International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research is a global peer reviewed open access journal that emphasis on the different aspects of clinical diabetes. It highlights the investigative reports focusing on areas such as the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, normal and pathologic pancreatic islet function and intermediary metabolism, pharmacological mechanisms of drug and hormone action, and biochemical and molecular aspects of normal and abnormal biological processes.

Clinical Diabetes acts as platform for the diabetes health care practitioners and clinicians to represent their Original Work, Reviews, Commentaries, Shorts Communications, Letters, Oral Presentations and Case Studies. The classification terms include but not limited to Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Insulin Resistance, Insulinotherapy, Endocrinology, Gestational Diabetes, Prediabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetic Risk Factors, Blood Glucose Dynamics and Diabetes-Therapeutic approaches.

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research ensures the faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. Two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. IJDCR is a permanent archive of Diabetes information which under open access category provides its global readers with free access to its content, thus serving the scientific community.

Journal Information

Title: International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634

Editor-in-chief: Masayoshi Yamaguchi

NLM title abbreviation: Int J Diabetes Clin Res

ICV: 87.97

ISO abbreviation: Int J Diabetes Clin Res

Other titles: IJDCR

Category: Diabetes

DOI: 10.23937/2377-3634

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410182

Pathophysiology of the Skin in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes and Emerging Therapeutic Opportunities

Priyanka Prabhakar Poonja, MBBS, MSc and Flora Kiss, MD, PhD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2024/05/31

Skin manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM) occur as a result of impaired insulin signalling, insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia. The biophysical properties of the outer barrier of the epidermis the stratum corneum (SC), reflect the status of both epidermal function and systemic conditions, with over two-thirds of DM patients known to experience skin involvement....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410184

Prevalence of Major Comorbidities and Associated Factors among Adult Diabetic Patients Attending Diabetic Follow up Clinic at Selected Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Haleluya Girma, Kabtiymer Shiferaw and Mesfin Aklilu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2024/06/05

Data was collected from April 28 to May 29, 2023. 417 study participants from 4 public hospitals were selected with simple random sampling technique. Data was collected by using structured and pretested questionnaire, medical record was used in order to obtain relevant information’s and measurement was done to obtain BMI. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Bivariable and Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis were done to determine the association between the outcome variable ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410183

The Relationship between HbA1c and Glucose Management Indicator and Time in Range in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: A Single Centre Study

Sirisha Kusuma Boddu, Xanthippi Tseretopoulou, A. Emile J. Hendriks, Ajay Thankamony and M. Loredana Marcovecchio

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2024/05/31

As continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) becomes increasingly utilized, it is relevant to better understand the relationship between CGM metrics and HbA1c. We aimed to assess the concordance between HbA1c and both glucose management indicator (GMI) and time in range (TIR) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410181

Effect of Asparagus africanus (Asparaceae) Aqueous Extract on Renal Complications in High Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes in Male albino Wistar Rats

Focham Evans Ngwenah, Oumar Mahamat, Bashi Brenda Mugob and Tume Chrsitopher

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2024/05/02

Asparagus africanus has been claimed to possess antidiabetic activity in the ethnomedicinal literature. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of A. africanus (EAA) in control of renal complications in experimentally-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410180

Clinical and Sociodermographic Predictors of Poor Quality of Life among Older Type 2 Diabetes Patients Attending the Family Medicine Clinics at a Tertiary Institution in Nigeria

Oluwatuyi EO, Oduniyi OA, Malomo SO, Sodipo OO, Olopade OB, Odunaye-Badmus SO and Odiana RN

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2024/01/27

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with significant implications on health status and quality of life (QoL) in terms of physical, social, environmental, and psychological well-being. Old age also has a significant influence on QOL, therefore, the impact of diabetes on the QOL of older persons can be more severe. In managing these older diabetics attention needs to be paid to the clinical and sociodemographic factors that may impact their QOL so that these can be modified whe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410179

Gestational Diabetes: Is the Trimester of Diagnosis Determinant on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes?

Fernanda Alves, Ana Margarida Balsa, José Eira, Ana Moreira and Osvaldo Moutinho

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: 2024/01/13

Data were collected on pregnant women with singleton pregnancies whose birth occurred at our center between January 2021 and May 2023. The sample was divided into two groups, according to the trimester of diagnosis of gestational diabetes, which were compared with respect to several variables....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410177

Anti-oxidative, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-apoptotic Efficacy of Anacardium occidentale Nuts Methanolic Extract in Pancreas of High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Folasade Omobolanle Ajao, Marcus Olaoye Iyedupe, Oluwatosin Akanmu, Noheem Olaolu Kalejaiye, Ayobami Lydia Adegoke and Luqmon Adekunle Adeniji

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/12/22

Adverse complication of anti-diabetic drugs demand for alternative novel therapy. This study investigated efficacy of Anacardium occidentale nut methanolic extract on oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in pancreas of HFD/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410175

Impact of Social Determinants of Health on Charcot Neuroarthropathy: A Retrospective Chart Review

Kelly M Dopke, BS, Mahad Muhammad, Nicole Fye, BS, Andrea Shehaj, BS, Kirsten Mansfield, BA, MPH, Shelby Alwine, BS, Kaitlin Saloky, MD, Christopher Stauch, MD, Sohrab Vatsia, MD, Erdi Ozdemir, MD and Michael Aynardi, MD

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: 2023/12/02

Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) is a destructive condition, commonly affecting the foot, and manifests secondary to diabetes mellitus. We compare basic demographics and investigate trends among patients with CN treated at a large, quaternary academic medical center according to surgical procedure, attendance at physical therapy (PT), and all-cause mortality....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410174

Insulin Injection Abscesses caused by Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex

Md Ejaz Alam, Mohammad Hayat Ahmad Bhat, Shoiab M Patto and Mohammad Afaan Bhat

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/11/04

Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) consists of more than 20 distinct gram-negative bacterial species. While commonly associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), BCC infections are not frequently reported in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). In this case report a 70-year-old female with multiple comorbidities, including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), and Hypertension (HTN), who presented with a Burkholderia cepacia skin abscess at an insulin injection site on her an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410172

Glycaemic Control and Weight Reduction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Using a Wholly Nigerian Diet - A Hospital Based Study

Sokiprim Akoko, MBBS, MSc, Iyeopu M Siminialayi, B Med Sc, MBBS, MSc, MD and Sunday Chinenye, MBBS, FWACP, FACE, FLCPS

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/09/15

Weight gain is linked to poor glycemic control in Type 2 Diabetes patients especially in resource restrained environment, and it is made worse by the lack of access to sustainable treatment options in these same environments. Due to poverty and limited financial resources, these individuals must prioritize safer, locally accessible, and scientifically tested methods of managing their health. Targeted lifestyle therapies have been shown to be clinically beneficial and reasonably priced for the pr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410173

In a Changing World of Disease Prevalence, We Must Change Our Differentials: A Case of Diabetic Myonecrosis

Chloe W Caudell, Jon D Wilson, MD and William S Sessions, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/09/15

The terms diabetic myonecrosis, diabetic myositis, and diabetic muscle infarction all describe the same microangiopathic rare complication associated with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus [1]. Diabetic myonecrosis is so rare that less than 200 cases have been reported [2]. Diabetic myonecrosis usually presents as a confusing picture of proximal lower extremity edema and extreme pain, with non-specific laboratory values....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410171

Determinants of Glucose Imbalance and its Effects on Developing Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in an Urban and Rural Ghanaian Community

Shani Issah, Obed Akwaa Harrison, Angelina O Danquah, Kamal Sumani Mumuni, Iddrisu Salifu, Mutala Abdulai and Matilda Steiner Aseidu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/06/30

Glucose imbalance or impaired fasting glycemia refers to a condition where there is imbalance in blood sugar levels in an individual. This is usually influenced by the inability of the kidneys to properly convert excess sugar into a form that can easily be eliminated from the body. Accumulation of excess sugar in the body leads to the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus with its associated complications. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410170

Back to the Beginning: Diagnosis Experiences of Persons with Type Two Diabetes

Christie Haase, RN, BSN, FNP

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 2023/05/24

One in ten adults in the United States has diabetes; the vast majority are diagnosed with type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Even though diabetes care has significantly evolved, and a wide variety of pharmacological treatments are available, approximately one-half of people with type two diabetes do not achieve a hemoglobin A1C of less than seven percent. In addition, self-management is a consequential contributor to glycemic control....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410169

Incidence and Predictors of Diabetic Retinopathy among Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients at Chronic Follow-Up Clinic of University of Gondar Specialized Hospital: A Retrospective Follow-Up Study

