Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment is an international, open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes clinical information in all areas of gastro-enteric system. The journal aims to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to encourage research and publications globally. The Journal provides the clinicians, surgeons and health professionals with a platform to contribute their findings and help raise awareness on management of the gastrointestinal tract and liver diseases. We aim to publish highest quality clinical content via open access platform providing the readers at no cost, immediate and unlimited access.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment is an open journal providing the readers information on research updates, discovery and innovation in various aspects of Biology of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver, Acute Abdominal Pain, Chronic Abdominal Pain, Esophageal Disease, Dyspepsia, Nausea and Vomiting, Diarrhea, Intestinal Gas, Constipation, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Disease, Eating Disorders, Stomach and Duodenum, Pancreas, Biliary Tract, Small and Large Intestine, Liver, Psychosocial Disorders, Advances in Treatment, Endoscopy, Gastric Cancer, Ulcerative Colitis, Disease Pathology, Prevention and Management, etc. The journal accepts all manuscript formats such as Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Clinical Image, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510081
Chien-Hua Lin, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Der-Ao Chou, Min-Ho Huang and Hurng-Sheng Wu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 03, 2021
Mesenteric lipoma is rare, no more than 50 cases were reported. They usually occur in the superficially trunk or extremities. They are the most common soft tissue tumors and usually asymptomatic. We reported a 60-year-old male with complaint of abdominal fullness and nausea for two days. The image studies showed mesenteric lipoma that caused compression of the intestine and obstruction. After nasogastric tube decompression and fluid supplement, the symptoms relived. We suggested of surgical inte...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510080
A Rkiouak, PhD, N Sahel, MD, I El Kassimi, MD, M Zaizae, MD and Y Sekkach, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 07, 2021
Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) results from an obstruction of the hepatic venous drainage, from the hepatic venules up to the terminal part of the inferior vena cava. A myeloproliferative syndrome, in particular an essential thrombocythemia (ET), is one of the most common causes (40-50%). The search for the Jak2 mutation facilitates haematological management. The diagnosis is made by Doppler ultrasound, supplemented by an MRI or CT scan. Support is based on early anti-coagulation, treatment of prot...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510079
Teruyoshi Oda, Masakatsu Tsurusaki, Isao Numoto, Yukinobu Yagyu and Kazunari Ishii
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: March 19, 2021
Acute cholecystitis is a common surgical emergency, for which ultrasound (US) is the most common first-line diagnostic imaging test. Computed tomography (CT) is an alternative or complementary test for the assessment of acute cholecystitis. Acute cholecystitis is diagnosed based on clinical history and assessment, biochemical examination, and US findings. CT is considered only in case of unclear clinical symptoms or discrepant findings. We aimed to retrospectively compare the efficiency of CT an...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510078
Kulvinder S Bajwa, MD, Anirudh K Madabhushi, MBS, Nadim Jafri, MD, Shinil K Shah, DO and Melissa M Felinski, DO
Article Type: Case Report/Clinical Image | First Published: October 29, 2020
Splenic hematoma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a rarely reported complication. We describe a patient who developed acute blood loss anemia after ERCP and was found to have a splenic hematoma. She recovered successfully with conservative non operative management. We describe the incidence, diagnosis, potential preventive strategies, as well as management of this rare complication. The patient is an 83-year-old woman with congestive heart failure, hypertension, gas...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510077
Dhruvan Patel, MD, Ricardo Morgenstern, MD, Anisha Daxini and Steven Lichtenstein, DO
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 26, 2020
Malabsorptive procedure mimics Roux-n-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. RYGB exhibits significant hormonal changes after surgery which results in acute and immediate glycemic control via an anti-diabetic weight-independent mechanism, even without significant weight loss after surgery. Therefore, malabsorptive procedure can be considered metabolic procedure because it will help in reducing weight as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this review article, we aim to provide an overview on t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510076
El Hassani Younes, Janati Idrissi Karim, Haloua Meriem, Alami Badreeddine, Hafidi Youssef, Boubbou Meryem, Maaroufi Mustapha and Alaoui Lamrani Moulay Youssef
Article Type: Case Study | First Published: October 09, 2020
Major complications after TACE for HCC occur approximatively in 2.7 to 5% of patients. The main complications can be vascular: Within the access artery or the hepatic artery, or non-vascular: Post-embolization syndrome (PES), biliary tract injuries, non-target regional or distant (cerebral or pulmonary) embolization, intra- or extrahepatic infection, TACE induced hepatic failure, hepatic rupture and many others. The incidence of liver abscess in literature varies between 0.2% and 2%. It is stati...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510075
Natassia Vianna Bocchese, Noele Gurgel Dávila, Maria Beatriz Maia Rodrigues, Rebecca Renata Lapenda do Monte, Renata Carneiro Melo, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo and Irami Araújo- Filho
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2020
The clinical syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 was called COVID-19 and became a pandemic from March 2020. Fever, dry cough, and dyspnoea are the predominant clinical manifestations of the disease. However, symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort can also be found in infected patients. Despite the increased prevalence since the second phase of the recent epidemic in China, scientific evidence on the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 has received little attentio...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510074
