Journal of Otolaryngology and Rhinology is an international, open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes a wide variety of information on all aspects of head and neck medicine. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions globally. The Journal provides a podium for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among the community in various aspects of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. We aim to publish the highest quality clinical content via open access platform providing the readers free, immediate and unlimited access.
Journal of Otolaryngology and Rhinology is an open journal which provides research updates on Otology, Congenital deformities of the ear and temporal bone, Disorders of equilibrium, Neurological and Vascular causes of vertigo, Hearing loss, Facial Paralysis, Cochlear implantation in adults and children; Devices including bone anchored hearing aids and middle ear implants, Tinnitus, Ear trauma, Chronic suppurative otitis media including its intracranial complications, Neck masses in infants and children, Airway disorders in childhood, Congenital deformities of the ear and temporal bone, Basic sciences of rhinology, Congenital nasal abnormalities, Nose and sinus infections, Nose and sinus inflammation excluding infection, Nasal polyps, Foreign bodies, Epistaxis, Nasal trauma and deformity, Nasal and paranasal sinus tumours, Adenoidal and tonsillar pathology, Congenital deformities of the larynx, Head and neck cancer, Airway disorders, Voice disorders, Pharyngeal and oesophageal disorders, Cervical lymphadenopathy, Sleep apnoea, Adenoidal and tonsillar pathology, Rhinology, Basic sciences, Congenital abnormalities, Diseases of the oesophagus, Benign Oesophageal and Related Disorders in Childhood, Oesophageal Neoplasia etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini-Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Clinical Image, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note, and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510128
Hawa SK, MD, SK Azura, B. Audiology, Halimahtun SS, MS ORL-HNS, Noorizan Y, MS ORL-HNS and Khir MA, MS ORL-HNS
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 19, 2022
Hearing aid is an electronic device fitted to the ear and designed to amplify and deliver sound to the ear. Upon fitting a hearing aid, patients are required to make an earmold impression material for device fixation based on patient’s personal preference, the shape and texture of the ear. Complications while making an earmold for hearing aids are rare but during this process, the impression material can be accidentally entered in the middle ear through a perforation on the tympanic membrane.....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510127
Diego Monteiro de Carvalho, Prof. Dr. José Cardoso Neto, Prof. Dr. João Bosco Lopes Botelho, Prof. Dr. Álvaro Siqueira da Silva, Dr. Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida, Dr. Marcus Vinicius Della Coletta, Ricardo de Queiroz Freitas, Wenberger Lanza Daniel de Figueiredo, Juliana Costa dos Santos and Luana Mattana Sebben
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 04, 2022
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has triggered discussions on various forms of presentation of the COVID-19 and its possible sequelae. In particular, manifestations, including olfactory dysfunctions and neuropsychiatric manifestations, such as sleep disorders and anxiety....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510126
Dayang Anis Asyikin Ahmad Nazari*, Athira Farasyafiqa Azaman, Siti Halimahtun Sahab, Noorizan Yahya and Mohamad Khir Abdullah
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 29, 2022
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multi-system infection which predominantly affects the respiratory system. Subcutaneous emphysema with or without pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax been recently reported as an unusual complication in cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510125
Robert Taylor, BMedSci MBChB, MRCS (ENT), Atia Khan, MBChB, BSc, MRCS (ENT), Eugene Omakobia, MA (hons)(cantab), MB.BChir, MRCS (ENT), FRCS (ORL-HNS) and Raad John Glore, MD MRCSEd DO-HNS FRCS (ORL-HNS)
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 20, 2022
In the UK, patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma are managed via a multidisciplinary team approach based on UK National MDT Guidelines. Hypopharyngeal cancer often presents late, 80% of patients presenting with Stage III or IV disease, with PET-CT recommended for these patients to assess for metastases....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510124
Mahdy Mohammed Nassar
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 07, 2022
Otolaryngologists frequently encounter nasal foreign bodies, particularly among children and mentally retarded patients. Upper aerodigestive tract may harbour foreign bodies such as sponges, grains, toy parts, paper and cotton. Majority of inhaled foreign bodies may pass unnoticed and others can be a source of serious morbidity with occasional mortality if not identified on time and properly treated....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510123
Tam Ramsey, MD, Katherine L. Webb, BS, Vilok Desai, BS, Gillian Ridler, BS, Shivaali Maddali, BS, Neil Gildener Leapman, MD and Lisa Galati, MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 30, 2022
Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is the most common complication of total laryngectomy. Our objective is to present our compressive neck dressing protocol and demonstrate its effectiveness in reducing the rate of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) development in patients after primary total laryngectomy (TL) and salvage TL....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510115
Claudia Benvenuti and Sina Grape
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 26, 2022
A 75-year-old patient, known for a glottosupraglottic carcinoma who had undergone total laryngectomy with voice prosthesis replacement, was referred for acute abdominal pain....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510120
Leoncini Giuseppe, MD, Zanetti Livio, MD, Centonze Giovanni, Msc and Milione Massimo, MD, PhD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 28, 2022
The present review is based on a critical literature revision and aimed to identify the overall clinical behavior of laryngeal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Laryngeal hemangiopericytomas (HPC) were included, according to both their re-classification as the SFT’s cellular variant and the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene. A case series was builded including a new case and other 30 previously published cases of laryngeal SFTs (Medline 1956 to 2021) with comparative purpose. Immunohistochemistry and molecul...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510121
Kaitlin I McArthur, BS, Ethan Miles, BS, Hector Perez, MD and Kenneth De Los Reyes, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 11, 2022
Here we report on a rare case of a retrochiasmic craniopharyngioma that required a two stage surgical resection to achieve near total resection. The pterionalorbital approach was chosen for initial resection, given the small size of the sinus corridor on imaging, but due to fear of damaging local structures complete resection was not achieved. The patient returned to the operating room 12 days following the first surgery for a combined neurosurgeryotolaryngology approach for endonasal endoscopic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510119
Chiung-Chang Lin, MD, Jen-Kai Weng, MD, Tsung-Han Yang, MD, Cheng-Ming Luo and Yung-An Tsou
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2022
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a well-known heterogeneous disorder due to its potentially infectious status along with long-term inflammation of the nose, paranasal sinuses, and lining of the nasal passages, which lasts for 12 consecutive weeks or longer. Although the definite pathophysiological mechanism is not clear, recent studies have postulated bacterial infections with biofilm or fungal colonization as the pathophysiological mechanisms. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a critical public he...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510118
Jennifer Adams, BS and Adam Bender-Heine, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2022
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic mycosis common in poorly-controlled insulin dependent diabetic patients particularly with ketoacidosis. It often begins as a nasal and paranasal sinus infection with inhalation of spores into the paranasal sinuses of a susceptible host. In this case report we review the clinical symptoms, relevant imaging, and management of a diabetic patient with mucormycosis threatening his better seeing eye. This case report offers the clinician a review of important clinical ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510117
Carlos Santiago Ruggeri, Claudia Esper and Claudina Aguirre
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 17, 2022
Osteomas are benign tumors that can originate and grow in the paranasal sinuses. Many are asymptomatic and only require tomographic control. When they produce symptoms, treatment is surgical. Different surgical approaches have been proposed, with a trend in the last decade to perform endonasal surgery with endoscopes using simple, extended or combined transnasal approaches. To determine the efficacy of surgery to resect symptomatic frontoethmoidal osteomas, and to establish the factors that coul...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510116
Jeewanjot S. Grewal, MD, Kathleen McClain, DO, Amy M. Williams, PhD, Lamont R. Jones, MD, MBA, Kendall N. Pucket, Makayla Moultree and Kathleen Yaremchuk, MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 17, 2022
To investigate the gender distribution in current otolaryngology residency programs and examine associations between the presence of female program directors or department chairs, number of female faculty, and number of female residents within residency programs in the United States. A cross-sectional analysis of current otolaryngology programs, presence of female chairs, program directors, faculty and residents in 2019 was performed. The gender of the program director, departmental chair, numbe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510114