Worku Chekol Tassew, Nigussie Birhan and Yemataw Zewdu

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: 2023/05/10

Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes resulting from long-term accumulated damage to retinal blood vessels and one of the life-threatening complications and is the most common cause of acquired blindness in adults and it affects 93 million people worldwide. DR is the principal cause of blindness in adults of working age and responsible for a worsening in quality of life despite preventable and treatable causes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410168

The Effect of Hyperglycemia on Outcome in COVID-19 Patients with Known Diabetes: A Retrospective Observational Study

Yudhyavir Singh, Abhishek Singh, Surbhi, Kapil Dev Soni, Richa Aggarwal and Anjan Trikha

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: 2023/05/05

The blood glucose level in a patient with diabetes is an important prognostic factor for any form of severe illness requiring intensive care hospitalization. We conducted this retrospective study to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on outcomes in patients with diabetes with coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410167

Remission of Type 2 Diabetes with High-Fiber, Low-Fat, and Calorie Restricted Plant-Based Diet Study

Gunadhar Panigrahi, MD, FACC, DipABLM

Article Type: Clinical Research | First Published: March 11, 2023

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a chronic progressive disease, and its prevalence is on the rise around the world. Despite advances in pharmacotherapy, mitigating the burden of the disease on individuals, societies and the healthcare system remains a challenge. Remission has emerged as a therapeutic target in T2D with wide range of interventions. A plant-based diet seems to be promising to achieve this goal. The present study is conducted to establish the feasibility of achieving remission of type 2 di...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410166

High Rate of Mortality in Children and Youth with HIV Infection Compared to those with Diabetes in Tanzania

Edna S Majaliwa MD, MMED, FESPE, Joel Ndayongeje BSC, MSC MPh, Kaushik Ramaiya MBBS, MMED, Blandina T Mmbaga MD, MMED, PhD and Sayoki G Mfinanga MD, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 11, 2023

Pediatric and youth diabetes mellitus (DM) and pediatric and youth human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are among the chronic diseases with significant public health implications and high mortality. The availability of mortality statistics in type 1 diabetes and HIV/AIDS is critical for addressing the two conditions in one setting. To compare the mortality of children and youth living with Diabetes (CYLDM) versus children and youth living with HIV (CYLHIV)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410165

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Monocentric, and Placebo- Controlled Blood Glycemic Response Evaluation of Sweetch, a Natural Sugar Replacement Blend, on Healthy Volunteers

Le A Minh, Do A Tu and Khaiat Alain, PhD

Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: January 25, 2023

Diabetes mellitus is a serious global concern due to its long-term health-related effects and the financial burden it poses to healthcare systems and families around the world. Excess consumption of sugar is one of the main causes of the issue. There are many sweetening ingredients that claim to be the solution to substitute normal sugar while maintaining the blood sugar level at a low level, yet the evidence is lacking and not always substantiated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410164

Utilization of Continuous Glucose Monitors in a Group Medical Visit Setting

Laura A. Buchanan, MD, Matthew W. Calkins, MD, Charlotte T. Boyd, MA, Erin M. Saner, MD, Carmen G. Strickland, MD, John G, Spangler, MD and Julienne K. Kirk, PharmD*

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: December 29, 2022

The aim of this study is to assess the utilization of CGMs in a GMV setting to improve patient activation and engagement, quality of life, and metabolic outcomes including glycemic control through modified lifestyle behaviors in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Group medical visits (GMV) are an evidence- based care model shown to improve outcomes in diabetes. Monitoring tools that readily demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships between recommended lifestyle interventions and optimal glycemic c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410163

Diabetes and Driving - Significant Deficits in Knowledge and Practice

IN Khan, F Capatana, LD Premawardhana and MA Adlan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 22, 2022

Motor vehicle drivers who are diabetic and health care professionals who care for them, lack awareness of regulations pertaining to safe driving. We aim to assess their knowledge, practice, and adherence to recommendations in this study of diabetics who drive while taking hypoglycaemic agents....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410162

Personalized Evidence, and Young Adults’ Attitude and Behaviour Towards Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Preventive Lifestyle Measures

Rabi Ilemona Ekore, John Oselenbalu Ekore and Hany Ramadan

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 03, 2022

Behaviour change programmes have demonstrated diabetes risk-reduction benefits. Studies on diabetes preventive lifestyle activities largely focus on middle-aged/older adults. We investigated non-diabetic young adults’ risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their attitudes and behaviours towards preventive lifestyle activities....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410160

Diabetic Complications and Associated Factors among Diabetic Patients in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Melak Gedamu, Camilla Mulusew and Mamo Feyissa Senbeta

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 17, 2022

Diabetes mellitus is a rapidly increasing chronic disease associated with complications resulting in long-term damage and failure of various organ systems. In Ethiopia, there is a dearth of evidence on the prevalence of Diabetic complications....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410159

Intelligent Prophylaxis of Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Arthur Grünerbel and Lorenz Grünerbel

Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: September 30, 2022

A high skin surface pressure at the feet over a longer period of time can cause foot ulcers. It can occur due to insufficient relief of tissue and a lack of alarm signals from the nervous system, especially for patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathia. A healthy person would move and relieve the foot after a while. A medical wearable can warn a patient without natural alarm signals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410158

What Impact Does Glycemic Control Have on the Final Outcome of Diabetic Patients with Severe COVID-19?

Fadila Salmane, Faïza Charif, Zaynab Mahdi, Rayhana Rahouti, Hafça Lahbib, Aouatif Boucht, Meryem Smouni, Ouassima Bernichi, Mohamed Hannana, Wiam Ftouh, Hicham Sbai, Ismail Labib, Youssef Moutiaa, Adil Najdi and Mariam Benkacem

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 30, 2022

Diabetes represents one of the most frequently reported comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 disease; and is a risk factor for disease progression, and death. Assessing the impact of glycemic control on the progression of Covid-19 disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410157

Changing the Face of Diabetes

Stanley S Schwartz, MD, FACP, FACE

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: May 28, 2022

To be clear, this is not a criticism of current doctrine or those that came before us. In fact, this is a call to recognize that time, knowledge, and understanding marches forward and we should not be too slow to appreciate this fact....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410156

Skin Barrier Changes in T1DM and T2DM

Priyanka Prabhakar Poonja, MBBS, MSc

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 15, 2022

Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM) are a group of skin disorders that characteristically arise from prolonged chronic hyperglycemia and impaired insulin signaling or insulin resistance. There are several skin diabetic pathologies associated with the two main types of diabetestype 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which tend to negatively impact the patients quality of life. The literature reveals variations in the skin barrier changes between the two DM types, and this may pro...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410155

Effective Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus by Resonance Medicine

Praznikov Victor

Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: March 31, 2022

The first type of diabetes is insulin dependent. As a rule, in such patients, more often children or adolescents, the full range of consequences of reduced immunity is revealed. At the same time, cholecystitis is diagnosed, possibly gallstones, pyelonephritis, and kidney stones. As a rule, chlamydia, a large number of viruses, fungi, helminths are detected. All this is entered into the prescription for the preparation of the drug for treatment. Beta-cells of the pancreas in some patients with th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410154

Association between Smoking and the Switching to Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Zuhal Aydan SAGLAM, Tayyibe SALER and Şennur KÖSE

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: March 12, 2022

Since no studies have been published on how active smoking affects switching to insulin therapy, we aimed to investigate the role of smoking on switching to insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A total of 532 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, who started insulin treatment due to the inability to achieve glycemic control with maximum oral anti-diabetic treatment, were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups according to their smoking status at the beg...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410153

Epidermal Growth Factor Outperforms Placebo in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Meta-Analysis

Fazal Rahim, Xie Yan, Nida Bibi, Shah Nawaz and Yao Ming

Article Type: Meta Analysis | First Published: February 18, 2022

A diabetic foot ulcer is a life-threatening ailment caused by the widespread prevalence of diabetes. To overcome the inherent problem, several growth factors, as well as their various combinations, have showed promising effect in aiding diabetic foot ulcer healing. However, contradictory or paradoxical results are often available, debates about this issue have never ceased so far. Therefore, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of epidermal growth factor...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410152

Type 3 Diabetes? Evaluation of the Noradrenergic System in Diabetic Rats by Underexpression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Central Nervous System

Géssica De Mattos Diosti Klockner, Fernanda Christo Lovato, Rebeca Loureiro Rebouças, Laura Ingrid Volkweis Langer, Ingrid Oliveira Hoegen, Maria Luiza Ronkoski, Stephanie Rubianne Silva Carvalhal, Luiz Martins Collaço, Camila Marques and Luiz Fernando Kubrusly

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 09, 2021

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic inflammatory state that leads to potentially degenerative changes in brain metabolism. Sustained pictures of hypoinsulinemia trigger phosphorylation of the tau protein and production of amyloid plaques, forming senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain tissue. Diabetic patients have a higher incidence of cognitive impairment and a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD), the most common type of dementia characterized by chronic neurodegene...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410151