Natassia Vianna Bocchese, Noele Gurgel Dávila, Maria Beatriz Maia Rodrigues, Irami Araújo- Neto, Mariana de Oliveira Costa, Diniz de Meiroz Grillo Barbalho, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo and Irami Araújo-Filho
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 27, 2020
SARS-CoV-2, a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by Coronavirus 2, discovered in 2019 in China, is responsible for the current pandemic declared by the WHO since March 2020. The clinical syndrome caused by Covid-19 has a broad spectrum of severity. The most common clinical manifestations are fever, dry cough, dyspnea, fatigue, and anosmia. The virus binds to receptors for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ECA2) and serine protease TMPRSS2 for protein S initiation, which are expressed not on...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510073
Abolfazl Davoodabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Maryam Tajabadi Ebrahimi and Zahra Rajabi
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 25, 2020
Lactobacilli are important bacteria among intestinal microflora. They can prevent intestinal colonization by pathogenic bacteria, and used as probiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate Lactobacillus colonization in the fecal of healthy breast-fed infants. Fecal samples were collected from 90 healthy breast-fed infants under 18 months. Lactobacilli were identified by phenotypic and physiological methods. Carbohydrate fermentation patterns were determined using a miniplate metho...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510072
Ricky Wayne McCullough, MD, ScM, FAcadTM
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 30, 2020
Clinical outcomes from standard sucralfate do not justify role in the management of erosive and non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pre-polymerized sucralfate, sometimes called high potency sucralfate or polymerized cross-linked sucralfate is a new sucralfate formulation recognized by the US FDA in 2005. Positive clinical data from three randomized controlled trials using pre-polymerized sucralfate for GERD and NERD was first reported in 2014 AGA’s Digestive Disease Week (DDW)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510071
Eran Ariam, Anton Bermont, Yehuda Herskovitz, Shay Matalon, Bard Vyacheslav, Reut Yaakobi, Daana Baseem, Fadi Younis, Asia Zubkov, Efrat Broide, Benjamin Avidan, Steven F Moss and Haim Shirin
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 18, 2019
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common subepithelial tumors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and they are usually located in the stomach. To date, only a few studies have investigated the risk factors for GIST ulceration and bleeding and there have been no prior publications focused on role of Helicobacter pylori in GIST ulceration. The aim of current study was to investigate the risk factors of mucosal ulceration in gastric GISTs. A retrospective study was conducted of 130...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510070
Marco Distefano, Lorenza Di Marco, Enzo Scifo, Salvatore Gruttadauria, Gaetano Scifo and Vito Di Marco
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 30, 2019
Clinical trials and real word data have proven that chronic hepatitis C (HCV) can be eradicated (sustained virological response SVR or ‘cure’) in the majority of patients by direct - acting antivirals (DAAs) . There are, however, groups of patients in whom HCV treatment outcomes with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) are suboptimal (genotype (GT) 3 patients, decompensated cirrhosis, renal failure) or have not been studied in large cohorts (patients with relapse to a previous DAAs treatment (fa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510069
Tram Anh H Nguyen and Melissa C Palmer
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 26, 2019
Nguyen TAH, Palmer MC (2019) Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Case Report and Treatment Overview. J Clin Gastroenterol Treat 5:069. doi.org/10.23937/2469- 584X/1510069...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510068
Longjian Geng, Lidong Han, Lulu Huang, Ziheng Wu, Zhenghong Wu and Xiaole Qi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 26, 2019
Utilization of diverse anti-acid materials is necessary for the preparation of compound omeprazole capsules. However, to gain the satisfied anti-acid effect, use of large amount of anti-acids is always difficult to swallow. This study aimed to develop a lightweight compound omeprazole capsule which could achieve immediately drug releasing with high anti-acid ability in stomach. In this study, we successfully prepared OMZ-CD, which were characterized and compared with micronized OMZ. An improved ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510067
Yanda Lu, Donghua Xie, Wei Huang, Heyi Gong, Qiuhe Song and Jinming Yu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 21, 2019
43 cases of HBV carriers were divided into control group (n = 22) and prevention group (n = 21) accordingly to disease type. The two groups received chemotherapy at standard dose intensity. For the prevention group lamivudine 100 mg/d was added. Liver function, HBV markers, and HBV-DNA level were tested for every patient before and after chemotherapy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510066
Olga M. Klibanov, Delina Meskel, Chris Gillette and Tagbo J Ekwonu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 21, 2019
This retrospective cohort included patients who initiated on DAAs between May 2014 and May 2018. The primary endpoint was SVR12. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. Bivariate associations between patients achieving treatment success and demographic and clinical variables were conducted using chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and independent samples t-test with a two-sided alpha value of 0.05....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510065
Cristina Tocia, MD, Luana Alexandrescu, MD, Victoria Cristina Șuța, MD and Eugen Dumitru, MD
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: April 29, 2019
Articular manifestations are the most common extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases and are classified into axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and peripheral SpA. EIM may occur before or after IBD diagnosis, being the proof that IBD is not only limited to gut. Here we present a case series of three patients with Crohn's disease and extraintestinal manifestations admitted to our hospital. Patients had in common young age, Crohn's disease with moderate or severe clinic and endosc...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510064
Claire M Shin and Steven B Clayton
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 18, 2019
