology of Access Based Cardiac Disease (ABCD) is critical, given the fact that cardiac abnormalities are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in end stage kidney disease patients on dialysis. However, this has been a challenge, as many of hemodialysis patients have preexisting cardiac disease, they invariably have...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510041
Tchuenkam W Landry, Njoumemi Z, Halle MP and Ashuntantang Gloria
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 22, 2019
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a medical emergency. It refers to a heterogeneous disorder characterized by an abrupt and usually reversible decrease in kidney function, resulting in the retention of nitrogenous waste products and in the dysregulation of extracellular volume and electrolytes. Its incidence is on the rise in both developed and developing countries, with the condition resulting in high morbi-mortality and economic burden. To determine the average total cost in the management of acute...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510040
Huma Hasnain, Nawal Afif and Susanne B Nicholas
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 20, 2018
Renal artery dissections (RADs) are lesions that disrupt vessels that primarily occur in patients with a known history of hypertension and caused by stenosis or enlargement typically due to underlying connective tissue disorders. However, RADs may occur spontaneously from trauma and no previous history of hypertension. Here, we report a rare case of bilateral isolated spontaneous RADs that characteristically occurs in healthy males. A 52-year-old male presented with left lower quadrant abdominal...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510039
Ena Gupta, Ravi Sunderkrishnan, Nimrita Sidhu, Maria P Martinez Cantarin, Michael Baram and Bharat Awsare
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 27, 2018
Many studies have shown the association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and morbidity and mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Traditional measures of AKI, such as serum creatinine and urine output, fail to show dynamic changes in renal function. A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the Nephrocheck test system which comprises of two biomarkers (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2)) to screen for patients at ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510038
Shafira Mohamad Sha
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 04, 2018
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a multitude of autoantibody production. Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of its most severe manifestations and its treatment is well established with the usage of immunosuppressions. However the use of these immunosuppressions at high doses are fraught with adverse effects including infections, subfertility and even malignancy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510037
S Chand, J Hazeldine, SW Smith and R Borrows
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 25, 2018
Renal disease is a major global public health issue. Renal interstitial fibrosis is the characteristic histopathological finding in all progressive renal disease. Caveolin-1 is the essential structural protein for lipid rafts called caveolae that are ubiquitously distributed among fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Caveolin-1 acts as an intracellular signalling pathway chaperone in fibrotic disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510036
Kelly YP, Wallis L, Patil A, Murray S, Kant S, Kaballo M5, Casserly L, Doyle B, Dorman T, O'Kelly P and Conlon PJ
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 09, 2018
Alport syndrome is an inherited renal disease, first described in 1927, which is characterized by haematuria, renal failure, hearing loss, lenticonus, retinal flecks, a lamellated glomerular basement membrane and mutations in the COL4A5 or COL4A3/COL4A4 genes leading to abnormal Type IV collagen composition. The prevalence of the disease is estimated at 1 in 50,000 live births....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510035
Bruna S Lourenco, Marcos A Nascimento, Vicente N Siqueira, Sergio A Draibe, Marco T Mello, Sergio Tufik, Maria EF Canziani and Elisa MS Higa
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 06, 2018
Chronic kidney disease is a public health problem that causes severe complications to the patient. The major damage is the loss of muscle mass, with a consequent reduction in the functional capacity that is associated with hypertension and increased oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intra-dialysis resistance training on the hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510034
Chaudhry Adeel Ebad, Alan Gaffney and Peter J Conlon
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 31, 2018
We report affective utilization of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration for removal of phenobarbital in a patient who took twice amount of fatal dose and was hemodynamically stable. Historically treatment includes supportive care, activated charcoal and urinary alkalinisation along with the application of extracorporeal treatments such as charcoal haem perfusion or hemodialysis and continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration are affective treatment for removal of drug. Early initiation of extracor...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510033
Narisa Futrakul and Prasit Futrakul
Article Type: Communication | First Published: November 25, 2017
A non-communicable disease comprising various vascular diseases namely renal microvascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and coronary vascular disease, has been a threatening public health problem today. The failure of preventive strategy is due to the lack of understanding the nature of the origin of vascular disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510032
Aysun Aybal Kutlugun, Canan Yildiz and Fatma Ayerden Ebinc
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 19, 2017