Eric Wang Yuan Li, MBBS, Siti Halimahtun Sahab, MBBS, MSORL-HNS, Mas Ayu Baharudin, MBBS, MSORL-HNS, Noorizan Yahya, MBBCh, MSORL-HNS and Mohamad Khir Abdullah, M.D, MSORL-HNS
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 17, 2022
The number of adult cases of rhinolith is uncommon. Rhinoliths are hard stony mass that are found in the nose that can progress over a long period of time leading to nasal symptoms and sometimes ear symptoms. This is a case report of a 40-year-old lady that came with unilateral tinnitus and blood stained rhinorrhea, but on further investigation was found to have rhinolith mimicking symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma due to the position of the rhinolith in the fossa of Rosenmuller. A 40-year-ol...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510113
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 05, 2022
Foreign body impaction in the head and neck region may result from either a traumatic or an iatrogenic injury. Penetrating neck injuries with impacted foreign bodies are of special concern as the neck contains many vital structures. Hence, early detection and removal of the foreign bodies is imperative to prevent life threatening complications. Here, we report a 50-year-old male patient with a very small sharp metallic foreign body impacted in the soft tissue of the neck. The patient underwent w...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510112
Salim Hussain Ibrahim Al-Obiedi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 31, 2021
Congenital nasal anomalies are rare. Hypoplasia and atrophic anomalies represent the most common class of congenital nasal anomalies. A 27-year-old female presented with obvious right nostril asymmetry, alar notching, and retraction. The patient underwent a closed (endonasal) septorhinoplasty approach under general anesthesia. The lower lateral cartilage exposed by the cartilage delivery technique was discovered the absence of right lower lateral cartilage. In this case, reconstruction was perfo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510111
Tiffany E. Heikel, PA-C and Jessyka G. Lighthall, MD, FACS
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: October 29, 2021
Physician assistants (PAs) as medical providers have evolved since 1967 when the occupation was first established. Utilization of PAs has expanded to include procedures in multiple subspecialties. There is controversy over PAs performing in-office procedures but we propose a training paradigm to obtain competency and perform in-office procedures in Otolaryngology outpatient clinics. Consideration for state laws and facility or institution protocols is required prior to starting proctoring. Howev...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510110
Mohamed A Taha, MD, Colin J Shortess, BS, Mackenzie J Noonan, BS, C Chambliss Harrod, MD, Mary JR Barham, Rowda R Mousa, PE and Henry P Barham, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 25, 2021
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) have shown to play a role in sinonasal innate immunity against SARS-CoV-2. A taste strip test kit has been used in prior COVID-19 studies (prototype version), and has shown significant results. This study addresses the validity of this test kit for assessing the genotype/phenotype correlation of T2R expression, with emphasis on the importance of performing phenotypic testing, rather than genotype testing, as a measure for T2R function as a part of innate immunity ag...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510109
Yane Melo Santana, Angela Maria De Amorim Sozio, Dayse Kelle Nascimento Ribeiro, Juliana Costa Santos, Luana Mattana Sebben, Diego Monteiro De Carvalho and Fabricia Louzada Depizzol Vito Sobrinho
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 28, 2021
The authors report the case of a 14-year-old girl with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome in its classical form, with the triad of recurrent peripheral facial paralysis, upper lip edema and fissured tongue. A rare disease of unknown etiology, it has a chronic and progressive course, and clinical diagnosis is usually by exclusion. An individualized, multidisciplinary approach is fundamental for the treatment of the symptoms and avoids complications and permanent sequelae. The therapeutic options are v...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510108
Ana Carolina Riveros, Valentina Proietti, Candelaria Serrano and Carlos Santiago Ruggeri
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 25, 2021
Schwannomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are uncommon. Treatment is surgical and endoscopic excision is a main indication. Our aim was to determine the incidence of rhinosinusal Schwannomas and the effectiveness of endonasal surgery with endoscopes to treat these tumors. The electronic medical records of all patients diagnosed with head and neck schwannomas were reviewed, excluding acoustic nerve neurilemomas and neurofibromas. Those who presented tumors located in the nose or paran...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510107
Carlos Santiago Ruggeri, Valentina Proietti and Ana Carolina Riveros
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 21, 2021
Mucoceles originating from supraorbital ethmoid cells are difficult to treat. Due to its lateral location the endonasal approach with endoscopes is sometimes not sufficient to achieve adequate exposure and the use of extended transnasal techniques and even external approaches is required. To determine the success rate of surgical treatment performed endonasally with endoscopes or combined, endonasal and trough a transpalpebral approach to treat mucoceles originating in supraorbital cells. Patien...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510106
Winga Foma, Essobozou Pegbessou, Warou Dolou, Mèhèza Bamassi, Bathokedeou Amana and Essohanam Boko
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 07, 2021
This paper describes how Togolese general practitioners deal withear infections by assessing their level of knowledge about the disease. Furthermore, this research work identifies their attitudes and practices regarding presumptive symptoms of ear infections. This study was conducted in the municipality of Greater Lomé, the capital of Togo. It was a cross-sectional study with a descriptive aim which took place over a period of six (06) months using a questionnaire filled in the presence of the ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510105
William C. Yao, MD, Randall A. Ow, MD and Henry P. Barham, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 10, 2021
Nasal valve collapse is a primary cause of nasal obstruction. Patients with nasal airway obstruction suffer from a variety of symptoms that affect quality of life including congestion, headache, sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and snoring. To evaluate the effectiveness of a low-power temperature-controlled radiofrequency procedure to treat the nasal valve and measure symptomatic improvement in patients diagnosed with nasal airway obstruction due to nasal valve collapse. A prospective, single...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510104
Anwar El Batawy, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 30, 2021
Primaryexternal auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC) is a rare entity. Its association with keratosis obturans (KO) was not documented. I report a rare case with co-existence of ipsilateral EACC and contralateral KO. From clinical presentation, radiological investigation, and operative finding; I conclude to describe this case with simultaneous external canal cholesteatoma and keratosis obturans. External auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC) and keratosis obturans (KO) are diseases that primarily ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510103
Ismail Alhiraki, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 05, 2021
To evaluate the success rate of revision myringoplasty using temporalis fascia graft myringoplasty and to analyse the effect of potential influencing factors on closure of tympanic membrane (TM) and hearing outcome such as size of perforation (less or greater than 50% of tympanic membrane), site (anteriorly or posteriorly located) of perforation, whether the patient smokes or not, and condition of contralateral ear. Thirty patients were included in this prospective study, who underwent revision ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510102
Yi Hai Li, MBChB, Aneesh Kumar, FRCS, FRACS (ORL-HNS) and Hans Stegehuis, FRACS (ORL-HNS)
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: May 31, 2021
Peripheral facial nerve palsy is mostly attributed to Bell’s palsy, however in 5-10% of cases it may be from an underlying malignancy. It can be difficult to distinguish initially, frequently leading to misdiagnosis and a delay in management, potentially compromising survival of these patients. A common distinguishing feature is that facial palsy from malignancy is typically gradual onset and progressive as opposed to sudden in that of Bell’s palsy, although other benign causes may also pres...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510101
Tessei Kuruma, Mariko Arimoto, Mayuko Kishimoto, Kinga You, Yuka Kawade, Yasue Uchida, Ogawa Tetsuya and Yasushi Fujimoto
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 21, 2021
Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon vascular tumor derived from the pericytes of Zimmermann, representing only a small proportion of head and neck tumors, and mostly occurring in the sinonasal tract. We report two cases of hemangiopericytoma of the sinonasal tract in a 78-year-old woman and a 77-yearold man, both presenting with symptoms of frequent epistaxis. In Case 1, a purple tumor was identified originating from the posterior olfactory fissure in the left nasal cavity. To reduce bleeding from...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510100
Ângelo Miguel Carvalho, Francisco Patrão, Márcia Mourão, Catarina Almeida, Luis Pinto, Vera Soares and Rui Tavares
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 22, 2021
Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (en-DCR) is the mainstay of treatment of patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction, with current success rates above 90%. Our aim was to evaluate multiple demographic and technical factors and estimate its influence on the outcome of en-DCR. We performed a retrospective review of the clinical records of patients submitted to a DCR at the Lacrimal Surgery Unit of the Centro Hospitalar Tondela-Viseu between June 2010 and December 2018, and collected data on demog...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510099
NDADI TCHIENGANG K Junie, SENGHOR Fabrice, KANE Yaya, DIONE Antoinette, CISSE Mohamed, THIAM Ibou and DIOM Siga Evelyne
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 30, 2021
HPV infections are caused by human papillomaviruses. These viruses create cutaneous or mucous membrane tumors, including some warts. Warts are extremely common and easy to recognize, but when the location is atypical, histological confirmation is required. We report a HPV infection case localized in the ear’s external auditory canal in a 30-year-old young that is admitted to the ENT department of the Ziguinchor Peace Hospital. The examination found: auricular pruritus, a full ear feeling and a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510098
Carlos S Ruggeri, Lautaro Acosta and Ivo Bedini
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 13, 2021
To determine the efficacy and incidence of complications in tumors and in other diseases involving the tongue base treated by transoral surgery with the assistance of endoscopes. To determine the efficacy and incidence of complications in tumors and in other diseases involving the tongue base treated by transoral surgery with the assistance of endoscopes. Central glossectomies and hemiglosectomies were performed with this technique, and through a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510097
Eduardo Figueroa, Candelaria Serrano and Carlos Santiago Ruggeri
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 30, 2020
In this study, we describe our experience in the treatment of malignant rhinosinusal tumors and establish factors related to their prognosis. To determine the local control and the survival rates in patients with malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity treated by endonasal endoscopic surgery. All patients who had malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who were treated by an endonasal, cranionasal or combined endonasal an external approach in the ENT Departm...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510096
Swati Malik, B.A., Mohammad Javed Ali, F.R.C.S., Miel Sundararajan, M.D. and Harsha S. Reddy, M.D.
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 14, 2020
We present a series of three clinical videos of retrograde air flow through the lacrimal system with Valsalva maneuver that illustrate the hypothesized dysfunctions at various points within the lacrimal valvular system. Under normal physiologic conditions, the lacrimal excretory system has a series of valves that prevent retrograde flow of fluid and air. Therefore, while performing the Valsalva maneuver, increased intranasal pressure is not transmitted to the nasolacrimal system; however, trauma...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510093
Sean P Chislett, MD, Jordan Kalathia, BS, Alla Y. Solyar, MD, Alexander P Limjuco, MD and Donald C Lanza, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 12, 2020
To identify the prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in patients with nasopharyngeal reflux (NPR) presenting to a tertiary rhinology practice in 2017, and to assess for any correlation with the presence of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Demographic data, self-reported symptoms and relevant past medical history were compiled from a standardized intake questionnaire. Symptoms were grouped into 3 categories: NPR, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and GERD. Descriptive and nonp...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510092
Kelti Munroe, BSc, Jonathan Melong, MD and Timothy Brown, MD, FRCSC
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 06, 2020
Actinomyces odontolyticus is a grampositive, anaerobic bacteria that is part of the normal oral commensal flora. It has been previously demonstrated to be a rare cause of endogenous bacterial infections in humans. In the current case report, we present a rare case of vocal cord infection caused by Actinomyces odontolyticus after injection laryngoplasty with Deflux in an otherwise healthy male patient. A 61-year-old healthy male was taken to the operating theater for injection laryngoplasty for a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510091
Nilam U. Sathe, MBBS, MS ENT, Dharmishtha R. Kaku, MBBS, MS ENT, DNB ENT, Anjali Taku, MBBS, MS ENT, Muniram Pawara, MBBS, MS ENT and Vani K. Gupta, MBBS, MS ENT, DNB ENT
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 05, 2020
Gradenigo’s syndrome is a characteristic triad of suppurative otitis media, pain in distribution of trigeminal nerve and abducens nerve palsy. Early diagnosis and management of Gradenigo’s syndrome is important as it can give rise to fatal complications. Careful clinical history and physical examination, neuroimaging are needed for a differential diagnosis. We present a case report of unusual presentation and eitiological cause of Gradenigo’s syndrome and its effective management. Patient ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510090
Sourabh Shankar Chakraborty, MBBS, DNB (ENT) and Anil K Monga, MBBS, MS (ENT)
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 14, 2020
To assess intra-operative findings of mastoid bone; their prevalence in patients with chronic otitis media (inactive mucosal) and their correlation with age, sex of the patient, duration of complaint and degree of hearing impairment; to establish the prevalence of aditus block. In this study 100 patients, ranged from 11 to 74 years, with inactive mucosal chronic otitis media were subjected to type I tympanoplasty with cortical mastoidectomy. All the Intraoperative findings of middle ear & mastoi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510089
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 30, 2020
Pleomorphic adenoma is one of the most common benign tumors of the major salivary glands. It can also occur in the minor salivary glands, which exist in the nasal cavity. We present a case of pleomorphic adenoma masquerading as squamous cell carcinoma in 61-year-old man. This patient presented with nasal obstruction, nasal bleeding and nasal deformity. Biopsy have reveled moderaletly differenciated squamous cell carcinoma. After surgical procedure (lateral rhinotomy). The final diagnosis affirme...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510088
S Juthika Rai, Madhuri G and Chandre Gowda BV
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: August 29, 2020
Intratonsillar abscess (ITA) is a rarely reported clinical entity in both children and adults. Despite its rarity ITA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Peritonsillar abscess and Tonsillitis. CT scan is useful to confirm the presence of an ITA. The following case series summarizes three cases of intratonsillar abscess that presented to our centre and their management. The primary treatment modality in our cases involved needle aspiration with post-procedural antibiotics....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510087
Paige Kennedy, MD and Andrea Shogan, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 14, 2020
Blastomycoses dermatitidis is a fungal organism endemic to the eastern United States. This organism is thought to grow in soil and decaying wood, and exposure with inhalation of the spores can result in blastomycosis, a potentially life-threatening disseminated infection. We present a case of an 11-year-old female who presented to our institution with headaches and left-sided facial swelling, who was ultimately found to have blastomycosisof her left zygomatic bone....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510086
Kuong Lung Kiu, Shiun Chuen Chew and Pek Ser Heng
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 13, 2020
In Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) practice, we commonly received cases of foreign bodies in the nose. Among these referrals, the pediatric group is the most common, others could involve the mentally challenged patients. These foreign bodies may vary from different materials and consistencies and removal them requires good clinical experience as well as proper clinical instruments and cooperative clinical staff and the patient. On rare occasion, penetrating foreign body at the nasal bridge was present...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510085
Rajab A AlZahrani
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: July 10, 2020
This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, in which the records of patients presented to the Otorhinolaryngology (ENT), and various surgical departments at King Fahd Hospital at Al-Baha region and the documents of patients referred from Al-Baha region to the nearby specialized and oncology centers over ten years (January 2009-December 2019). A total of 470 patient’s records were reviewed for the following variables: Age, sex, occupation, smoking and alcohol consumption habits, primary tum...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510084
Dr. Arun Kumar TM, Dr. Surinder K. Singhal, Dr. Arjun Dass, Dr. Jagdish Chander, Dr. Shashikant A. Pol and Dr. Nitin Gupta
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 25, 2020
Chronic rhinosinusitis is defined as the inflammation of mucosa of nose and paranasal sinus for at least 12 consecutive weeks of duration. Being one of the most common health problems worldwide, its pathogenesis is not well defined and there may be multiple aetiologic factors. Bacteria, fungi or viruses may be involved in some cases but there may be cases with no identifiable pathogenic organisms. As there is emerging drug resistance management of patients is also getting troublesome....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510083
Randall A Bloch , Ran Vijai Singh, MD, Marc L Silverberg, MD, Joseph K Han, MD and Kent K Lam, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 06, 2020