A 36-year-old woman with a history of benign refractory esophageal stricture from gastroesophageal reflux disease was treated with anesophageal stent and a gastrostomy tube 2 months prior to presenting with acute dysphagia and odynophagia. Esophagram and upper endoscopy revealed esophageal stent migration into the stomach and a pinpoint stricture of the distal third of the esophagus, which made retrograde extraction unfeasible. The stent was successfully extracted through the pre-existing gastro...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510063
Tolga Aliyazicioglu, Senol Carilli, Izzet Rozanes and Ali Sami Emre
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 31, 2018
Although mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in high volume centers is less than 5%, morbidity is still as high as 30 - 50%. Hemorrhage from ruptured pseudoaneurysm is a rapidly progressing and potentially fatal complication after PD.Visceral pseudoaneurysm after pancreatic surgery is well known by surgeons. Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage is a life threatening entity, and must be managed urgently. Here we report two cases, late massive bleeding after pancreaticoduodenectomy. First case i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510062
Nikki Duong, Alice Lee and James H Lewis
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2018
The side effect profile of NSAIDs is well-established. For prevention of NSAID-related ulcers, the evidence suggests that misoprostol and PPIs (proton pump inhibitors) are superior to H2RAs (histamine-2-receptor-antagonists). Current guidelines recommend use of the lowest possible NSAID dose, as well as consideration of the patients' gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risk profile....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510061
Kelly Cristine de Lacerda Rodrigues Buzatti, Igor Guedes Nogueira Reis, Isabelle Reis Daldegan and Beatriz Deoti Silva Rodrigues
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 27, 2018
Rectal cancer metastasis to an anal fissure is an extremely rare condition, being the most common dissemination mechanisms lymphatic and blood vessels. However, it is possible that feces carry tumor cells from proximal regions of the intestine to implant in injured areas of the anal mucosa, such as anal fistula, anal fissure or hemorrhoidectomy wound....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510060
Rami R Mustafa, Leena Khaitan, Michał Robert Janik, Adel Alhaj Saleh, Mohammed Alshehri, Seyed Mohammad Kalantar Motamedi, Adil Khan, Heba elghalban, Tomasz Rogula and Mujjahid Abbas
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 04, 2018
Obesity is a multinational public health burden as obesity has doubled since 1980 with 1.5 billion adults gone into obesity in 2008. In the United States, 34 percent of US adults 20-years-old and older are overweight, 34% obese, and 6% are Morbid obese. Obesity is precisely linked to diabetes, hypertension and other chronic disease increase risk, Making big load on public health....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510059
Woodard C DO, Gelsomino T, Latronica A, Hooks ML, Aboelsoud M and Wu DY
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 30, 2018
Chronic hepatitis B affects approximately 1.25 million persons in the United States, leading to significant morbidity and mortality from liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B to infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers has been reported to be as high as 90 percent without the use of active and passive immunization....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510058
Mortazavi AR, Joudi M, Zabolinejad N, Aelami MH, Farhangi H and Alamdaran SA
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 26, 2018
We reported two pediatric rare cases with massive splenic infarction that in both of them the interspersed hyperechoic linear striation of the splenic parenchyma was first suggestive sign of infarction, and diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler and surgery....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510057
Kevin Pelland and Xuchen Zhang
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 19, 2018
Pseudomelanosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract is rare and classically associated with oral iron intake, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, diabetes mellitus, end stage renal disease and antihypertensive medication use. Duodenal involvement is well described, but only few cases of combined stomach and duodenal involvement have been reported to date. The lesion is indolent but can mimic more concerning entities like malignant melanoma....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510056
Divya Chalikonda, Charles Kistler, Xiangdong David Ren and Hie-Won Hann
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2018
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most significant hepatocarcinogens. Increased risk for the development of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was observed in patients with dual infection compared to those with either HBV or HCV infection alone....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510055
Ermolenko E, Varsin S, Baryshnikova N, Svarval A, Ferman R, Besedina N, Zakrevskaya A, Molostova A and Suvorov A
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 16, 2018
Investigation of gastric and colon microbiota in Helicobater pylori-infectes patients shown that: 1. Gastric microbiota in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients was different and the samples from H. pylori-positive patients were characterized by the higher growth of opportunistic bacteria; 2. The link between H. pylori in stomach and colon microbiota is possible; 3. After eradication without probiotics we saw decreasing level of Bifidobacteria spp., Lactobacillus spp. and increasing...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510054
Shinichiro Koketsu, Shinichi Sameshima, Takashi Okuyama, Hiroshi Shigematsu and Masatoshi Oya
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 22, 2018
Leukocyte apheresis is a therapeutic option for moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis in Japan. It causes fewer complications, however, leukocyte apheresis requires the use of a relatively large caliber of peripheral venous line for hemodialysis. We reluctantly used a large caliber catheter with a double-lumen into the central vein. Catheter-related thrombosis and infection cases were occasionally observed during leukocyte apheresis. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510053
Ebule IA, Djune FAK, Njeambosay BA, Doh GN, Metaghue G, Majuikouo L, Befolo MHDM, Nkayo M, Tanni B, Heugueu C, FEUATSAPK C, Noah ND, Paloheimo L and Syrjanen K
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 30, 2017