Therapeutic Efficacy and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Catharanthus roseus for Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

Dhrithi Tummala

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 09, 2021

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of metabolic diseases, in which the patient experiences high levels of blood glucose due to an insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas (Type I diabetes) or an inability of his/her body to respond to the insulin produced (Type II diabetes). Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) is a plant that belongs to the Apocynaceae family, and has long been used as a natural medicine for Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. This systematic r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410150

Screening of Diabetic Patients for Frailty with the Frail Scale: A Comparison with the Fried’s Phenotype Criteria in Saudi Arabia

Sadiq Ahmed Al-Ali, Qasem Mohammed AlJabr, Zainab Tariq Alramadhan, Zainab Algharrash, Alhawraa Jassim Ahmad Alyousif, Aroob Nassir Alessa and Hassan Ali AlButayan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 03, 2021

Frailty is a serious health issue that is associated with the decline of muscle and nerve functions. Several conditions have been associated with frailty, such as dementia, cancer, and diabetes. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of frailty in Saudi diabetic patients and assess the association between diabetes and frailty. Also, to investigate if the FRAIL scale is an adequate tool to identify frail patients to pre-frail and healthy patients. Seventy-eight participants were divid...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410149

Treating Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Using a Novel, Nanotechnology-Based Topical Formulation to Improve Pain, Sensitivity, and Function

Jeffery LaMour, DPM, Douglas Grimm, DPM, Ester Smith, PhD, Zvi Yaniv, PhD and Peter Hurwitz

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 24, 2021

Diabetes has become one of the largest global healthcare problems of the 21st century. More than 100 million U.S. adults are now living with diabetes or pre-diabetes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that as of 2015, 30.3 million Americans (9.4% of the U.S. population) have diabetes and 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes every year. The population prevalence of diabetes in the US is approaching 10% and is increasing by 5% each year. Annual costs for dia...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410148

Prevalence, Contributing Factors and Management Strategies (Self-Management Education) of Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Nigeria: A Review

Emos E Tella, Ismaeel Yunusa, Judith H Hassan, Ibrahim A Chindo and Victor B Oti

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 17, 2021

Diabetes is one of the major causes of morbidity and premature mortality globally with over 371 million people worldwide and more than 80% of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes occurred in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) including Nigeria, which has the highest burden of diabetes in Africa. The high number of medical admissions and deaths (15% and 22%) due to diabetes complications in Nigeria reflect the poor quality of care. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the prevalenc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410147

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of COVID-19 among People Living with Diabetes in Nigeria

Vivian Gga Kwaghe, Rifkatu Reng, Olufemi Adediran and Felicia Anumah

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 28, 2021

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people globally with over 3 million deaths. People with underlying comorbidities are at a risk of having severe disease with increased fatality. This study aimed at describing the clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 among people living with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Nigeria. This was a retrospective study that analyzed the data of adult patients who were admitted into the isolation and treatment center at the Uni...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410146

Oral Semaglutide: A Novel Oral Preparation of GLP-1 Receptor Agonist

Priya Mohan Babu and Vinay Eligar

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 07, 2021

The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous hormone produced by the L cells in the intestine. It is released in response to the intake of food and intestinal dilatation. It stimulates the pancreatic beta-cell to secrete insulin which is dependent upon ingestion of food. GLP-1 acts to slow down gastric motility and suppress appetite through the GLP-1 receptors in the satiety center. It is neutralized by the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme very quickly. Hence the endogenous GLP-1 ha...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410145

Effect of Educational Intervention Programme on Self- Management Practices of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in South-East, Nigeria

Christiana Nkiru Okafor, PhD, Pauline Ojinaka Ezenduka, PhD, Chinedu Charles Onyenekwe, PhD, Kenneth Umezulike Ani, BMR (PT), M.Sc, Chika Chioma H Odira, PhD, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, PhD and Vera Ijeoma Onyekaonwu, M.Sc

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2021

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that has great impact on health and affects quality of life of DM sufferers. Despite its chronic nature, DM is also a self managed disease that requires adequate knowledge of DM self management, in order for the sufferers to actively participate in their self care. The study was aimed at determining the effect of educational intervention programme on the selfmanagement practices of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in South East, Nigeria. A quasi ex...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410144

Research of Knowledge and Attitudes of Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcer Regarding Foot Care

Açelya TÜRKMEN, Ezgi SEYHAN AK and Ayfer ÖZBAŞ

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 14, 2021

Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the diabetic foot service of a university hospital in Istanbul created the population of this descriptive study. The sample consisted of 73 patients determined by power analysis (95%) and simple random sampling method. A survey form which is consists of 37 questions and created by the researcher is used as the data collection tool. Before beginning the study, the ethics committee approval is obtained. Results are evaluated at a 95% confidence interval a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410143

Demographic, Behavioral, and Clinical Characteristics of the Ambulatory Diabetic Population of the Dominican Republic, 2018

Leslie Anne Duncan, MPH, Paige Hornsby, PhD, Aaron Pannone, PhD, Omar W Ebrahim and Ammar Ibrahim, MD

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 31, 2021

Type 2 diabetes has steadily increased in prevalence in the Dominican Republic. Our objectives were to identify the demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of adult male and female ambulatory diabetic patients in the Dominican Republic to better understand diabetes in the Dominican population. We conducted a retrospective chart review of a random sample of ambulatory patients treated at the diabetes clinic at the Instituto Nactional de Diabetes, Endocrinología y Nutrición (INDEN)...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410142

The Effects of Vitamin E on Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

En Yng Ng, Yilynn Chiew, Sonia Chew Wen Phang, Yeek Tat Ng, Gerald Chen Jie Tan, Uma D Palanisamy, Badariah Ahmad and Khalid Abdul Kadir

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 23, 2021

Vitamin E, which exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombogenesis properties, has been shown to improve retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy. This study aim to investigate the effects of Vitamin E (Tocovid) on retinal microhaemorrhages and diabetic macular edema (DME) in diabetic retinopathy. A total of 30 participants were randomly allocated to the treatment group or placebo group. The participants in the treatment group (n = 19) received 200 mg Tocovid twice daily while ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410141

Systematic Review with Meta-analysis: Denosumab in Glucocorticoids Induced Osteoporosis

Mariya M El Akkawi and Ashish Shrestha

Article Type: Meta Analysis | First Published: May 17, 2021

American College of Rheumatology recommends Bisphosphonates as the first choice drug for Glucocorticoids Induced Osteoporosis (GIOP). But denosumab is the promising drug that is recommended as the first choice for post-menopausal osteoporosis. This study was conducted to light up the efficacy and safety of denosumab compared to bisphosphonates in GIOP. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), retrospective, prospective observational Studies, conference abstracts were searched in PubMed, Web of Scien...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410140

Hospital-Acquired Diabetic Ketoacidosis (HADKA) - An Analysis Comparing Two Major Australian Hospitals

Ushank Ranasinghe and Shamasunder Acharya

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 10, 2021

We conducted a retrospective study looking at patients over 18 yrs who developed hospital- acquired Diabetic Ketoacidosis (HADKA) in two major hospitals in Hunter New England Health, NSW Australia between 1st July 2014 and 30th June 2018. The data were obtained from patient electronic medical records. The HADKA criteria were pH ≤ 7.3, bicarbonate ≤ 18 mmol/L, and positive ketones (urine or plasma). A subset of patients was defined as ‘inferred HADKA’ when there was no documented ketone l...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410139

Magnitude of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Associated Factors among Diabetic Patients Who Attended Diabetic Follow-up Clinics in Gamo and Gofa Zones, Southern Ethiopia

Asegid Regas, Befikadu Tariku, Esekezaw Agedew and Busera Seman

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 03, 2021

The most common and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus that affect the lower extremities among people with diabetes is a diabetic feet ulcer. Diabetic foot ulcer increases develop multiple risk factors like foot infections, prolonged healing time, poor quality of life, gangrene, and lower limb non-traumatic amputations. Worldwide, the incidence and magnitude of diabetic foot ulcer rapidly increase since the diabetes disease dramatically increased and it reached an epidemic level. Howe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410138

Can Statins Be Beneficial in COVID 19 Patients?