Hyperkalemia is an important life-threatening electrolyte disorder and one of the most important complications of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Decreased Potassium (K) excretion due to decreased glomerular filtration rate and reduced tubular secretion due to tubulointerstitial dysfunction lead to abnormal K balance and hyperkalaemia in CKD....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510031
Grishma Desai, Ted Walton and John J Doran
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2017
Dialysis patients may experience anemia due to functional iron deficiency, which occurs in the presence of sufficient iron stores but not enough circulating iron to provide Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) the ability to increase hematopoiesis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510030
Sarinya Boongird, Supawadee Suppadungsuk, Sarassawan Kananuraks and Arkom Nongnuch
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 08, 2017
Sepsis has long been recognized as the most common cause of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), present in approximately 11-40% of patients who are admitted to intensive care units....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510029
Gustavo Orellana, Pedro Zambrano, Alejandro Sepúlveda, Ines Araneda, Jorge Rodriguez and Arnoldo Quezada
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2017
Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) on Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) experience high morbidity and mortality due to Cardiovascular (CV) disease. In pediatric patients, CV problems include Left Ventricular (LV) abnormalities, hypertension, and arrhythmias....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510028
Xihui Liu, Xiaoyan Zuo, Xueyuan Heng, Zita Abreu, Todd Penner, Lashmi Venkatraghavan and Joanne M Bargman
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 01, 2017
Laparoscopy is an effective method of implantation for Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) catheters. However, in many centers around the world, Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter (PDC) insertions are done using an open surgical method, associated with greater surgical trauma and longer duration of hospitalization....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510027
Eleanor G Seaby, David J Bunyan, Sarah Ennis and Rodney D Gilbert
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 31, 2017
Hereditary, isolated Fanconi syndrome has been described a handful of times in the literature, displaying variable Mendelian patterns of inheritance. Some cases segregate as autosomal dominant and may or may not be associated with renal failure, whilst other kindreds show recessive and X-linked recessive inheritance....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510026
Fabiola Pansani Maniglia, Edileuza Santana Soares Penido, Naiane Cristina Soares and Sergio Arthur de Oliveira Campos
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 30, 2017
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is characterized by the incontrovertible and gradual loss of endocrine, tubular, and glomerular kidney function, which impairs the removal of toxic metabolites from the body....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510025
Gerren Hobby, Mohammed Siddiqui, Shree Sharma and Manisha Singh
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 05, 2017
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is one of the infrequently encountered nephritic disorders, but one which can lead to poor renal and patient survival. Recent reports have noted the occurrence of anti-GBM disease with atypical histological features on kidney biopsy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510024
Jose Luis Merino, Yésika Amézquita, Maria Ovidia López-Oliva, María Concepción Prados, Pilar Fidalgo and Vicente Paraíso
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 17, 2017
The development of vasculitis in renal replacement therapy is rare due to the immunological condition of these patients. Its diagnosis is often complex and invasive tests are usually required. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory and a broad study (including lung biopsy) is necessary for its diagnosis which is crucial to support the necessity of immunosuppressive therapy in this kind of patients. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510023
Awad Magbri and Harshit Seth
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 13, 2017
The case is of 23-year-old Caucasian male who fell from 30 feet height in a suicidal attempt. He presented to the hospital with fever, generalized macula-papular rash, and malaise. He was discharged initially to LTAC for continued recovery. After 3 weeks in the LTAC he developed pinhole infection of his hip that was reported methicillin resistant staphylococcal infection (MRSA) positive and was started on Vancomycin....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510022
Donghua Xie, Guy M Nehrenz, Fernando Bianco, Boris Klopukh and Edward Gheiler
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 28, 2017
Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) techniques have matured and have become applicable to the diagnosis of more and more diseases in urinary tract. Modern MRU offers not only increased spatial and temporal resolution, but also provides anatomic and functional information on renal perfusion, excretion and drainage. Patients with renal colic are better examined by non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning because it is highly sensitive in detecting stones....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510021
CK Liu, F-C Hsu, V Yank, T Church, S Kashaf, S Nayfield, A Newman, DE Weiner, RS Stafford, B Nicklas3, J Milton, KM Beavers, JD Shegog, RA Fielding and LIFE-P Research Group
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 14, 2017
Because chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with muscle wasting, older adults with CKD are likely to have physical function deficits. Physical activity can improve these deficits, but whether CKD attenuates the benefits is unknown. Our objective was to determine if CKD modified the effect of a physical activity intervention in older adults....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510020