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) typically arise from the pleura and other thoracic locations but can also rarely affect the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. This report describes the presentation, workup, and management of a patient with a sinonasal SFT with expansion into the intracranial fossa. We report on a 78-year-old male who presented with approximately 1 year of worsening nasal obstruction, difficulty sleeping, and loss of olfaction and gustation. Fiberoptic examination, CT, and MRI al...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510082
David K Lerner, MD, Yarah M Haidar, MD, Jill Gregory, CMI FAMI and Eric Genden, MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 30, 2020
Elective tracheostomy is routinely performed in conjunction with major head and neck surgery, notably during transoral robotic base of tongue resection and oral cavity/oropharyngeal resection with free flap reconstruction, due to concern for potential post-operative airway compromise. In these circumstances, the tracheostomy is typically intended to be temporary with reversal during the post-operative stay. In order to expedite tracheostomy site closure and preclude development of a tracheocutan...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510081
Mahmoud Elsayed, FRCS ORL-HNS, Dena Elsawy, MBChB (Hons) BSc, Abdelrahman Ezzat, FRCS ORL-HNS and Phillip Moore, FRCS ORL-HNS
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 08, 2020
Globus pharyngeus is a common benign condition. Patients with this condition are commonly investigated to exclude the risk of upper aero-digestive malignancies. One of the investigations carried out is barium swallow. However, there is great debate regarding the role of barium swallow in the diagnosis of head and neck cancers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to review the validity of barium swallow in diagnosing malignancies. All patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between January 2...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510079
Mohammed Elbouderkaoui, Youssef Lakhdar, Sara Rochd, Othman Benhoummad, Youssef Rochdi, Hassan Nouri and Abdelaziz Raji
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 18, 2020
Aspergillosis of the sphenoid sinus is a rare condition. The causative agent is most often Aspergillus fumigatus. We report this case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old woman with no specific medical history who presented with severe chronic headache, retro orbital pain, associated with nasal obstruction. The clinical examination showed a polyp filling the left nasal cavity with a left exophthalmos. The CT scan showed a heterogeneous left sphenoid sinus lesion with calcifications inside it. In ma...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510078
Areej Albelali, Raghad Alkanhal, Wala S. Alshiha and Jaber Alshammari, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 17, 2020
Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia which can lead to many serious complications. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common complication in achondroplasia that varies in severity levels from mild to life threatening. In this report, we present a case of achondroplasia with vascular malformation compressing the airway which caused obstructive sleep apnea....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510077
Redentor B. Magdayao, MD and Jennifer De Silva-Leonardo, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 16, 2020
A 53-year-old male presented with persistent right nasal obstruction and recurrent epistaxis. He was initially managed as a case of nasal polyposis. However, persistence of symptoms prompted consult with another ENT specialist. Further evaluation revealed meningioma in the sinonasal tract. The patient underwent bifrontal craniotomy with excision of the intracranial extension of the tumor and endoscopic excision of the intranasal meningioma. Follow- up revealed resolution of symptoms and absence ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510076
Deniz Karatekin, Selim Ünsal and Hanifi Kurtaran
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 15, 2020
35 people with vitamin B12 deficiency (16 female, 19 male), 35 people with a normal B12 level who has no hearing or balance problems (18 female, 17 men) participated in the study. Using the 500 Hz stimulus ToneBurst of the patients participated in the study, P1 and N1 wave latencies and amplitudes were evaluated. No statistically significant difference was found between P1 and N1 wave latencies and amplitudes at the 500 Hz and 100 dBnHL intensity level of the participants (p < 0.05)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510075
Kuang-Chih Lee and Chih-Shin Lin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 15, 2020
Out of these patients, 3 patients presented with difficult laryngeal exposure that were operated under suspension microlaryngoscopy. Laryngeal exposure was much improved by the flexible fiberscope with a video system compared with the suspension microlaryngoscopy. The endolaryngeal surgeries in all cases with difficult laryngeal exposure were performed smoothly. The flexible fiberscope with a video system could remarkably improve visualization of the larynx. This approach provided an alternative...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510073
Guillermo Navarro Santos, Sylvia Elizabeth Villarreal Navarro, Arturo Alanís Ibarra, Sergio Andrés de Lara Ovalle, Adriana Miroslava Pérez Peña and Esaú Floriano Sánchez
Article Type: REVIEW Article | First Published: March 16, 2020
Rhinoplasty is one of the most complex procedures in the cosmetic surgery field. Satisfactory long-term results rely on using grafts with enough strength for adequate support and low resorption rates. Grafts in septorhinoplasty can be obtained from autologous, homologous and alloplastic materials. Autologous rib cartilage is the graft material of choice for secondary rhinoplasty when enough septal cartilage is not available....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510072
Hajar Haoufadi, Mohamed Chehbouni, Youssef Rochdi, Hassan Nouri and Abdelaziz Raji
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: February 12, 2020
Primary thyroid gland lymphoma is a rare condition, accounting for only 2% of extranodal lymphomas, usually occurring in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Among these lymphomas, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most frequently encountered, while Hodgkin’s disease and T-cell lymphomas are extremely rare. Through this paper, we report 5 primary thyroid lymphoma cases, diagnosed in our department in a period of 6 years (Jan 2012 to Dec 2017), all of them were B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. P...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510071
Zahrah M Taufique, MD, MBA, Steven A Gordon, MD, MPH, Janine M Rotsides, MD, Jamie R Oliver, BA and Lisa A Liberatore, MD
Article Type: Original Resear ch | First Published: January 15, 2020
Eustachian tube dysfunction is a common medical condition affecting approximately 1% of the adult population. Previous studies have evaluated eustachian balloon tuboplasty using tympanometry, ability to perform Valsalva maneuver and subjective improvement in symptoms to measure effectiveness. In this study, we propose using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) to measure outcomes following eustachian tube balloon dilation, with a focus on ear-specific symptoms within the survey....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510070
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 05, 2019
Epidermal cyst of the bony external auditory canal in adults is rare. Only nine cases are reported in the literature. They occasionally tend to develop into a malignancy. A 35-years-old female presented with complaints of decreased hearing and fullness at the left ear. The severity of these symptoms increased gradually for 6 months. On physical examination, the left otoscopy showed a mass that was completely occluding the canal; the tympanic membrane was not visualized. The property of this mass...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510068
Saad M Alshammari, MD and Nada A Alshaikh, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 21, 2019
Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) gained growing popularity with indications expanding beyond rhinosinusitis. Preoperative high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan is essential in providing the surgical map for surgeons. In addition of being a diagnostic imaging technique, it gives valuable information about origin, nature and extension of the pathology to adjacent structures. Therefore, preoperative review of para-nasal sinuses (PNS) CT scan is crucial in order to perform successful and compl...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510069
Ryan Marshall, MD, Gobind Gill, MD, Mohamad Babi, MD, Kirk Withrow, MD and Do-Yeon Cho, MD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019
The purpose of our study is to prove open repair (OR) for Zenker's diverticulum can result in similar lengths of stay in the hospital, and similar convalescent periods when compared to endoscopic repair (ER). Retrospective chart review was performed between 2013-2018 for those patients who had surgical repair of Zenker's diverticulum by two surgeons. After discussing all risks, benefits, and alternatives, patient made a decision whether to have ER vs OR of Zenker's diverticulum. These findings s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510067
Anna Frants, MD, Marissa Lafer, MD, Cheng Z Liu, MD and Judy W Lee, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 14, 2019
Aneurysmal fibrous histiocytoma (AFH), also known as aneurysmal dermatofibroma, is a rare variant of the more common and benign dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma). AFHs account for approximately 2% of all cutaneous fibrous histiocytomas, and have been reported to occur most often on the extremities of young to middle aged adults, with a slight female predominance. The mass was excised en bloc using an open rhinoplasty approach. Once the nasal skin-SMAS envelope was elevated, a lobular, cystic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510066
Nikolaus Hjelm, MD, Peter Ciolek, MD, Ryan Heffelfinger, MD and Howard Krein MD, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 07, 2019