Mouin Jammal, Moussa Riachy and Fady Haddad

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: April 17, 2021

Covid-19 remains a novel pandemic with many controversies and variable clinical expression and severity. Diabetes and a pre-existing cardiovascular disease are the greatest risk factor for severe Covid-19. The overall case fatality rate of 2.3% in the general population increases to 7.3% in presence of diabetes and reaches 15% in presence of a pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Age, smoking, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and obesity predict a severe Covid- 19. MyD88 gen...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410137

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Youth with Diabetes in the Dominican Republic, 2000 to 2016

Jessica Duska, MPH, Paige P Hornsby, PhD, Aaron Pannone, PhD, Jack Capra, MPH, Noris Solano, MD, Omar W Ebrahim and Ammar Ibrahim, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 31, 2021

The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is growing among adults in the Dominican Republic (DR), with little data regarding diabetes among youth. Our primary objectives were to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of pediatric diabetes patients in the DR. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 874 pediatric diabetes patients from 2000-2016. Data were abstracted and analyzed using SAS. The number of pediatric patients seen in the diabetes clinic grew over the study period, with an ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410136

Associations between Physical Functioning and Psychosocial Factors in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Christy B Adeyege, Taofeek O Awotidebe, Olufesola M Fasakin, Taofiq O Afolabi, Rufus A Adedoyin and Babatope A Kolawole

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2021

Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) could impact on both physical performance and psychological well-being. However, the link between physical functioning (PhF) and psychosocial factors (PsF) of patients with T2DM remains unclear. This study investigated the associations between PhF and PsF in patients with T2DM. This cross-sectional study involved 140 patients with T2DM receiving treatment at a Nigerian tertiary hospital using purposive sampling technique. Socio-demographic data were recorded. PhF ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410135

Relationships between Hand Grip Strength, Upper Limb Anthropometric Characteristics and Hand Disability in Middle- Aged and Older Adults with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Taofeek Oluwole Awotidebe, PT, PhD, Marufat Oluyemisi Odetunde, PT, PhD, Margret Ada Okonji, PT, MSc, Adekola John Odunlade, PT, MSc, Olufesola Motunrayo Fasakin, RN, MSc, Abayomi Andrew Olawoye, PT, DPT, Bamikole Paul Ayesoro, BMR, PT, Rufus Adesoji Adedoyin, PT, PhD and Babatope Ayodeji Kolawole, MBChB, FWACP

Article Type: Researc h Art icle | First Published: March 29, 2021

Progressive decline in muscular strength at middle age coupled with the presence of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) may define hand disability (HdD) as age progresses. However, there is paucity of information on the link between hand grip strength (HGS), upper limb anthropometric characteristics (ULAC) and hand disability (HdD) in patients with T2DM. This study investigated the relationships between HGS, ULAC and HdD as well as factors associated with HdD in middle-aged and older people with T2D...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410134

Barriers to Health Behavior Change in People with Type 2 Diabetes: Survey Study

Oumoukelthoum Mohamdy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 11, 2021

This is a qualitative survey study of 123 adult individuals with type 2 diabetes who are above 18-years-old, who participated in a survey that explore their perception about barriers to health behavior change. The survey was distributed online and in 6 health care centers under mini This study finds that the top barrier for behavior change is difficulty to follow healthy schedule (19.4%), workplace condition and timing (14.3%), and laziness (13%). The least barrier was lack of knowledge about he...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410133

Serum Vitamin D Levels in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria

Anyanwu AC, Olopade OB, Onung SI, Odeniyi IA, Coker HAB, Fasanmade OA and Ohwovoriole AE

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 30, 2020

The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to climb in many parts of the globe in association with the rise in Obesity. In parallel to the increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, evidence indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency Worldwide. Areas with high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency have been associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes. The reported prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus ra...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410132

Diabetic Foot Profile in Patients under Regular Haemodialysis

Nasreddine Boughallaba and Habib Ksouri

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 23, 2020

Diabetic foot syndrome that affects patients under regular haemodialysis is a complex mechanism mainly based on patient metabolism, neurosensitive abnormalities, and plantar pressure dysfunctions. Our work is based on a descriptive cross-sectional and multicenter study conducted during 45 days and concerning 43 diabetic patients among a total of 193 patients undergoing regular haemodialysis in three haemodialysis centers in Tunisia. Data collection relied on patients clinical records, all data w...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410131

Xenotransplantation of the Pancreas: A Reality Check of Its Historical Emergence

Cyprian Weaver

Article Type: Historical Analysis | First Published: December 21, 2020

Recent advancements being made in the humanization of Crispr-based gene-edited animals have now provided a sophisticated molecular platform for exogenic organ production and xenotransplantation. Although this amazing and novel medical step into the future holds significant therapeutic promise for pancreas xenotransplantation presently impeded by lack of sufficient donors, its origins arose in an era that is often portrayed as an age of medical quackery and iatrogenesis. The present study reexami...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410130

Nursing Intervention on Knowledge and Skills of Self-Management of Diabetes among Patients Attending Medical Out-Patient Clinic in Two Tertiary Hospitals in Ondo State

Olapeju Oke Ajibade, RN, RM, BNSc, PGDE and Rasidi Akinade Salawu, BSc (Nursing), RN, RM, PHD, FPNP Adv.Mgt., FWACN

Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: November 25, 2020

Diabetes mellitus is one of the global health burdens associated with adequate management. Self-management is a pivot of diabetes management. It has been estimated that more than one-quarter of the admissions in Nigeria hospital is as a result of diabetes complication. The study assessed nursing intervention on knowledge and skill of self-management among diabetic patients attending medical out-patient clinics in two tertiary hospitals, Ondo State, Nigeria. This study adopted a two-group, pretes...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410129

Metformin Improves Overall Survival of COVID 19 Iraqi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Salim M AL-Ibrahimi, MD, CABMS, FACE and Israa Nihad, MD, CABMS, FACE

Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: October 29, 2020

The characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatments, clinical outcomes in these patients were assessed. A total 300 patients (120 in the metformin and 180 in the no metformin), there were no significant difference between two groups in age, underlying diseases, clinical severity, and oxygen - support category at admission. Other laboratory parameters at admission and treatment after admission were not different between two groups. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the metformin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410128

The Effects of Red Blood Cells Parameters on HbA1c and Random Blood Sugar Levels in Diabetics Diagnosis

Esraa R Rashed, Tasneem A Alkout, Saja S Eltomy, Osama R Etekbali and Abdulhamid M Alkout

Article Type: Retrospective Study | First Published: September 30, 2020

Hemoglobin A1c levels and blood sugar is a diagnostic tests used for diabetes and to determine the developing of diabetic complications. The level of HbA1c is affected by factors such as the Haemoglobin, the age of RBCs in the blood circulation and the Hb glycation rate. The aim of this retrospective study is to assess the relationship of HbA1c levels and blood sugar with haemoglobin concentration, and RBC parameter during female clinic follow-up....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410127

Neuro-psychiatric Manifestations in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia - 1: A Unique Presentation

CL Nawal, Abhishek Yadav, Abhishek Agrawal, Radhey Shyam Chejara and Aradhana Singh

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 15, 2020

A twenty-one years-old Indian female patient presented with episodes of nervousness, irritability and confused behavior for a period of 20 days, particularly when a meal was delayed. About two days prior to presentation she developed an episode of loss of consciousness which recovered when she was administered dextrose containing intravenous fluids at a local clinic. She was then referred to our department for further evaluation. There was no history of chest pain, dyspnea, involuntary movements...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410126

Clinical Presentation and Factors Associated with Diabetic Ketoacidosis at the Onset of Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescent at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania: A Cross Section Study

Honesta Kipasika, Edna Majaliwa, Benjamin Kamala and Lucy Mungai

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 04, 2020

The incidence and clinical presentation of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) varies markedly among countries with a worldwide trend of affected children under- 5 years of age. The classical triad of polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss is the most common presentation. Similarly, the frequency of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) at the onset of T1DM is persistently high in Africa affecting more than two thirds of diabetic children....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410117

Complications and Glycaemic Control of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus amongst Children Aged 5 to 19 Years Attending Diabetic Clinic at Kamuzu Central Hospital In Malawi

Amos Msekandiana, Gladys Chigayo, Sandeni Chiume, Alfred Jaulani, Levina Msuya, Jedeni Bendabenda, Amos Nyaka, Dan Namalika, Geoffrey Manda, Lucy Mungai, Thomas Ngwiri, Charles Mwansambo, Joanna Walker and Anjumanara Omar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 22, 2020

According to WHO report published on their website on 1st June 2018, non-communicable diseases have become an issue of global concern with about 41 million deaths per year and 1.6 million deaths occurring as a results of Diabetes alone. In addition, over 85% of the deaths occur in the low and middle income countries. Thus the aim is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs globally by one third by 2030...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410125

Prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes and Presence of Optimal Support Services in Public Schools a Case Study of Gweru, Zimbabwe

Miriraishe Chigova and Prosper Chopera

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 10, 2020

Type 1 diabetes sometimes referred to as childhood onset diabetes is characterized by deficient hormone insulin production by the body. Children spend most of their time in school such that when there is an imbalance between medication, food and physical activity the wellbeing of the minor is placed at risk. The main objective was to investigate the prevalence of Type 1 diabetes and presence of support services for affected children in public schools in Gweru, Zimbabwe....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410124