Juan F Martin-Lazaro, Sanja Janjanin, Vasu Kulhalli and James Napier
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 04, 2017
Several therapies have been proposed for the treatment of Hypertriglyceridaemic Pancreatitis; an uncommon cause (1-4%) of acute pancreatitis in which physio-pathology is unclear. Different combinations of medical drugs have been used to reduce hypertriglyceridaemia. Plasmapheresis is an invasive but effective alternative for severe cases but it is an expensive and not very accessible option in most of the centres....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510019
Donghua Xie, Edward Gheiler and Xiangfei He
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 03, 2017
Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) is an infrequent entity. Most of them are asymptomatic, but when they present as a rupture a high mortality is associated. Due to the potential risks of rupture and renal dysfunction and some persistent symptoms like hypertension, RAAs must be treated if feasible. Coil embolization or covered stent placement can now be used to treat patients with aneurysms whose size or location would make a surgical approach problematic and patients in whom surgery is considered to p...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510018
Wei-Yen Kong, Wan Zaharatul Ashikin Wan Abdullah, Halim Gafor, Rozita Mohd and Rizna Abdul Cader
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 21, 2016
We present here the first reported case of a young boy who developed classic features of HSP, i.e. palpable purpura, arthralgia, abdominal pain with bloody diarrhea and kidney involvement, following a tetanus vaccine. The diagnosis of HSP was confirmed by skin biopsy and also biopsies obtained from esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. He was initially treated with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510017
Sergio Castano-Avila, Javier Maynar-Moliner, Yolanda Poveda-Hernandez, Fernando Fonseca-San Miguel, Alejandro Martin-Lopez, Carlos Perez-Lejonagoitia, Noemi Legaristi-Florez, Ana Aced-Urbano, Elena Uson-Garcia and Alberto Manzano-Ramirez
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 14, 2016
Prospective analysis was conducted in critically ill patients with haemodialysis catheters between 25 October 2009 and 7 December 2010. We gathered data on: demographic characteristics, risk factors, extracorporeal therapy, mortality and microbiological results. CRB was detected through quantitative blood and catheter cultures. We assessed differences between aseptic and non-aseptic catheter insertion (p < 0.05)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510016
Milagros Fernandez-Lucas, Fernando Caravaca-Fontan, Antonio Chinchilla, Jose-Luis Teruel, Nuria Rodriguez-Mendiola, Estefania Yerovi, Laura Blanco, Maria Delgado and Fernando Liano
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 12, 2016
Regular surveillance and pre-emptive correction of subclinical stenosis have been shown to be useful procedures for reducing the rate of vascular access (VA) failure. Blood flow (Qa) measurement is considered the best procedure for VA surveillance. Qa below 500 ml/min or reductions over 25% from preceding Qa measurements are predictors of VA thrombosis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510015
Osama A Khamis, Salama S Abdellatif, Mostafa A Alsawasany, Abdellah H ELSadek, Amin M Hegazy, Khaled M Dessouky and Ahmed M Fahmy
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 19, 2016
The kidney is involved in the regulation of thyroid hormones metabolism. Numerous abnormalities of thyroid hormones in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have been described. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its relation to Echocardiologic abnormalities in patients with end stage kidney disease....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510014
Agnes Masengu, Melanie Wolfenden, Alexander P Maxwell and Jennifer B Hanko
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 12, 2016
Personality traits have been associated with job performance. Previous studies have explored nephrologist preferences regarding optimal renal replacement therapy (RRT) outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease. The role of physician personality traits and patient outcomes has not been investigated. A pilot study was carried out at a single centre to investigate this....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510013
Houda Aboujamous, Ted Walton and John J Doran
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 15, 2016
The objective of this study was to quantify the change in serum potassium level after intravenous or oral potassium administration. Secondary objectives include investigating the possible influence of concurrent medications, renal function, and Body Mass Index (BMI)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510012
Nicole Lioufas, Jonathan Ling, Juli Jaw, Mathew Mathew, Matthew Jose and Richard Yu
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: August 31, 2016
Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy affecting 3-5% of pregnancies worldwide. Traditional teaching has generally maintained that the natural history of Pre-eclampsia is one of resolution of renal pathology and other clinical features- some days to weeks after delivery of the placenta. Renal injury is mediated by both endothelial and podocyte injury in pre-eclampsia. In some women however, the renal injury does not resolve and proteinuria persists following pregnancy...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510011
Paul J Hutchison, Yusra Cheema, Hala Yamout, Kathy Johnson Neely and Cybele Ghossein
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2016
Background:Acute kidney injury (AKI) carries a high mortality among patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is used to treat complications of AKI, but it is often initiated in patients who have little hope of surviving. Objective:The authors sought to teach nephrology and pulmonary fellows how to utilize a time-limited trial strategy when discussing CRRT. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510010