As one ages, the structure of the nose undergoes a number of changes, leading to alterations in form and function. Patients with no previous history of nasal issues may present with age-related nasal obstruction later in life. Tip ptosis is a well-recognized etiology of nasal obstruction in the aging patient. The pathogenesis is believed to be due to weakening of several of the tip support mechanisms. Of primary importance, there is age-related degradation of the fibrous union at the cephalic ed...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510065
Erkan YILDIZ, Sahin ULU and Orhan Kemal KAHVECI
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2019
Nasal septal perforation is the most common complication in the long term after septoplasty. Nasal septal perforation is the partial opening of the wall between both nasal cavities. In this study, we will evaluate the causes of septal perforation after septoplasty. 400 patients aged between 18 and 50 years who underwent septoplasty operation in Afyonkarahisar Şuhut State Hospital between 2016- 2019 were evaluated retrospectively. These patients were divided into groups with and without perforat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510064
Manola M, Moscillo L, De Luca E, Lalinga AV and Possidente L
Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: August 26, 2019
Salivary gland tumours constitute 3% of all head and neck neoplasms. Pleomorphic adenomas arising in the maxilla are extremely rare, with only few cases reported to date. Radiographically and clinically, these lesions have the appearance of osteolytic processes or odontogenic cysts and the diagnosis represents a challenge. The surgical treatment of intraosseous glandular neoplasms is debated because of the few cases reported in literature. The Authors describe a rare case of intraosseous pleomor...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510063
Bahareh Bakhshaie Philipsen
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 21, 2019
Difficulty swallowing is called dysphagia. There is a wide range of potential causes of dysphagia. Because there are many reasons why dysphagia can occur, treatment depends on the underlying cause. Thorough examination is important, and implementation of a treatment strategy should be based on evaluation by a multidisciplinary team. In this article, we will describe the mechanism of swallowing, the pathophysiology of swallowing dysfunction and different causes of dysphagia, along with signs and ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510062
Graham Derek Unis, MS, BA, Basit A Jawad, MD, Ashwin Ananth, MD and Ryan Winters, MD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 12, 2019
We present a case of a 72-year-old gentleman with an extruding internal carotid artery aneurysm coil through the Fossa of Rosenmuller. The patient was stable post-operatively and remained complication and progression free 8 months later at time of writing. Other reports involving pseudoaneurysms were found in the literature although no coil erosions in true aneurysms have been described. Conservative therapy with controlled amputation of the extruding filament in the operative room has served as...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510061
Gilberto Eduardo Marrugo Pardo, Carlos Julian Adarme Gomez and Alejandra Oliveros Vargas
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 07, 2019
Septic thrombosis of the lateral sinus is a rare complication of otitis media; currently, it hasn't been found a case report of septic thrombosis of the lateral sinus in the medical literature of Colombia and, in addition to this, there is no consensus in the management of this pathology. Hence the importance of the present case, which is a 3-year-old male patient, who presented a clinical picture of 7 days of evolution characterized by right otalgia and fever, which after the administration of ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510060
Nannan Zhang, Mintao Zhong, Delong Liu, Cuiping Se, Wei Song and Qingfeng Zhang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 10, 2019
Current surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps is functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Coblation-assisted Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (CAFESS) will probably replace of FESS with more effective result. Our aim was to explore the safety and efficacy of CAFESS for the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps comparing to traditional FESS firstly by observing clinical data....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510059
Aman, Jagat Singh, Ashiya Goel, Chandni Sharma, Vikasdeep Gupta and Swati
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 27, 2019
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is an important and common condition in paediatric age group. It is the leading cause of hearing loss and a social morbidity in children which has long-term consequences for speech and language development. Adenoid hypertrophy is an important etiological factor in the causation of OME. Recurrent attacks of rhinitis, sinusitis and chronic tonsillitis may cause chronic adenoid infection and hyperplasia. Allergy of the upper respiratory tract may also contribute to ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510058
Muhd Faiz Bin Zulkifli and Lokman Bin Saim
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 20, 2019
A 23-year-old female presented with progressive left sided facial asymmetry for 4 years and progressive hearing loss in the left ear for 2 years. She had normal left tympanic membrane and complete left lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) temporal bone showed extensive bony destruction, petrous apex and soft tissue lesion. Patient then proceed with transmastoid translabyrinthine approach. Diagnosis of cholesteatoma...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510056
Lewis William Murray
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: March 08, 2019
Both epistaxis and mental health disorders are common conditions encountered in medical practice and whilst there have been investigations into individual psychiatric conditions and epistaxis, to date no overview has been published of these conditions. This review aims to summarise the various aetiologies and their managements in the setting of epistaxis. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Medline Ovid, and the Cochrane library using the terms epistaxis, mental health, psychiatric, ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510055
Masih Ahmed, MD, Sarah Ellison, MD and Kathryn S Moffett, MD
Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: February 27, 2019
A 10-year-old male was admitted to our hospital after worsening right-sided neck lymphadenitis and fever of 39.8 ℃ (103.6 ℉) of 7 days duration. He had been admitted to an outside facility and treated for 3 days with intravenous (IV) ampicillin/sulbactam and clindamycin, where a computed tomography (CT) revealed right sided lymphadenitis with no abscess formation. Blood and throat cultures showed no growth. Upon admission to our hospital, he had right neck swelling with tenderness and erythe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510054
Fatima Betul Basturk, PhD, Dilek Turkaydin, PhD, Sertac Aktop, PhD and Hesna Sazak Ovecoglu, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 07, 2019
Dental practitioners frequently encounter with instrument fracture during root canal treatment. However, these fractures generally occur inside the root canals. It is not usual that high speed rotary instruments snap and go further to important anatomical landmarks. In our case report, a high-speed Gates-Glidden drill perforated the root and was introduced into the left maxillary sinus during a routine root canal treatment. The dental and surgical management of the case are described and the pos...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510053
Jason F Ohlstein, Thomas S Edwards, Charles A Riley, Joseph F Buell and Paul L Friedlander
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: Janaury 21, 2019
Retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients presenting from each of two tertiary referral centers in inner city New Orleans, Louisiana located in the same zip code serving the local community, with a new diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck between 2011 and 2014.The data from 187 patients were analyzed for delay at presentation and subsequent provider delay. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of race, insurance status, and patient navigation...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510052
Muhd Faiz Bin Zulkifli Nor Rahimah Binti Aini and Siti Sabzah Mohd Hashim
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 03, 2019
Congenital giant cervical lymphatic malformation are rare tumors. Recent advances in prenatal diagnosis and delivery by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) have improved prenatal outcome. An otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman, gravida 5, para 4, was referred to our institution at 25 weeks' gestation with a diagnosis large neck mass in the fetus. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggested airway obstruction in the fetus. The EXIT procedure attempt to deliver th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510051
Omoregie J Idugboe, Babatope A Kolawole and Ebidisemene L Totyen
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 03, 2018
Among the most common chronic disorders of modern time, diabetes mellitus remains unique because of its multifactorial ramifications. Apart from the well-described association between congenital deafness and maternally inherited type of diabetes mellitus, the relationship between type 2 diabetes and hearing loss has been the subject of debate since Jordao reported a case of hearing loss with incipient diabetes coma almost 150 years ago. Documentation of this relationship among adult diabetics in...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510050
Meichan Zhu, Guangyao He, Songhua Tan and Anzhou Tang
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 27, 2018