Educational Intervention Impacts on Knowledge and Performance of Self-Care Practices among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Selected Hospitals in Southwestern, Nigeria

Oluwaseun Oluwafunmilayo Abiodun, Adenike Ayobola E Olaogun and Adewale Oladayo Akinpelu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 06, 2020

Neglecting the importance of adequate knowledge and correct performance of self-care practices are major causes of many complications that are experienced by T2DM patients. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of educational intervention on the level of knowledge and performance of self-care practices among patients with T2DM in selected tertiary hospitals. A quasi-experimental design that utilized purposive sampling method was used. The study was conducted at the University of M...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410122

Economic Assessment of Direct Cost of Illness of Diabetes Mellitus at Dessie Referral Hospital, North East Ethiopia

Zinash Alemu, Birhanu Demeke Workneh, Solomon Ahmed Mohammed and Moges Workneh Ayele

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 06, 2020

Cross-sectional study was conducted on 217 participants from November 30, 2016 to December 31, 2017, and data were extracted from patients registries and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Linear regression was used to assess the statistically significant difference in the cost of treatment of diabetes. The study calculated direct medical and non- medical costs by multiplying the quantity of each service by their respective unit costs. The total direct medical and non-medical costs per year were 12...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410123

Renoprotective Effect of Co-Enzyme Q10 and N-Acetylcysteine on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

Manojkumar S Mahajan, Chandrashekhar D Upasani, Aman B Upaganlawar and Vishal S Gulecha

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 21, 2020

Persistent chronic hyperglycemia is an important player in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) due to generation of oxidative stress (OS) which is at the center in the pathophysiology of DN and underlying kidney damage. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of antioxidants like Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) either alone or in combination in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410121

The Use of Artifical Intelligence in Assessing Glucose Variability in Individuals with Diabetes Type 2 from Routine Primary Care Data

Ljiljana Trtica Majnarić, MD, PhD, František Babič, MSc, PhD, Zvonimir Bosnić, Marijana Zekić- Sušac, PhD and Thomas Wittlinger, MD, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 06, 2020

A-proof-of-concept study, conducted in primary care. A total of 63 variables were used from electronic health records to describe clinical characteristics of 110 individuals with diabetes type 2 of both gender, 40-86 years old (average 62.69), and on treatment with oral hypoglycaemic drugs. The artificial neural networks (ANN) of machine learning techniques was used to model inter-day glucose variability based on the estimation of variances (the square of the standard deviation) of sporadically ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410119

Evaluation of Corneal Transparency in Diabetic Patients Aged 60 Years and Over

Luling Yang and Xuemin Li

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 16, 2020

The corneal densitometry analysis results varied between different age groups. In the 60 to 69 age group, the anterior layer at zone 0 to 2 mm had better corneal clarity in controls than in DM patients. Corneal densitometry values were markedly higher in diabetic eyes compared with control eyes in 70 to 79 age group when considered by central zones of total cornea at the 2 to 6 mm. The corneal transparency increased in 80 to 89 years DM patients in the majority of corneal zones. Besides, a weak ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410120

Eliminating the Health Disparity of the Diabetic Foot: A Continuing Public Health Crisis for African Americans and Latinos

Jacqueline E Sharpe, PhD, RN, CHES

Article Type: Review article | First Published: April 30, 2020

The aim of this paper is to maintain attention to the plight of prevention of the diabetic foot ulcer, particularly for those racial/ ethnic minority persons who must not be overlooked for healthcare measures that can save their lives, and for healthcare providers to not allow ones inability to pay be a rejection for not preserving that life and quality of life. The release of the 2020 National Diabetes Statistics Report for the United States continues to show that the ethnic minority groups, ag...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410118

Serum Trypsinogen and Lipase as Biomarkers of Exocrine Pancreatic Function in Newly Diagnosed Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Eman M Sherif, MD, Doaa M A Elzoghby, MD and Rasha Eladawy, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2020

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in literature has usually been associated with laboratory decrease in pancreatic exocrine enzymes levels. Nevertheless, the exact onset of decreased pancreatic enzymes levels in sera of patients is still unknown. We measured pancreatic serum levels of trypsinogen and lipase in Egyptian children and adolescents with newly diagnosed T1DM to reveal their role in diagnosis and their relation to HbA1c as a marker of glycemic control, lipid profile and fasting c-peptide...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410116

Effect of CoQ10 Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Bioenergetics in Type II Diabetes: A Pilot Study

Joohee Sanders, PhD, Sinclair Smith, PhD and Carsten Sanders, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 30, 2020

To compare oxidative stress, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, microvascular function, and exercise performance of type II diabetics (T2D) to that of control subjects and to determine whether Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation has any effects on these measures. Noted reduction in MDA seen in healthy, older individuals suggests a positive antioxidant effect of CoQ10 supplementation. However, when PAD is present, as can be the case of T2D, two weeks of CoQ10 supplementation at 2...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410115

Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Outpatients with Essential Hypertension in a Rural Tertiary Hospital

Ogunmola Olarinde Jeffrey, Ajani Gbadebo Oladimeji and Olabinri Eunice Oluremi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 16, 2019

To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with essential hypertension attending outpatient medical clinic in a rural community setting of a developing country. This cross-sectional study included patients of a medical outpatient clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital Ido Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Study patients were consecutively recruited from Cardiac clinic and baseline investigations obtained from the patients’ files were evaluated including Fasting Blood Glucose (FB...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410114

Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence, Distribution and Risk Factors in St. Kitts and Nevis, West Indies

Jeanita W Richardson, Kelsie D Kelly, Trina K Kumodzi, Nicole Slack Liburd and Hazel Laws, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 28, 2019

This study in collaboration with the St. Kitts & Nevis Ministry of Health (MOH) investigated the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, the second leading cause of death in the country. Medical records of patients between the ages of 18 and 75 as of January 1, 2010 treated between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 in the government-funded health centers (HCs) were eligible for inclusion (N = 2737). All HC visits (n = 4169) generated by a representative sample of patients (n = 76...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410113

Effect of Antihypertensive Agents on Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Patients in Taif - KSA

Niveen M. Daoud, Ola A. Qadi, Dania O. Al-talhi and Hanan Kamal Al-sharabi

Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: October 21, 2019

Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are chronic medical conditions that frequently coexist. Our objective is to evaluate the effect of Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor blockers comparatively and in integration with Metformin, dipeptidyl 4 inhibitors and insulin on lipid profile, serum creatinine, liver enzymes and electrolytes in type II diabetic patients. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are chronic medical conditions that frequently coexist. Obesity, high s...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410112

Diabetes in Latin America: Prevalence, Complications, and Socio- Economic Impact

L Sinisterra-Loaiza, A Cardelle-Cobas, AG Abraham, MN Calderon, MA Espinoza, LG Gonzalez- Olivares, M Gotteland, A Pazos-Sierra, S San Martin, A Cepeda, JJ Gagliardino and IBEROBDIA Project Group

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2019

To review and update epidemiological data on type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Spain and four Latin American countries: Colombia, Mexico, Chile, and Argentina. Literature was reviewed by a search of PubMed, publications of the Ministry of Health, World Health Organization, International Diabetes Federation, and other public health agencies of each respective country. Of the five countries above, Mexico (13.6%) had the highest prevalence of diabetes, followed by Spain (10.4%). Within these countries, sign...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410111

More Than Just 1200 Foot Care Nurses in America are Needed for 30.3 Million People Who Have Diabetes

Jacqueline E Sharpe, PhD, RN, CHES

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 23, 2019

There is an outstanding group of registered nurses who specialized in the care of wounds and working with DFUs. Since there are only about 1200 of them in the US and 30.3 million people who have diabetes, these nurses need some help and that help can come from the community. Looking at the increasing number of people with diabetes and their need to know preventive care information, there is no time better than this for community organizing and community building for health and wellness. One does...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410110

Is it Time to Review the Role of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems in Diabetes Management?