Elizabeth Liang, Mayra Rodriguez, Melissa Mueller, Matthew K Abramowitz and Michele H Mokrzycki
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 20, 2016
Background: We aimed to determine outcomes associated with a heparin-free hemodialysis (H-HD) protocol in hospitalized patients. Methods: A retrospective study comparing 2 intra-dialytic heparin protocols: H + HD (routine heparin prime/bolus dosing) and H-HD (saline prime, heparin avoidance). HD circuit patency, need for intra-dialytic interventions and patient bleeding events were the outcomes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510009
Rizawati RI, Shamila K, Shafira MS and Ruslinda M
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 20, 2016
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is also known as an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). It is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy commonly post-infectious in origin that presents with ascending weakness, loss of sensation and deep tendon reflexes resulting from demyelination of peripheral nerve. Drug-induced neuropathy has been describing before and remains a rare clinical entity. Development GBS after an episode of infections such as Campylobacter Jejuni, Epstein Barr Virus, and...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510008
Anna Dorothea Hock
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 14, 2016
Vitamin D3-insufficiency/ deficiency is a common condition arising from prevalent indoor activities and use of sunscreens with high protection factor. Lacking sunlight is frequent in patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia (FMS), and myalgic encephalopathy (ME) probably because of fatigue-related reduction of outdoor activity, high premorbid engagement in professional or caring activities, and preceding stressful life events....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510007
Leonilde Amado, Veronica Poveda, Ricardo Ferreira, Nuno Ferreira, Vasco Miranda Laetitia Teixeira, Constanca Paul, Alice Santos-Silva and Elisio Costa
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 28, 2016
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under dialysis showed a higher prevalence of depression, which is independently associated with non-adherence, hospitalization and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression and associated variables, among ESRD late-life patients under online-haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510006
Salwa Selim Ibrahim Abougalambou, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Ayman S. Abougalambou and Mohamed Azmi Hassali
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 23, 2016
Nephropathy is a major cause of illness and death of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), Diabetic nephropathy has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; kidney failure that requires a lifetime of dialysis. It develops in about 20-40% of Type 2 Diabetes patients....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510005
Anna Ryden, Matthew Wolfe and Mona L Martin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 01, 2016
End-stage renal disease treated with hemodialysis (ESRD-HD) is associated with poor outcomes for patients and can substantially reduce health-related quality of life (HRQL). Alongside drug development for this patient group, there is a need for a better understanding of patients' perceptions of their condition, their symptoms and the impact ESRD-HD has on their lives. Here, we report data from qualitative, semi-structured, concept-elicitation interviews, conducted as part of a phase 2 clinical s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510004
Gabriela Hernandez-Molina, Joaquin Zuniga, Adriana Torres-Machorro, Lourdes Mena-Hernandez, Antonio Cachafeiro, Julio Granados and Marina Rull-Gabayet
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 31, 2016
Background: Hyperuricemia is frequent among renal transplant recipients. The role of the HLA system in the susceptibility of hyperuricemia is unknown. Methods: We evaluated the HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 distribution among 160 renal recipients: 132 with hyperuricemia (Group 1) and 28 free of it (Group 2) as well as 381 ethnic-specific Mexican-mestizo population historic controls. The HLA alleles were assessed by PCR-SSP and the HLA allele gene frequencies were obtained by direct gene counting and compar...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510003
Vij Sarah C, Karim Wadih, Luzny Patrik, Myers Jeremy B, Emilio Poggio, Herts Brian and Wood Hadley
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 31, 2016
Renal volume-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using computed tomography (CT) in renal donor populations have been described. We hypothesized that the same technology would be especially useful in myelomeningocele (MMC) patients for whom standard methods of GFR assessment are inaccurate....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510002
Ibrahim A Qaqish and Mira T Keddis
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 22, 2015
The H1N1 influenza A (swine flu) was first recognized in 1918 during the influenza pandemic and was first isolated from humans in 1974. Several reports ofH1N1 influenza A was reported between 1958 and 2005 with mortality rates up to 17%. In 2009 worldwide outbreak of H1N1 influenza A led the world health organization to raise its pandemic alert to its highest level. H1N1 influenza A was found to be associated with significantly higher mortality in all age groups compared to seasonal influenza wh...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3286.1510001
Tripti Kumar, Thomas Fennell and Ping L. Zhang
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 17, 2015
After the initial diagnosis of a renal biopsy, direct immunoflorescent (DIF) slides would be ideally kept for later internal and external reviews. Although there is an assumption that rapid reduction in florescent intensity occurs after DIF staining, no renal DIF study has addressed how long DIF slides can be reliably stored for re-examination at room temperature....
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