Infection to Helicobacter pylori has been associated to many gastrointestinal diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. Chronic infections are frequent and severe in patients with diabetes mellitus (DMT2), probably due to the impairment of their immune status. The link between H. pylori infection and diabetes mellitus (DM) remains controversial....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510052
Ebule IA, Djune FAK, Njeambosay BA, Doh G N, Befolo MHDM, Nkayo M, Metaghue G, Majuikouo L, Tanni B, Heugueu C, FEUATSAPK C, Noah ND, Paloheimo L and Syrjanen K
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 30, 2017
Gastric inflammation is a precursor to many gastrointestinal disorders including, peptic ulcer disease, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. Gastritis is frequent and usually severe in patients with diabetes mellitus (DMT2), probably due to the impairment of their immune status. Atrophic gastritis is usually accompanied by low hydrochloric acid, low pepsinogens and hypergastrinemia and is the most significant risk condition for gastric cancer....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510051
Meghana Vellanki and Steven Clayton
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 30, 2017
Barrett's esophagus requires surveillance to monitor for dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. New methods have been developed to detect dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. One of these methods, the wide area transepithelial sampling 3D brush biopsy (WATS 3D) is a computer-assisted brush-biopsy technique that uses an abrasive sampling instrument to detect dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma compared to the standard four quadrant biopsy method....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510050
Natalia G Vallianou, Eleni Geladari, Evangelia Margellou, George Liadakis, Christina Vourlakou and Evangelos Kokkinakis
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 20, 2017
Sarcoma Kaposi is rare and most commonly affects the skin. Herein, we present a patient with ulcerative colitis, who developed intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma only six months after being diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. Therefore, we may conclude that sarcoma Kaposi was not due to immunosuppressive treatment, as its cutaneous form appeared only twenty days after having started azathioprine, mesalazine and corticosteroids enema....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510049
Vania DePaoli, Francis Barany and Yu-Wei Cheng
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: September 30, 2017
Retinoids and its derivatives are known to regulate tumor progression. Our previous study in Colorectal Cancer (CRC) has shown that the expression of LRAT, a gene converts excess retinol into retinyl ester to balance retinoids homeostasis, may be regulated by its promoter methylation status to modulate the retinoids synthesis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510048
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 30, 2017
All consecutive patients who underwent endoscopy in the years 2006-2015 in whom FGP's were seen were included. An extensive search was done in order to assess use of PPI's. As a control group all consecutive patients in 2012, in whom no macroscopic abnormalities were seen, were used....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510047
Gianluca Cappelleri, Enrico Sangiovanni and Mario Dell'Agli
Article Type: Case Study | First Published: July 08, 2017
The use of botanicals is increasingly throughout the world. They are ingredients of different types of products, such as herbal medicinal products, Plant Food Supplements (PFS), and functional foods. They are commonly taken to promote health and treat or prevent diseases, even if, in most of cases, there is no clear evidence of their clinical efficacy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510046
Hasan M Isa, Afaf M Mohamed, Halima E Al-Jowder and Khadija A Matrook
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2017
Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is an Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) that has potential morbidities, lifelong challenges and can leave both physical and psychosocial impacts. This study aimed to review the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and way of diagnosis, therapeutic approaches, complications and outcome of pediatric patients with UC....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510045
Kevin J Chan, Bernard M Smithers and Michael W Hii
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 31, 2017
A Hiatus Hernia (HH) describes the protrusion of intra-abdominal contents, through the oesophageal hiatus of the diaphragm and into the mediastinum. The hernia typically contains the stomach to varying degrees but may include other organs such as the omentum, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510044
Fatma Soylemez, Ozlem Izci Ay, Ertan Ay, Engin Altintas, Cagatay H Turkseven and Mehmet E Erdal
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 15, 2017
To evaluate the effect of EGF in primary culture of ulcer patients and N87 cell line on expressions of apoptotic genes. Ulcer patients who applied to Gastroenterology Clinic of Mersin University Medical Faculty were included in this study. EGF application to the primary culture of biopsy samples with ulcer patients and gastric cancer cell-line (ATCC-NCI-N87) has been carried out at three different doses....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510043
SAL Hall, T Thomas, R Pathi, KR Muller and AJ Wigg
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 02, 2017
Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective treatment for eligible patients with Acute Liver Failure (ALF). Prompt evaluation and decision making are required as there is often a small window of opportunity for LT before deterioration of patient health makes LT futile....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510042
Abigail B Podany, Anthony Y Tsai and Peter W Dillon
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 21, 2017
Acute appendicitis is the most common pediatric surgical emergency worldwide. The diagnosis and management in children involves a unique set of challenges for clinicians. While the diagnosis is primarily clinical, utilization of imaging and laboratory studies can aid practitioners in making a more prompt diagnosis, preventing complications from appendiceal perforation and limiting the rate of negative appendectomies. In children special emphasis has been placed on minimizing ionizing radiation e...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510041
Benjaminov Fabiana, Stein Assaf, Segal Ramona, Konikoff Fred M, Naftali Timna and Hermoni Doron
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 19, 2017