Le Minh Quang, MSc, MD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 19, 2019

Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are widely used as standardized measurements in diabetes management. HbA1c is a measure of the mean blood glucose level over a period of 8-12 weeks. This index is easy to measure, relatively inexpensive and internationally standardized. HbA1c helps to predict the complications, particularly microvascular complications in patients with diabetes. However, because HbA1c represents only an average measure of glucose levels, it does n...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410109

Continuous Glucose Monitoring Guided Assessment of Concentrated 200 IU/Ml rDNA Human Premix 30/70 Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Hemant Thacker, MD, MRSH, FACE, FACP, Jothydev Kesavadev, MBBS, MD, FRCP, Shahu Ingole, Jayesh Rajgopal and Rishi Jain

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 22, 2019

Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are on insulin analogues which are costly as well as usage of higher units of insulin on a daily basis increases the cost of the monthly therapy. Concentrated insulin are a way forward for patients who needs higher units of insulin especially Human insulin which address the issues of higher cost and the need for higher concentration in the same or lesser volume of insulin. However, data on 24-hour glycemic control with concentrated insulin in In...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410108

The Novel Use of a Group Event for Young Adults with Diabetes to Promote Completion of Essential Diabetes Checks and Diabetes Education

Ravikumar Ravindran, Kofi Obuobie, Sian Ward and Elaine Hibbert Jones

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 27, 2019

To use Group learning event as an opportunity to bring young people with diabetes together, improve patient education, peer to peer learning of common themes, assess the satisfaction of the participants with regards to the services being offered and completion of Diabetes annual review checks. The event was conducted in the afternoon over 3 hours with refreshments being offered....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410107

Pancreatic Autoantibodies in Sudanese Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Yahya Rabab Mahdi, Urwa Hashim and Abdullah MA

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 13, 2019

Immunepositive type one diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of diabetes in children worldwide. Seronegative cases are said to be more common among black Africans. In a previous study in Sudan 46% of cases were found to have positive GAD antibodies. The aim of this study was to find out the prdevalence of pancreatic autoantibodies among multiethnic group of newly diagnosed Sudanese children by testing for multiple antibodies and to see how common are seronegative cases as reported in black A...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410106

Prevalence of Proteinuria among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Dhamar Governorate, Yemen

Abdulqawi Ali Al-Shammak, Abdullatif Daiffallah Ali and Hussein Al Jermozy

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 09, 2019

Diabetic nephropathy remains the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Microalbuminuria is the first clinical sign of renal dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. A urine total protein: creatinine ratio (TPCR) is a convenient and inexpensive measure of proteinuria and could be used to predict the presence of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of proteinuria among type-2 diabetic p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410105

Effects of Fractionated Neem Leaf Extract (IRC) on Blood Glucose Level in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

Okpe Aaron C, Shu Elvis N, Nwadike kenneth I, Udeinya Iroka J, Nubila, Nkoyo I and Aniagor Ebele N

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 04, 2019

This study evaluated the hypoglycaemic effects of fractionated neem leaf extract (IRC) on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats. IRC dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) PH 7.2 was administered as 50 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg single doses and 5 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg repeated doses in the diabetic rats while in the normoglycaemic rats 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg were used respectively. The positive control groups received single and repeated doses of glibencla...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410104

Comorbidity among Patients with Kidney Diseases in Hail Region, Saudi Arabia

Mukhtar Ansari, Majed Al-Adeem and Mohammed Alshakka

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 22, 2019

Kidney diseases are emerging non-communicable ailments in Saudi Arabia and rest of the world. Among top ten diseases in 2017 in Saudi Arabia, chronic kidney disease was the 4th common cause of most of the deaths in the kingdom. Hence, the study aimed at determining the major concomitant chronic disorders and their association with kidney diseases in Hail region. This cross-sectional, retrospective study was carried out in King Khalid Hospital, and King Abdullah International Foundation for Haemo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410103

The Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome in Saudi Community Based Hospital: A Retrospective Single Centre Study

Khalid S Aljabri, MD, FRCPC, FACP, Ibrahim M Alnasser, MD, Facharatz, Samia A Bokhari, MD, SBEM, Muneera A Alshareef, MD,SBIM, Patan M Khan, MD, MRCP, Abdulla M Mallosho, MD, Hesham M AbuElsaoud, MD, Mohammad M Jalal, MD, Rania F Safwat, MD, Rehab El Boraie, MD, Nawaf K Aljabri, MLT, Waleed O Bawzeer, MD, Mohammad A Melibari, MD, Bandari K Aljabri, MS, Arwa Y Alsuraihi, MS and Amjad I Hawsawi, MS

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 21, 2019

The burden of thyroid diseases in the general population and patients with Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is enormous. To estimate retrospectively the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with MetS in Saudi community based hospital. We analyzed retrospectively 3632 participants whom are between the age 18 to 105 years. All patients were from the population of the Primary health centre at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All data were collected on the basis of a review of el...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410102

Association of Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Free Thyroxine with Urinary Albumin Excretion in Euthyroid Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Khalid S Aljabri, MD, FRCPC, FACP, Ibrahim M Alnasser, MD, Facharatz, Samia A Bokhari, MD, SBEM, Muneera A Alshareef, MD, SBIM, Patan M Khan, MD, MRCP, Abdulla M Mallosho, MD, Hesham M AbuElsaoud, MD, Mohammad M Jalal, MD, Rania F Safwat, MD, Rehab El Boraie, MD, Nawaf K Aljabri, MLT, Bandari K Aljabri, MS, Arwa Y Alsuraihi, MS and Amjad I Hawsawi, MS

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 20, 2019

The kidney is responsible for the excretion of thyroid hormones. The present retrospective study was conducted to find out the association of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) with urinary albumin excretion in euthyroid subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Saudi community based hospital. We analyzed retrospectively 939 participants whom are between the age 20 to 96 years. All patients were from the population of the Primary health centre at King Fahad ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410101

The Level of Satisfaction of Diabetic Patients with Healthcare Personnel Attending Outpatient Health Clinics in Jamaica

Paula Barrett-Brown, Donovan McGrowder and Dalip Ragoobirsingh

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 23, 2019

The burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing in low-income and middle-income countries, and it is a major contributor to premature mortality. The care of patients with diabetes mellitus is multidisciplinary and involves a number of healthcare personnel. Effective communication between diabetic patients and healthcare personnel influence self-management and health outcomes. The study evaluated the diabetic patient's assessment of the communication skills of the healthcare providers, as well as a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410100

A Medical Case Masquerading as Surgical Pathology in an Individual Living with Diabetes

Ravikumar Ravindran and Kofi Obuobie

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 21, 2019

Diagnosing the cause of abdominal pain in a young type 1 diabetic can be a challenging task and involves a wide array of differential diagnosis. Most commonly the pain is thought to be secondary to diabetic neuropathy. It becomes even more problematic if there is significant weight loss, if extensive investigations have not found any organic pathology and if the pain does not fit into any pattern of diabetic neuropathy. We present such a case where a young 21-years-old female diabetic had lost 1...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410099

SMART Population Screening and Management in Qatar

Samya Ahmad Al Abdulla, Dahlia Mustafa Hassan, Azza Mustafa Mohammed and Joelle Bevington

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 12, 2019

The SMART clinic was firstly established at Al Wakra Health Center in the Southern region of Doha, Qatar. At the clinic individuals were screened for type II DM and depending on the outcome, a specific pathway was designed for them to follow ensuring patients and their families remained on the correct health initiative. A cross-sectional study design was used to study adult Qatari nationals registered at Al Wakra Health center's Smart Clinic using data obtained between (Jan 2015-Jan 2016). The s...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410098

Insulin Acts as Stimulatory Agent in Diabetes-Related Escherichia Coli Pathogenesis

amelija Madacki-Todorovic, Izet Eminovic, Nadira Ibrisimovic Mehmedinovic and Mirza Ibrisimovic

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 05, 2018

In general, diabetic patients are more prone to microbial infections, which is believed to be caused due to high glucose levels in blood which compromise components of the immune system. However, it is little known about role of therapeutic insulin administration on dissemination of infectious diseases in people with diabetes mellitus. The study included the clinically isolated strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) with biofilm forming capacity as well as referent non-biofilm former E. coli stra...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410097

Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections and Allergic Conditions among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Rural Hospital Clinics in Sri Lanka

JGA Sachinthana, GM Kariyawasam, EMDT Edirisinghe, HSN Peiris, DARK Dayara-thna, FM Mowlana and JMKB Jayasekara

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 07, 2018

Urinary tract infections (UTI) and allergic conditions in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) may evolve to serious complications unless managed properly. Early diagnosis and evaluation of these conditions of DM pa-tients are important to maintain the quality of life of the patients. The objective of the current study was to identify the incidence of UTIs among type 2 DM patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410096

Insulin Resistance Modification is a Game Changer for Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Strategy

Juraj Gmitrov

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 15, 2018

Insulin resistance, appearing years before diabetes main diagnostic sign, hyperglycemia, stands in the origin of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), generated by complex impairment of a spectrum biochemical processes the most important of which is the failure of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enzymatic chain responsible for glucose uptake and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activation. Therefore in conditions with insulin resistance the impairment of glucose uptake is strongly coupled with NO deficit ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410095

Zinc Supplementation Attenuated Calcium-High Diet Effect on Zinc Status and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Rats

Samir Derouiche and Zine Kechrid

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 03, 2018

The bioavailability of zinc can be influenced by several dietary factors, among them calcium level, which leads to zinc metabolism disturbance. Thus, the present study was under taken to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on zinc status and carbohydrate metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic rats fed high-calcium diet. Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from disorders of secretion or the action of insulin. This hyperglycemia is a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410094