Squamous cell carcinoma in pinna and external auditory canal is rare and aggressive variant of cell carcinoma. We report the case of squamous cell carcinoma in pinna and external auditory canal. The case is presented, along with a brief literature review concerning squamous cell carcinoma in pinna and external auditory canal. The patient experienced locally invasive squamous cell carcinoma in his right pinna and external canal with invasive of the right parotid, temporomandibular joint, external...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510049
Francisco Andre Escamilla Islas, Jose Luis Treviño Gonzalez and Jose Martin Martinez Camarillo
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 17, 2018
The antrochoanal polyp (ACP) is a unilateral, solitary, pear shaped mass with a cystic stalk, differing from the inflammatory polyps in the formation of a constricted sac, half in the maxillary antrum and the other half in the nose, extruding in a variable extent to the nasopharynx. The ACP has a clinic diagnosis, with image studies as the CT scan and the MRI for the differential diagnosis. By microscopy ACP lacks minor mucoserous glands and a well-developed eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510048
Yang Liu, Yitung Chen, Woosoon Yim and Robert C Wang
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: September 24, 2018
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been growing over the last few decades, but the treatment outcome differs from person to person. Interest in patient-specific modeling has increased substantially. The availability of detailed clinical data together with efficient numerical methods has now made the fluid-structure interaction modeling feasible. The current study uses 3-D two-way fluid-structure interaction to provide simulation results of the sleep apnea symptom in a female pat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510047
Marrugo Pardo Gilberto, Romero Moreno Luis Felipe and Munoz Becerra Daniel Edilberto
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 25, 2018
Idiopathic bilateral facial palsy is a rare entity with an incidence range between 0.2% and 0.3%. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis disease, Guillain Barre Syndrome, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and infectious diseases such as neurosyphilis, parotiditis or borrelliosis are the main secondary causes of peripheral bilateral facial palsy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510046
Salil Sood and Deepak Gupta
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2018
Over the years the importance of middle turbinate has increased with the wider use of nasal endoscopes in the management of the sino nasal diseases. Lateralization of the middle turbinate may cause scarring & adhesions which may affect the results of the surgery. We have been using a simple technique of placing a transeptal suture to stabilise the middle turbinate and prevent adhesions between middle turbinate and the lateral wall of the nose. We have used this technique in prospective study, wh...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510045
Sumana CV and Suhel Hasan
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 12, 2018
Silent sinus syndrome is a rare clinical entity affecting the maxillary sinus, causing progressive enophthalmos and hypoglobus resulting from retraction of maxillary sinus walls with increase in the orbital volume. We report a case of a 29-year-old male who presented with painless enophthalmos, without any disturbances in vision or ocular movements, with no history of sinusitis in the past....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510044
Saliha KARATAY and Berrire KURT
Article Type: Clinical Image | First Published: June 16, 2018
A 56-year-old female patient with osteoarthritis of the knee is presented pustules in her ear corresponding to knee and gastrointestinal auricular points. When she came to our clinic, her primary complaint was knee and hip pain. She had a history of generalized osteoarthritis for eight years. She had tried paracetamol, NSAIDs and hyaluronic acid injections as well physical therapy. Her pain was assessed at 8 by visual analog scale (VAS). We decided to treat her with acupuncture....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510043
Scott Mitchell, Matthew JV Holmes and Nicholas Turner
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 08, 2018
Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic conditions affecting approximately 1 in every 1000 live births. There are a multitude of potential clinical manifestations associated with this condition including dysmorphic features, organic disorders such as congenital cardiac defects, gastrointestinal defects, ocular abnormalities, celiac disease and endocrine disorders along with haemato-oncological, immunological and disorders affecting the ears, nose and throat....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510042
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 07, 2018
Since it was approved in 2003 by the FDA for the therapy of adult and adolescent moderate-severe persistent uncontrolled allergic asthma, the studies on asthma patients have demonstrated that omalizumab has an encouraging safety report, regardless of the allergic sensitization type. Omalizumab was later tried in the therapy of other Th2-type allergic disorders e.g. allergic asthma. Omalizumab hinders IgE effector functions by preventing IgE joining to high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) on effe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510041
Ozan Gokdogan, Hacer Baran, TolgahanCatli and Recep Karamert
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 30, 2018
Penetrating injuries usually affects non-dressed parts of body. Most of them treated by patient itself without any intervention. But some of them must be examined and treated by a specialist such as major injuries, minor injuries affecting the important structures and curved foreign bodies. Curved injuries can be made by a curved wire or fishhooks. Fishhooks take an important part of this injuries because of mechanism used in distal part of fishhooks....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510040
Alfonso Reyes Escobedo, Karla M Santos Santillana and Jose Luis Trevino Gonzalez
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 28, 2018
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign tumor of the respiratory tract caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). It is considered as a manageable rather than a curable disease because of its high recurrence rates and its unpredictable clinical course. The unique molecular characteristics of the virus, induces cellular proliferation causing airway obstruction....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510039
Ahmad Elkhatib, Paul Wakely Jr, Luciano M Prevedello, Ralph Abi Hachem, Andre Beer-Furlan, Daniel M Prevedello and Ricardo Carrau
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 25, 2018
Report of the first case of chondroblastoma involving the sinonasal cavity and ventral skull base, offering a description of the puzzling diagnostic process followed by its management. We describe the main radiologic and histologic characteristics of chondroblastoma and compare them to those of frequently mistaken differential diagnoses....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510038
Moustafa W Mourad, Sami P Moubayed and Edward Shin
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 24, 2018
Giant cell angiofibroma (GCA) was first described in 1995, as a previously unrecognized soft tissue tumor of the orbit. Since that time, rare extraorbital head and neck manifestations of GCA have been documented. To the best of our knowledge, we present the fourth documented case of GCA of the buccal cavity, constituting the largest dominant site of occurrence in the extraorbital head and neck....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510037
Mahir Khuri, Riad Khniefes, Noam Yehudai and Rabia Shihada
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 17, 2018
Lymphoma of the nasal cavity represent only 0.2-2% of head and neck lymphomas. Treatment is medical with an overall low 5-years survival between 40% and 59%. There are high rates of relapse as well as radiotherapy and chemotherapy resistance. We present a 44-year-old male, who was admitted to our department due to chronic sinonasal infection, complicated by a large septal perforation and nasal tissue necrosis, which developed over several months following an elective septoplasty surgery performe...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510036
Mark Gelpi, Emily N Ahadizadeh, Brian D'Anzaa and Kenneth Rodriguez
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 30, 2018
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease that can have significant sinonasal manifestations. Viscous secretions are one of several factors in CF that result in chronic sinonasal pathology, such as sinusitis, polyposis, congestion, and obstructive crusting. Persistent discomfort and nasal manifestations of this disease significantly affect quality of life....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510035
Jeremy Goh Chin Guan and Yeo Seng Beng
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 28, 2018
Otosclerosis is a disease of the temporal bone that affects the inner and middle ear. It is characterized by a pathological pleomorphic replacement of normal bone with spongiotic or sclerotic bone. Otosclerosis has traditionally been presumptively diagnosed by characteristic clinical findings on medical history, physical examination and audiology testing....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510034
RA Fearnley, S Badiger, CA Oti and I Ahmad
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 20, 2018
Accurate localisation of the cricoid cartilage is a key step in the successful application of cricoid pressure during rapid sequence induction. Poorly localised pressure is unlikely to confer any protective benefit to our patients and may have deleterious effects on laryngoscopy. We postulated that the use of ultrasound would greatly improve the accuracy of cricoid cartilage localisation prior to the application of cricoid pressure....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510033
Vidur Bhalla, Naweed Chowdhury, Thomas Muelleman, Sameer Alvi, Chelsea Hamill, Roukoz Chamoun and D David Beahm
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 29, 2017