Genetic and environmental factors have a major influence on the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Older studies reported a very low prevalence of IBD among the Arab population in Israel. Evaluate the current prevalence and disease characteristics of IBD in the Israeli-Arab population and to compare them to the Jewish population in the same area....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510040
Aaron Lerner and Torsten Matthias
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: January 07, 2017
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is influenced by genetic susceptibility and surrounding environmental factors. Despite unknown etiology, the environmental factors are continuously unraveled. Studying ethnical differences in a well characterized and stable region might disclose etiologies and pathophysiological mechanism. The ethnical trends in IBD in Israel disclosed incidents, epidemiological, clinical, therapeutical and morbidity differences between the Arabs and Jews dwelling in a non-migran...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510039
Filippo Fontani, Vladana Domazetovic, Tommaso Marcucci, Maria Teresa Vincenzini and Teresa Iantomasi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 05, 2017
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins and in several functions such as wound repair. The regulation of MMPs occurs at various levels including expression and inhibition by tissue specific inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). An alteration of intracellular redox state can modulate the activation and/or expression of MMPs. The increased expression and activity of MMPs are related to inflammatory state and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510038
Takashi Abe, Takayuki Nagai and Kazunari Murakami
Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: December 01, 2016
A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with squamous cell lung cancer in the right lower lobe. He was treated with chemotherapy (first line: TS-1/CDDP; second line: carboplatin/nab-paclitaxel) and radiation therapy (41.4 Gy), but his disease continued to progress. The patient complained of relatively sudden-onset chest pain and high-grade fever. Computed tomography (CT) showed a small volume of air in the lung cancer of the right lower lobe, so the patient was suspected of fistula between the esophagus...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510037
Natalia G Vallianou, Charikleia Kouvidou, Eleni Geladari, Kyriakos Trigkidis, Eleni Antypa and Evangelos Kokkinakis
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 09, 2016
Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in adult. Here, we present a patient who died due to hepatic encephalopathy, which was attributed to liver metastasis, which occurred nine years after the revelation of the uveal melanoma....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510036
Kazuhiko Morii, Takeharu Yamamoto, Shinichiro Nakamura, Mitsuki Fukumoto, Reiko Iwamoto, Mai Yoshioka and Hiroaki Okushin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 24, 2016
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis and clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) could show satisfactory virological and safety outcomes on direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Methods: Patients with HCV-related cirrhosis treated with DAA therapy were collected in the period between December 2014 and December 2015. Patient characteristics, therapeutic details, and safety outcomes were evaluated. CSPH was defined as p...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510035
Parisa Khodayar-Pardo and Andres Pena Aldea
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: October 04, 2016
Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO), although rare in children, is a significant cause of portal hypertension (PHT) which leads to life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding in the pediatric age group. PHT may also lead to other complications such as hypersplenism, cholangiopathy, ascites, and even hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension that may require organ transplantation....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510034
Maite Dominguez-Ayala, Alberto Loizate Totoricaguena, Izaskun del Hoyo Aretxabala, Beatriz Uriarte Vergara, Inigo Vilar Achabal and Jesus Maria Gomez Zabala
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 04, 2016
The management process of colorectal cancer (CRC) comprises a large number of strategic moments for disease treatment. Key points of progress on this disease research range from the the initial screening phase, where screening tests and maximum population coverage are crucial, to the decision on what is the best personalized treatment at different disease stages. An overview of each of these phases will be conducted, unifying in one article the two main moments of CRC management....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510033
Li Ke, Di Zhang, Yu Chen, Linhui Zhang, Shaohua Zhu, Anhui Wang, Lei Shang, Xiaomeng Cui, Xin Liu, Yongquan Shi and Daiming Fan
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 19, 2016
The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors of gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) in northwest of China. A retrospective case-control study was conducted with a well-designed questionnaire, including basic information and related factors. Totally 2157 subjects with benign upper gastrointestinal disorders from Xijing hospital and the second affiliated hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University were enrolled in this study, among which 332 cases were patients with IM and another 1825 patients...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510032
Milena Rios Santos, Patricia Cerqueira Lima, Luciana Rodrigues Silva, Marilia Menegassi Zotareli, Cibele Dantas Ferreira Marques and Hemerson Dyego Novais Gomes
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 30, 2016
The systemic erythematous lupus (LES) is a chronic inflammatory disease of autoimmune aetiology, characterized by the involvement of multiple organs and systems. It can be related to the production of different antibodies and the formation of immune complexes. It is a universally distributed disease which most frequently affects young females in childbearing age. It is uncommon to occur before ten years of age and very rare before five years of age....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510031
Raul Adrover, Cecilia Siri, Daniel Cocozzella, Carlos Quarin, Juan Rome and Horacio Aziz
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: July 29, 2016