Subcutaneous Insulin Safety Concerns

Jeanne Manzi

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: September 29, 2018

With the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the United States, the use of insulin has increased along with the incidence of needle-stick injuries. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) published guidelines in 2017 on how to optimize safe subcutaneous insulin use in adults. One of the recurring themes of these guidelines is education, education, education. This is essential for self-management by patients with diabetes and also for the safety and effectiveness of the care they ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410093

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Lipids in Minorities with Type 2 Diabetes

Joel C. Exebio, Sahar Ajabshir, Adriana Campa, Tan Li, Gustavo G. Zarini and Fatma G. Huffman

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 29, 2018

Vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes are common among Hispanics and African Americans in the US. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplemental vitamin D intake (4000 IU/day or 6000 IU/day of vitamin D3 over a 6-month period) on blood lipids in a sample of African Americans and Hispanics with type 2 diabetes and vitamin D insufficiency. Participants (n = 75) were recruited by community outreach. Participants in both groups were required to take either 4000 IU or 6000 IU of ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410092

The Ketogenic Diet and its Clinical Applications in Type I and II Diabetes

Raffaele Pilla

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 06, 2018

It has been shown that metabolic-based therapies, such as nutritional ketosis, are effective to contrast seizure disorders and various acute and chronic neurological disorders. From a physiological perspective, glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for cells. However, many neurodegenerative disorders have been recently associated with impaired glucose transport and metabolism and with mitochondrial dysfunction causing energy deficits, such as in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, general ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410091

Histopathological Alteration in STZ-Nicotinamide Diabetic Rats, a Complication of Diabetes or a Toxicity of STZ?

Nahid MH Elamin, IMT Fadlalla, Shadia A Omer and Hala AM Ibrahim

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 06, 2018

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. The rapid increasing prevalence, high morbidity and mortality of the disease must be encountered by an increase in scientific research. Animal models are very important in the preclinical studies to validate the use of new drugs. Streptozotocin - nicotinamide (STZ-NA) is used to induce T2DM in animals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410090

Insulin Regulates Circulating Omentin, Fatty Acid Binding Protein-4 and Chemerin, but not Irisin in Man

Nandita K Shankar, Clayton A Dehn, Robert V Considine and Helmut O Steinberg

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 23, 2018

Omentin, fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4), chemerin and irisin are chemokines whose circulating levels are altered in insulin resistant states. However, there is limited insight into function of these chemokines as well as the potential role of insulin in the modulation of these chemokines. We tested the hypothesis that insulin alters these chemokines by measuring changes in their circulating levels in response to elevated insulin in a group of healthy non-obese subjects....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410089

The Protective Effect of Resveratrol on Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Tugba Karadeniz and Muammer Karadeniz

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 04, 2018

Based on the key role of hyperglycemia-caused oxidative stress in the formation of diabetic cardiomyopathy, increased antioxidant process would best restorative approach for control of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The increased nitrative stress and peroxynitrite, activation of iNOS and TGF-B1 play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Reduction of the expressions of the NOS-2 and TGF-B1 appears to be one of the important mechanisms for resveratrol effect on heart....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410088

Tropical Pyomyositis: Case Report

Sylvia Rannyelle Teixeira Lima, Joao Kennedy Teixeira Lima, Antonio Leonel de Lima Junior, Indira Ravena Pereira Alves Fernandes Macedo, Jaine Dantas Peixoto, Debora Laesia Sariava Ribeiro, Maria Mirelle Ferreira Leite Barbosa and Marcia Meyrilane de Alencar Aquino

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 19, 2018

The first case of pyomyositis was described by Scriba in the 19th century, being found endemically in tropical regions. Until recently, pyomyositis was considered uncommon in the temperate zone. Currently there is an increase in the number of cases of pyomyositis in temperate climates....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410087

The Impact of Individual Health Education on Health Literacy: Evaluation of the Translated Version (Sinhala) of Health Education Impact Questionnaire in Type 2 Diabetes

Bulathsinghalage Poornima Reshamie Cooray, Hana Morrissey, Eisha Indumani Waidyarathne, Patrick Anthony Ball and Manilka Sumanathilake

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 14, 2018

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications is increasingly prevalent in Sri Lanka. Patients with low health literacy worsen the glycaemic control and diabetes complications. However, lack of studies on the effect of health literacy that affects clinical health outcomes and the effect of health education on it....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410086

Cardiovascular Complications and Composition of the Intestinal Microbiome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

EG Siegel, J Lorenzo Bermejo, I Flade and C Hasslacher

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 28, 2018

Cardiovascular complications (CVCs) are still the most frequent cause of morbidity and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. The current options for the treatment of the classic risk factors such as dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension, and diabetes have so far not been able to alter this situation to a fundamental extent, meaning that new therapeutic approaches must be identified....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410085

New Pharmacist Role in Diabetes Education in Sri Lanka: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Randomized Step-Up Study

Bulathsinghalage Poornima Reshamie Cooray, Hana Morrissey, Eisha Indumani Waidyarathne, Patrick Anthony Ball and Manilka Sumanathilake

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 23, 2018

Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease, affecting more than 180 million people worldwide. It is estimated to reach 592 million by 2035; of which the majority are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Sri Lanka is one of the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world. There were 1.16 million cases of all types of diabetes were recorded in Sri Lanka in 2016 as stated in an International Federation of Diabetes Atlas....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410084

Glucose Tolerance Test in Clinical Practice is Varied in Basic Research

Kai-Chun Cheng, Yingxiao Li and Juei-Tang Cheng

Article Type: Letter To Editor | First Published: March 16, 2018

Glucose Tolerance Test in Clinical Practice is Varied in Basic Research...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410083

Different Insulin Initiation Regimens in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - A Review Article

Mir Mudassir Ali , Khin Thida Aung, Meela Ali, VS Eligar, JS Davies and Madelein Young

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 24, 2018

The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study has shown that beta-cell function declines over time, and insulin will be needed to achieve good glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies show that initiating insulin early, especially when HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) is > 9% improves glycaemic control and patient outcome....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410082

Severe Kidney Damage in Diabetics on Alternative Medicine

Dalip Ragoobirsingh, Errol Morrison and Herbert Thompson

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 22, 2018

Thirteen diabetic patients who had a history of exposure to herbal treatment and/or food toxins were compared to 10 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients and 10 normal controls. Each group was matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and in the case of the diabetic controls duration of diabetes. Microalbumin, urinary amylase, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood pressure were measured using standard techniques....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410081

Age at the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Correlates with Phenotype of Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase

Gloria-Bottini F, Antonacci E, Neri A, Magrini A and Bottini E

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 15, 2018

Several lines of evidence suggests that cytosolic Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (cLMWPTP), encoded by ACP1 gene, could be a candidate gene for T2D. Previous studies, however, have not found a direct association between the enzyme phenotype and susceptibility to the disease but have only found associations with its clinical manifestations....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410080

Role of TXNIP Biology in Glucose Metabolism

Alec B Chaves, Jacob M Haus and Joseph A Houmard

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 08, 2018

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a major contributor to the natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A common underpinning that exists behind the mechanisms of insulin resistance is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which may be exacerbated by a protein target known as thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410079

Do Patients Value Nutritional Therapy? A Quantitative Study in Type-2 Diabetes Patients

Ezequiel Pinto, Nidia Braz, Tania Nascimento and Eurico Gomes

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 28, 2017

Type 2 diabetes patients' adherence to pharmacotherapy is higher than adherence to nutritional therapy or lifestyle change behaviours, and patients do not value nutritional therapy in the same level as they value other types of interventions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410078

Multicentre Evaluation of Adherence to Extended-Release Metformin in Daily Practice in Russia

Hostalek U, Ametov A, Barykina I, Bondar I, Vaysberg A, Verbovaya N, Zhukova L, Zamyatina O, Kiseleva T, Morugova T, Shabalina E and Hildemann S

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 16, 2017

Major guidelines support the use of metformin the initiation of pharmacologic antihyperglycaemic therapy within the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is available as a standard, immediate-release formulation (usually taken two or three times daily) and also in Extended-Release (XR) formulations (designed to be taken once-daily)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410077

Network Pharmacology and Traditional Chinese Medicine: Development of Anti-Diabetic Therapies

Zhongxia Lu, Wenjun Xu, Xi Chen, Changyu Li and Yitao Chen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 04, 2017

Partly due to the failure of single-target drugs, diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease with complex pathogenesis and long-term medication requirements, is increasing in prevalence worldwide and urgently needs multi-component and multi-target treatments....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410076

Biocompatible Scaffolds: An Effective Means for Improving Islet Cells Viability and Function