Sinonasal Teratocarcinosarcomas (SNTCS) are rare tumors of the anterior skull base that are typically diagnosed in the fifth decade of life, with only 5 reported cases in children. Treatment typically involves surgical resection and radiotherapy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510032
Bottini G, Brandtner C,Rasp G and Gaggl A
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 15, 2017
Supraglottic laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer aims to remove cancer of the larynx whilst preserving its functions of airway protection, breathing and voice production. A well-known long-term complication of this procedure is aspiration....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510031
Vidur Bhalla, Thomas Muelleman, Chelsea S Hamill, D David Beahm, Hesham M Soliman, Roukoz B Chamoun and Kathy Newell
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 31, 2017
Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer in children. While children more likely present with craniopharyngiomas, germinomas or optic gliomas, synchronous intracranial lesions are highly uncommon. Here, we describe the case of a 10-year-old female who presented with central Diabetes Insipidus (DI)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510030
Thilaga Rajendran, Velayutham Kamaru Ambu and Azila Alias
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 30, 2017
Laryngeal cancer is rising in incidence among elderly men with history of smoking. Laryngeal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity and the incidence is significantly less than 1% of all tuberculosis. This case report highlights the co-existence of laryngeal cancer and TB in a 75-year-old man who presented to us with a 4-year history of hoarseness....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510029
M Waheed Roomi, Bilwa Bhanap, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki and Matthias Rath
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 21, 2017
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically, MMP-2 and MML-9 play a critical role in tumorigenesis by their ability to modify tumor microenvironments, facilitating cell invasion and metastasis. We compared MMP secretion by various cytokines, inducers, mitogen, inhibitors that regulate MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in FaDu and Tongue cancer cell lines....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510028
Sean Keane, Patrick Dillon and John E Fenton
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 21, 2017
A 48-year-old male presented for microlaryngoscopy and vocal fold polypectomy, which was complicated by polyp displacement into the lower respiratory airway during direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. It is the first reported incidence of such a case. Following preoperative assessment and preparation, anaesthesia was induced and the airway secured using direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation with a microlaryngoscopy tube (MLT), which was reported uneventful....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510027
Andrew Petersen, Fariha Farid, Richard Klapchar, Sumit Bapna and Boris Karanfilov
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 03, 2016
We report the use of multiple balloon sinus dilation (BSD) catheters in the reduction of bilateral anterior table frontal sinus fractures in a 13-year-old male following sports injury. This case is unique in that it displays a less-invasive surgical correction of anterior table frontal sinus fractures using a new surgical tool and follows the literature-supported trend towards sinus preservation. More extensive frontal sinus fractures with severe comminution or displaced posterior table fracture...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510026
Abou-elfadl M, Benzaouia A, Abada R, Rouadi S, Roubal M and Mahtar M
Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: December 03, 2016
The laryngeal tuberculosis incidence decreased significantly since the development of antituberculosis drugsand early detection of new cases. Currently, it represents less than 1% of cases of extrathoracic tuberculosis. As tuberculosis is endemic in Morocco, we continue to see this rare localization. Its clinical presentation is atypical and endoscopic aspects are polymorphic, hence the difficulty of diagnostic. The aim of the study is to report three different observations of the laryngeal loca...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510025
Susannah Orzell, Todd Falcone and Gregory Grillone
Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: October 05, 2016
Killian-Jamieson Diverticulum (KJD) is a rare type of cervical esophageal diverticulum. It originates inferior to the cricopharyngeal muscle and lateral to the longitudinal muscle of the esophagus, and is closely associated with the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). We report a case of KJD in a 78-year-old man treated with an open diverticulectomy with a nerve integrity monitor (NIM), and present a comprehensive literature review....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510024
Scott L Lee
Article Type: Perspective | First Published: September 01, 2016
Leaders often use the proverbial departed train to get people on board with unpopular changes, especially ones with little supporting evidence. Most hop on so as to not get left behind, but is the Maintenance of Certification (MOC) train heading in the right direction? In 2000, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) mandated all specialty affiliates to limit board certification (BC) to 10 years, rather than continue the lifetime certificate....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510023
Hanadi Fatani, Faraj Alotaiby and Saleh F Aldhahri
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 12, 2016
A 51-year-old female presented with 2 months' history of sore throat, change in voice, odynophagia, along with neck and thyroid nodule. CT/PET scan showed thickening of epiglottis with enhancement after intravenous contrast. Laser resection of epiglottis was done and histopathology revealed moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. A week later patient underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy to the larynx and ne...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510022
Guler Yavas and Cagdas Yavas
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 12, 2016
Human papillomavirus (HPV) - associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an entity with unique clinical and molecular characteristics, which mainly arises from the palatine tonsils and base of the tongue. Nowadays, oropharyngeal cancers are increasing in incidence despite declining prevalence of smoking and in direct opposition to a decreasing incidence of all other HNSCC. An epidemic of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers seems to account for these incidence trends....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510021
Randolph B Capone, Michael M Kim and Dane J Genther
Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: June 02, 2016
Background: Revision nasal valve reconstruction is one of the few treatment options available for patients with persistent nasal valve dysfunction after primary functional rhinoplasty. Revision nasal surgery is challenging, hampered by the presence of scar tissue, incorporated grafts, and the morbidity of obtaining additional autologous cartilage. Objective: In order to enhance nasal valve function while avoiding revision nasal surgery, a sublabial technique was developed to increase the project...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510020
Michael D Puricelli, Christopher I Newberry, Ryan M Neff, Michael S Cooperstock and Eliav Gov-Ari
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 01, 2016
469 charts were reviewed and 31 potential cases identified. 29 individuals were included with 20 successfully contacted. 11 cases met the classic definition (CD), 9 had intermittent cardinal symptom(s) (IS), and 9 had isolated periodic fever (IPF). Treatment included observation, steroid administration, and/or surgery (tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy). Steroids terminated each episode in all treated patients, 9/11 with CD and 11/18 with IS/IPF. When steroid treatment shortened the inter-epis...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510019
A Macchi, F De Bernardi, A Peirolo and D Simoncini
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 01, 2016
Rhinitis, a common condition throughout the world, are classified in non-allergic (NAR) and allergic rhinitis (AR). The data collected by recent studies show that NAR affects more than 200 million patients world-wide, among which 8% to 10% suffer from NARES and NARESMA. Nevertheless, respiratory diseases, and in particular rhinitis, are not considered real and serious diseases, and, as a result, they remain frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated despite the heavy burden they place on patient...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510018
Marciante Giulia Anna, Saibene Alberto Maria, Pisani Antonia, Biglioli Federico and Giovanni Felisati
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 30, 2016
A 73-year-old man, treated with a maxillary subperiosteal implant in 1985, was referred to our ENT clinic by his dental practitioner due to the onset of sudden edema, pain and purulent nasal discharge. Although the patient had experienced painful recurrent mobilization of the implant from 1995, he did not approach his dentist until 2006, when edema and purulent nasal discharge occurred. The radiologic imaging revealed a maxillary sinusitis with severe maxillary bone resorption and an oro-nasal/o...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510017
Sandhu JS, Rea PA and Ray J
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 02, 2016
In cases of intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) where conservative management has failed, surgical plugging of the semi-circular canal can provide an effective solution. Where bilateral disease is present, selecting the ear on which to operate can provide a challenge as there is often a pre-existing vestibulopathy and therefore surgery carries a considerable risk of chronic imbalance....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510016
Kokong DD, Yaro PJ, Embu HY, Nimkur LT, Iduh AA, Okwori ET, Adoga AS and Binitie OP