A 29-year-old woman in her third pregnancy (at 22 weeks), with a history of arterial hypertension under treatment with enalapril, which medication was switched to α-methyldopa on gestation week 8. She then began to experience coluria, generalized pruritus, and asthenia. Four days before consultation, she presented with jaundice. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510030
Matheus Matta Machado Mafra Duque Estrada Meyer, Edmilson Celso Santos, Thalita Ezequiel de Souza, Paulo Vilela Neto, Laura Mendes Franca, Luisa Godinho Soares Bomfa, Marina Janot Pacheco de Castro, Paula Ferreira Possa, Rita de Cassia Melo Rabelo and Marcos Campos Wanderley Reis
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 08, 2016
The gastrostomy is a procedure that aims to ensure a feeding pathway for patients who are unable to maintain adequate long term oral intake. Currently there are described the classical open technique and minimally invasive techniques, such as percutaneous endoscopic and percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy, each one with its profile of indications and complications....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510029
Koh ZL Sharon, Yamamoto H and Tsang BS Charles
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 01, 2016
We report a 52-year-old man who underwent a screening colonoscopy, which revealed a sessile rectal polyp with neoplastic features on magnified chromo-endoscopy. Based on pit pattern analysis and endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS), Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) was performed for a presumptive diagnosis of an early rectal neoplastic lesion (limited to the mucosa and upper third of the submucosa). Histopathological examination however reported it to be a submucosal rectal lipoma with overlying re...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510028
Justo I, Marcacuzco A, Caso O, Cambra F, Garcia-Nebreda M, Nutu A, Rivas C and Jimenez C
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: May 29, 2016
Lipomas are benign tumors rarely found in the digestive tract, particularly rare in the colon, that were first described by Bauer in 1757 as an unusual cause of intussusception in the adult. Lipomas are most often small, asymptomatic and identified as incidental findings during colonoscopy. Nonetheless, up to 25% are symptomatic in the form of abdominal pain, bleeding, diarrhea or intussusception. Ninety percent of lipomas in the colon are located at the submucosal layer, with only few originati...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510027
Matthias Heuer, Bjorn Hussmann, Rolf Lefering, Gernot M Kaiser, Sven Lendemans and TraumaRegister DGU
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 29, 2016
In multiple-injury patients, the stomach and duodenum are part of the injury pattern to varying degrees in around 0.5-2% of the documented cases. In industrialized countries, abdominal injuries are mostly caused by a blunt accident mechanism. And yet, the abdominal upper GI injury is frequently not directly life-threatening. In 30-40% of the cases, complications occur, which may lead to a significant reduction in quality of life, e.g. due to nutrition problems and/or in chronic post-traumatic/ -...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510026
Courtney B Sherman, Wei Zhao, Douglas A Corley and Jennifer Guy
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 28, 2016
iver biopsy is not routinely recommended for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Identification of characteristic imaging findings is usually sufficient for diagnosis and biopsy is recommended for a subset of patients with indeterminate lesions based on imaging or clinical characteristics. The study aim was to determine real-world utilization and accuracy of liver biopsy in patients ultimately diagnosed with HCC in a community setting during an era when liver biopsy was commonly uti...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510025
Lillian Reza, Madeeha Aziz, Olga Tsiamita and Abraham Ayantunde
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 26, 2016
Jejunal diverticulae are a rare phenomenon that is usually asymptomatic but can present with chronic abdominal pain or as an acute abdomen when complicated by intestinal diverticulitis, obstruction, haemorrhage or perforation. The clinical presentation is often atypical and therefore diagnosis occurs at surgical intervention or occasionally during an imaging investigation. Surgical resection of the affected bowel segment with primary anastomosis is the preferred treatment of choice in complicate...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510024
FW Chen, W Matar, M Hersch and J Freiman
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 06, 2016
Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive rod, infects the central nervous system in neonates, pregnant woman and those immunosuppressed by naturally occurring illnesses and by therapeutic agents, including agents such as infliximab. We report here the first published case of Listeriosis complicating Infliximab therapy in Crohn's disease in Australia....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510023
Fabio Uggeri, Enrico Pinotti, Giulia Lo Bianco, Luca Nespoli and Fabrizio Romano
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 25, 2016
Meckel's diverticulum has an incidence of 2-4% and is the most common congenital defect of the gastrointestinal tract. It is usually asymptomatic, it may become clinically evident in the presence of complications such as haemorrhage, obstruction or diverticulitis. We here report the case of a young patient of 11 years old with intestinal obstruction caused by a volvulus over a loop formed by the adhesion of Meckel's diverticulum to the cecal appendix. In most cases, the formation of volvulus is ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510022
Petko I Karagyozov, Bilyana H Teneva, Ivan P Tishkov, Zhenya N Georgieva and Marina Vloka
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 23, 2016
Haemosuccus pancreaticus (HP) is a rare life threatening and difficult to diagnose cause of upper gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. It presents bleeding from the ampulla of Vater via the pancreatic duct. A 34-year-old woman was discharged from the Surgery Department after operation of pancreatic pseudocysts. Later she was rehospitalized twice due to bleeding from the contact drainage and melena. The upper GI endoscopy found gastric varices without bleeding and no pathologic changes of the papilla of...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510021
Huafeng Shen, David R Cave and Seymour Katz
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 21, 2016
Cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis is a rare idiopathic condition, characterized by multiple small intestinal fibrous strictures with superficial ulcerations. It typically has a chronic or relapsing clinical course and has been mainly reported from Asia and Europe. We report a case of cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE) in a patient with chronic anemia with melena and intermittent abdominal pain. The clinicopathological features of CMUSE are different fro...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510020
Hyok Jun Kwon, Sharon Dudley-Brown, Merrilee Williams, Marie-Michelle Sullivan and Michael Schultz
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 12, 2016
Optimal management of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) aims for low levels of inflammation to reduce complication rates and disease burden. Scoring systems have been developed to monitor disease but most have not been validated or have shortcomings that limit their practical use. Our aim was to compare two patient related outcome scoring systems with established and validated tools to estimate disease severity in patients with IBD....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510019
Yana Thaker, Andrew Moon and Anita Afzali
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 09, 2016
Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative, helical bacilli that live in the gastric epithelium was first isolated in 1983. It was discovered by Marshall and Warren who cultured Campylobacter pyloridis, which was later reclassified as Helicobacter pylori. It is transmitted via the fecal-oral, gastro-oral, or oral-oral routes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510018
Guillermo Padron Arredondo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2016
Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal pain in the pediatric population and requires surgery. Its diagnosis is suspected on the basis of clinical findings widely known. However, the classic signs are not always present and symptoms may be nonspecific and overlap with other causes of abdominal pain. The clinical presentation is also complicated in the pediatric population for their limited communication skills....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510017
Rahman Senocak, Mehmet Ince, Sahin Kaymak, Zafer Kilbas and M Tahir Ozer
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 12, 2016
An appendectomy is one of the most commonly performed abdominal surgical procedures. During this operation, a Meckel's diverticulum (MD) can occasionally be found as an incidental finding, but the coexistence of both appendicitis and a perforated MD is fairly rare. Complications associated with an MD commonly occur in males, but the frequency of complications decreases with aging. Here, we present a rare case with a simultaneous coexistence of appendicitis and a perforated MD in an older patient...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510016
Laura El-Hage, Vinay Sood and Cary Qualia
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 11, 2016
Duodenal polyps are typically found during routine screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy for patients who have known hereditary polyposis syndromes. When polyps enlarge they may cause obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, which is rare. We report an adolescent male without history of an underlying polyposis syndrome found to have multiple duodenal polyps comprised of gastric tissue during an upper endoscopy performed for vomiting....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510015
Uni Wong and Leon P McLean
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 02, 2016
Helicobacter pylori is a common infection linked to dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma. Endoscopic and nonendoscopic options may be used to diagnose H. pylori and confirm its eradication. Fourteen days of triple or quadruple therapy may be used as initial therapy, although clarithromycin-based triple therapy has become less effective over time....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510014
James Brief, Anupama Chawla, Kathleen Usmani, Grace Gathungu, Robert Woroniecki, Daniel Coldren and Jeffrey Morganstern
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 02, 2016
The patient is a 16 year-old male with CD and no family history of IBD, nephrotic disease or hypertension. CD was diagnosed at age 15 after intestinal biopsies demonstrated severe disease in the terminal ileum, ascending and transverse colon. Initial attempts to treat his disease with 5-aminosalicylic acid (800 mg mesalamine TID) and 6-mercaptopurine (both 50 mg and 75 mg daily) were ineffective in controlling his gastrointestinal symptoms....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510013
Daniel Greenwald, Tarun Patel, Daniel McQuillen and Amy Barto
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 30, 2016
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) costs the national healthcare system billions of dollars annually, and is reaching epidemic proportions. The current study seeks to evaluate the efficacy and long term outcomes of outpatient colonoscopy-assisted fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) therapy in between 2011-2013 for recurrent or refractory CDI as part of a single center experience. Among 58 patients who underwent FMT and completed the telephone survey, 91.4% were disease free at the 3 month inter...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510012
Harith Baharith, Yuhong Yuan and Marco Puglia
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 16, 2016
Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis, and is associated with increased mortality. Diagnostic paracentesis is recommended for patients who are admitted to the hospital with ascites. However, it is unknown if diagnostic paracentesis in Canadian teaching hospitals are done according to recommended guidelines. We analyzed the rate of paracentesis, determined barriers for not performing paracentesis and the association of not performing paracentesis with mortality....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510011
Baryshnikova NV, Uspenskiy YP and Suvorov AN
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 26, 2016
This review is a comprehensive summary of different variants of anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy from past strategies to the current state of the art. Nowadays we see a progressive decreasing of eradication rate in many countries in case of use standard triple therapy. It can be associated with high clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori. Gradual increase in number of the used antibiotics, the increase in duration of treatment, use of new antibacterial compounds and schemes of treatmen...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510010
Hirva Mamdani, Kenneth A Kesler and Shadia I Jalal
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 09, 2016