Article Type: Retrospective Study | First Published: April 01, 2016
Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the anterior part of the neck in order to gain access into the trachea via a stoma. The resultant stoma can serve independently as an airway-tracheotomy or a site for a tracheostomy tube to be inserted-tracheostomy, so as to establish an alternate airway. This is a valuable life-saving operation employed in critical airway....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510015
Aleix Rovira, Marta Fulla Campi, Julio Nogues Orpi and Manel Manos Pujol
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 01, 2016
The Ortners syndrome or cardiovocal syndrome is an uncommon entity characterized by hoarseness due to left recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis caused by identifiable cardiovascular disease. The most common conditions which may lead to Ortner's syndrome include mitral stenosis, aortic aneurysm, mitral valve prolapsed, cardiovascular surgery, aortic dissection etc. Herewith, we report the case of an atypical etiology of cardiovocal syndrome in a patient with a Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm (PAA)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510014
May Lim, Annabelle C Leong and Vijayadwaja Desai
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 25, 2016
Tumor metastases from colorectal carcinoma to the thyroid gland are extremely rare. We present a case of metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma to the thyroid occurring in a longstanding multinodular goiter together with a review of existing literature. A 60 year old lady presented acutely with stridor in 2014 on a background of colorectal carcinoma diagnosed 2003 and multinodular goiter diagnosed in 2006....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510013
John E Nathan
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 02, 2016
This editorial takes a critical look at one aspect of healthcare which involves interaction between the fields of otolaryngology and pediatric dentistry. Not uncommonly on a daily basis each discipline makes use of general anesthesia to complete invasive procedures on young and pre-cooperative children. Myringotomies, tonsillectomies with and without adenoidectomies are commonplace in surgical schedules of hospitals and out-patient surgical centers....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510012
Abou-elfadl M, Elbousaadani A, Abada RL, Rouadi S, Roubal M and Mahtar M
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: January 30, 2016
The laryngocele is a dilation of the laryngeal saccule filled with air which communicates with the lumen of the larynx. It is pathology, rare but can be serious. Symptoms are varied and diagnosis is based on direct laryngoscopy and scanner. The treatment is purely surgical. We discussed, through three different cases, the clinical, radiological and therapeutic modalities of laryngocele....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510011
Catherine Weng, Rod Rezaee, Jason E Thuener and Chad Zender
Article Type: Retrospective Chart Review | First Published: January 27, 2016
Various imaging modalities have been used to evaluate lower extremity anatomy including traditional angiography, color flow Doppler (CFD), CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA). We seek to compare these imaging modalities for preoperative planning of fibular osteocutaneous free flap reconstruction and to identify the optimal imaging method....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510010
Khaled M Mokbel, Waleed Moneir, Hossam Elsisi and Ahmed Alsobky
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 28, 2015
Our aim is to evaluate transcanal endoscopic approach in repair of subtotal tympanic membrane perforation in a trial to prevent conventional postaural approach. Our study was done in 80 patients with unilateral dry subtotal tympanic perforations. They were 44 males and 36 females. Their ages ranged from 18-50 years with mean of 33 years. Autograft thin (0.2 mm) auricular cartilage shield was used to repair tympanic membrane perforation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the appr...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510009
Peirolo Anna, Simoncini Daniela, Macchi Alberto, Graziani Daniela, Porcu Stefania and Nespoli Luigi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 24, 2015
Background: An increasing proportion of patients have coexisting upper and lower airway disease. Therefore, the historic perspective of these allergen-induced disorders as distinct and separate entities is being displaced by current thinking that they are better described as a continuum of inflammation involving one common airway. Objectives:The aim of this study was to investigate the role that upper airway inflammation and therapy plays on lower airway situation. Methods:This study was perform...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510008
Rispoli L, Fontana F, Beretta M, Poggio CE and Maiorana C
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 15, 2015
Objectives: To analyze the biological principles of guided bone regeneration and to provide the clinician with information regarding the use of different membranes. Materials and Methods: The choosing criteria among different membranes and the clinical options are presented. Finally, the surgical technique is described in details. Results and Conclusions: Guided bone regeneration is one of the several surgical techniques that have been introduced in the last two decades for bone regeneration pri...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510007
Sheldon P. Hersh and William H. Rodgers
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 25, 2015
Glomangiopericytoma, also known as sinonasal hemangiopericytoma, is a rare sinonasal neoplasm that commonly occurs during the sixth or seventh decade of life, often presenting with complaints of nasal congestion and epistaxis. Identified in less than 0.5% of all sinonasal tumors, this typically indolent lesion is a different tumor from the far more common and aggressive so-called soft tissue hemangiopericytoma that arises in varying sites throughout the body....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510006
Steve Manzon, Malcolm Zola, Jared S Weiner, Rawle F Philbert, Kevin R. Torske, Donald B MacDougall, and Daniel Nadeau
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 18, 2015
Clinicians are often faced with diagnosing routine oral and maxillofacial pathology. Experience and training make such tasks relatively easy. Establishing differential diagnoses, and ruling out the most unlikely, usually will lead to an appropriate treatment plan. Occasionally, a pathologic presentation may significantly differ from the expected, and stump even an experienced clinician. It is imperative, when encountering an unknown or unusual lesion, to return to basics and approach the entity ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510005
D'Ascanio Luca, Palmeri Annamaria Iole, Pappacena Marco and Piazza Fabio
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 09, 2015
The optimal surgical approach for extended parapharyngeal pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland is still controversial, also in relation to the possible complications of this type of surgery. We report our experience on 5 patients treated in the last 4 years with the 'extracapsular dissection-endocapsular decompression' surgical approach for parotid deep lobe extended adenomas. The surgical details are described. No complication in terms of temporary/permanent facial paralysis, sialocele or ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510004
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 3, 2015
The most common presentation of Herpes Zoster infection in the head and neck region is Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). RHS represents a complication of the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection, tipically presenting with the triad of ipsilateral peripheral type facial nerve paralysis, ipsilateral ear pain and erythematous vesicles in the external auditory canal. Herpes Zoster results from the reactivation of VZV in the dorsal root ganglia and RHS can be associated with trigeminal, abducent, glossop...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510003
Reid A. Waldman, Corey W. Waldman and Steven D. Waldman
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 28, 2015
First described in 1907 by James Ramsay Hunt, an American neurologist, Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the eponym given to a constellation of symptoms including a vesicular rash of the external ear and the ipsilateral two thirds of the tongue with associated paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve. The syndrome, which is also known as herpes zoster oticus and Hunt's syndrome, is believed to be caused by reactivation of dormant varicella-zoster virus (VZV) within the geniculate ganglion and associated sen...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510002
Claude F Harbarger and Brian J Wiatrak
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 21, 2015
Video Capsule Endoscopy (VCE) is an established means of evaluating the upper and lower aerodigestive tracts, with 3 companies now having received FDA clearance for their devices. The most prevalent risk of VCE is capsule retention, which infrequently results in bowel obstruction. In patients suspected of having a high risk of capsule retention, a dissolvable patency capsule is given a few days prior to the VCE procedure to ensure ultimate passage of the VCE device. Here we report what is, to ou...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-4193.1510001
John E. Nathan
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: July 04, 2015
Pre-cooperative and severely apprehensive children have immature cognitive abilities, a restricted range of coping skills, brief or negligible attention spans, and virtually no experience coping with stress. For these children conventional communication strategies may often prove inadequate or inappropriate to overcome the behavioral manifestations of childhood dental fear and anxiety. Well- chosen pharmacological approaches has potential to permit in-office treatment, avoid aversive measures, a...
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