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAD) has been recently described as 'the silent epidemic' because of its rapidly rising incidence. Two-thirds of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma present with locally advanced disease. In spite of recent advances in cancer therapy, the treatment of locally advanced esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma remains challenging. Current standard of care for fit patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma is trimodality therapy with...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510009
Paola De Angelis, Renato Tambucci, Giulia Angelino, Filippo Torroni, Francesca Rea, Giovanni Federici di Abriola, Francesca Foschia, Tamara Caldaro, Simona Faraci, Anna Chiara Contini, Erminia Romeo and Luigi Dall'Oglio
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 04, 2016
Endoscopic retrograde colangio-pancreatography (ERCP) in children is currently widespread and utilized, particularly for therapeutic indication, as in adulthood. ERCP considered efficacy and safe in children, if performed by expert endoscopists. In the last year, the incoming progress of magnetic resonance image (MRI), especially in collaborator pediatric patients, eliminated many diagnostic indications for ERCP, leaving therapeutic aims as in adults....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510008
Ken Fukumitsu, Ahmed Hammad, Toshimi Kaido, Kohei Ogawa, Yasuhiro Fujimoto, Akira Mori, Hideaki Okajima and Shinji Uemoto
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 27, 2015
Liver transplantation (LT) is performed worldwide with immunosuppression being an indispensable component of the perioperative management. Calcineurin inhibitors and steroids have been the most popular and widely used drugs for a long time. However, steroids hold long-term adverse effects, as increased susceptibility to infection, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension and osteopenia. Furthermore, steroids have been implicated in hepatitis C (HCV) recurrence after LT and graft fail...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510007
Meghana Vellanki, Steve B Clayton and Patrick Brady
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: November 16, 2015
Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement, once a staple of surgeons and gastroenterologists, has propagated into other fields of medicine with interventional radiology (IR) performing percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG). With more G-tubes being placed by IR, there have been novel complications associated with this technique. In the following case series, we describe one complication as a result of PRG tube placement by IR, called the 'Buried Balloon'....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510006
Harathi Yandrapu, Marek Marcinkiewicz, Tomasz Zbroch, Cezary Poplawski, Irene Sarosiek, Zbigniew Namiot and Jerzy Sarosiek
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 28, 2015
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a highly prevalent disease in the western world and affects approximately up to 20% of adults and nearly 25 million experience heartburn on a daily basis. Reflux esophagitis (RE) is caused by the excessive exposure of esophageal mucosa to aggressive factors like acid and pepsin leading to inflammation. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common phenomenon which would not normally cause esophageal mucosal damage because of presence of defense mechanisms....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510005
Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: September 25, 2015
Lipomas form lobulated masses enclosed by thin and fibrous capsules. Colonic lipomas are usually discovered on colonoscopy, and gentle palpation with biopsy forceps reveals soft nature of the submucosal mass. Submucosal lipomas are usually not fixed to the underlying fascia. Large colonic ones may manifest as luminal obstruction, intussusception, volvulization or hemorrhage. Nonsurgical therapy includes endoscopic treatment for submucosal tumors in gastrointestinal tracts. In particular, the unr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510004
Ujjwal Kumar, Kevin Cowley and Frederick Weber
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 14, 2015
Angiodysplasia of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can present both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Despite the recent advances in endoscopy, many patients continue to suffer from recurrent bleeding. We report a remarkable case of a multi-year history of transfusion-requiring obscure overt recurrent GI bleeding, refractory to multiple endoscopic therapies as well as both octreotide and thalidomide. Upon initiation of hormonal therapy, the patient's bleeding completely resolved, with comple...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510003
Hoda M. Malatyr, Bincy Abraham, Mina S. Emil, George D. Ferry and Elizabeth A. Garnett
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 11, 2015
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children has increased over the past 20 years and treatment with biologics is increasingly used. Objective: We assessed the associations of biologics to IBD outcomes in children. Methods: A retrospective investigation was conducted on a cohort of children with IBD between 1988/2008 who were enrolled in the Pediatric IBD registry. The diagnosis of IBD was based on clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and/or histological examinations. Clini...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510002
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 27, 2015
More and more studies have shown that mucosal healing on endoscopy has been the key prognostic parameter for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that predicts sustained clinical remission and resection-free survival of patients. It raised a big question as why the prognosis and long term remission of IBD are most strongly related to mucosal healing as judged by the appearance and integrate of the gut surface under the endoscope, rather than the set of genes the patients being baring, the amount and...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-584X/1510001
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 26, 2015
The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC has not declined for the past several decades. HBV is essentially a disease that could potentially be eradicated by a vaccine. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), two billion people (one-third of the global population) have been infected with HBV worldwide, and more than 240 million are chronic carriers (4-6% of the world population)....
All articles are fully peer reviewed, free to access and can be downloaded from our ClinMed archive.
Contact our editorial office