Reza B Jalili and Aziz Ghahary

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 17, 2017

Islets of Langerhans are endocrine units of the pancreas. Local microenvironment of islets includes their immediate extracellular matrix and other molecules that surround islets within the exocrine pancreas. Transplantation of pancreatic islets, which is a promising method for treatment of type 1 diabetes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410075

Technology Driven Diabetes Management: Application of Cellular Transmission of Glucose Data

John P Bernot, Manali Patel, Holly Borders, Jade Hairston, Steven Davis and Julienne Kirk

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 16, 2017

A prospective study was performed in 10 patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Subjects received a wireless glucose monitor with the capability to transmit their glucose measurements to an external server via cellular service. The clinician analyzed these measurements, and communicated with the patient via the glucometer....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410074

Elevated Hemoglobin A1C is Significantly Associated with Decreased Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Hasan Hareem, Everman Sarah, Alawi A Al sheikh Ali, Farooqi Hamed, Blanchon Bruno and Hassoun Ahmed

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 11, 2017

Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) has been associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in both healthy individuals and those with diabetes. We examined the association between Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and post-exercise HRR in patients with diabetes. Participants who were free from known cardiac disease or severe orthopedic problems referred to an exercise specialist for a fitness assessment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410073

New Development of Hypoglycemia in a Previously Poorly-Controlled Type 2 Diabetic: Ackee Fruit-Induced Hypoglycemia

Summaya Abdul Latif and and Pooja Luthra

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 26, 2017

We report a patient with new onset hypoglycemia due to the consumption of the Ackee fruit. Patient is a 95-year-old Jamaican male with history of uncontrolled, insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes mellitus. He presented with new onset of hypoglycemia and improvement in hemoglobin A1C without any changes in diabetes regimen....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410072

Seniors and Diabetes Education on Social Media

Edson da Silva, Marileila Marques Toledo and Luciana de Freitas Campos

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: September 28, 2017

The growing life expectancy of the population has shown significant increase in the number of elderly and seniors have more diabetes than any other age-group. Worldwide, the number of people aged 60 or older is growing faster than all younger age groups, with most of the increase in developing countries....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410071

Indices for Assessment of the Quality of Glycemic Control and Glucose Dynamics from Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Klaus-Dieter Kohnert, Peter Heinke, Lutz Vogt, Petra Augstein, Andreas Thomas and Eckhard Salzsieder

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 26, 2017

Continuous glucose monitoring data obtained during an observational study involved 256 subjects with type 1 (n = 22), type 2 diabetes (n = 222), and 12 non-diabetic control subjects. We compared the indices for the quality of glycemic control and determined their relationship with glucose profile complexity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410070

Could We Really Use Aloe Vera Food Supplements to Treat Diabetes?

Solomon Habtemariam

Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: May 20, 2017

For thousands of years, mankind has used plants as a source of medicine either in their crude mixture forms or purified single chemical entities. While the use of crude plant extracts in prescription drugs today is extremely rare, we still have a significant number of our drug therapies tracing their origin back to natural products. In principle, drug therapeutic approach for complex metabolic disorders like diabetes and associated diseases, where a single key universally accepted biological tar...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410069

Influence of Obesity in Mortality in Hospitalized Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

R Barba, R Gomez Huelgas, J Marco, J Ena, M Romero, J Ruiz, J Marrero, J Canora and A Zapatero

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 27, 2017

Overweight and obesity increase overall mortality and predict premature death (7-10). Furthermore, obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors like increased insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidemia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410068

Conventional Versus Intensive Insulin Therapy in Young Children with Diabetes: Impact of a Long Term Targeted Multidisciplinary Education Program

Piero Balice, Gerald Theintz and Mario G Bianchetti

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 09, 2017

Intensive insulin therapy is progressively replacing conventional therapy in young children to improve diabetes control. However, the specific skills required to manage insulin pumps may hamper social integration as much as the fear of severe hypoglycemia using conventional therapy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410067

DKA in an Adolescent with Established Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes

Yael Levy Shraga, Uri Hamiel and Orit Pinhas Hamiel

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 08, 2017

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and its complications are the most common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents with established diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The overall incidence of recurrent DKA episodes is estimated as 8 per 100 patient years. Interestingly, almost 60% of recurrent DKA episodes occur in 5% of patients....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410066

Activity-Induced Deamidation of Triose-Phosphate Isomerase May Explain the Deleterious Effects of Excessive Glucose Consumption

Alan R Hipkiss

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 25, 2016

It is suggested that the glycolytic enzyme triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) is the "Achilles' heel" in carbohydrate metabolism under conditions of excessive glycolysis. The catalytic activity of TPI can induce permanent changes in its structure and a decline in activity. Under conditions of high glycolytic flux, insufficient TPI activity may eventually cause the accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (TPI substrate) which spontaneously decomposes into methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive bi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410065

The Combination of Canagliflozin with a Half-Dose of Glimepiride Improves Glycemic Control and Blood Glucose Perturbation without Increasing the Risk of Hypoglycemia and Ketosis

Mayuko Harada, Yasuhisa Abe, Yuki Maeda, Michiko Kajikawa and Mitsuru Hashiramoto

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 04, 2016

The application of sulfonylurea (SU) remains one of the most popular approaches in pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients because SU exerts potent stimulatory effects on insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells and is relatively inexpensive and well tolerated. Hypoglycemia, however, is a major safety concern that is associated with the use of SUs, because it impairs a patient's quality of life and can become life threatening when protracted....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410064

Secondary Failure of Oral Hypoglycaemic Agents among Type Two Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Northern Nigeria

Muazu Salisu Babura, Okpe Innocent Onoja, Anumah Felicia and Bakari Adamu Girei

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 28, 2016

Background: Secondary oral hypoglycaemic agent (OHA) failure is one of the many challenges of diabetes management, the consequence of which is poor diabetes control and early development of chronic complications. Prospective studies on secondary OHA failure have not been done in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with development of secondary failure of OHA among T2DM subjects....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410063

Hba1c Variability, Absolute Changes in Hba1c, and the Risk of Poor Glycemic Control among Older Adults with Diabetes Enrolled in Medicare Advantage Plans

Dingwei Dai, Susannah Higgins and Natan Szapiro

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2016

Healthcare claims data for all diabetes patients aged 65 years or older and continuously enrolled in Medicare Advantage plans in Independence Blue Cross from 2013 to 2014 and had ≥ 3 HbA1c measurements in the 2013 measurement year (MY). We used patients' zip codes to link to US census data to get socioeconomic status information. Poor glycemic control was identified as the most recent HbA1c level > 9.0% during the MY. HbA1c variability was defined as within-subject standard deviation of Hb...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410062

The Impact of Energy Drink Consumption on Vascular Endothelial Function

R Matthew Brothers

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2016

Vascular endothelial dysfunction contributes to a variety of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Despite anecdotal reports of adverse cardiovascular and hemodynamic effects of energy drink consumption there has been very little scientific research conducted on this important topic. Furthermore, the limited research available has not yielded consistent results. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of a commercially available energy drink would have no effect on endothelial functio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410061

Ethanolic Extract of Bauhinia forficata: Metabolic Effects in Diabetic and Normoglycemic Rats

Liana de Oliveira Gomes, Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis Livero, Aline Maria Stolf, Carlos Eduardo Alves de Souza, Michele Pontes Werneck, Cristiane Vizioli de Castro Ghizoni, Maria Helena Verdan, Jose Ederaldo Queiroz Telles, Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich, Maria Elida Alves Stefanello, Jurandir Fernando Comar and Alexandra Acco

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 06, 2016

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia and associated complications, such as dysfunction and failure of the eyes, kidneys, nerves, brain, heart, and blood vessels. Diabetes may result from defects in secretion and/or insulin action involving specific pathogenic processes, including destruction of pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion disorders. The estimated prevalence of diabetes nowadays is about 150 million people worldwide, and thi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410060

Evaluation of a Standardized Inpatient Insulin Therapy Based on Electronic Insulin Dose Calculation - A before after Cohort Proof of Concept Study

Rahel Nussbaumer, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Robert Thomann and Anne Katrin Borm

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: May 31, 2016

Background: Diabetes is a common comorbidity in hospitalized patients. The necessity of blood glucose control in those patients with low variability and avoidance of hypoglycemic episodes is well-known. Yet, there is still only marginal literature about the optimal therapy of hyperglycemia in non critically ill hospitalized patients using tools of modern electronic patients charts. Objectives:The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility, the safety and efficiency of a standardized inpa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410059

Exogenous Phosphatidyl-Serine and -Ethanolamine Supports Anti-Proliferative and Chemoresistance Properties of ATAD3B and Induces S100B Recruitment at Mitochondria

Denis Rousseau

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 27, 2016

ATAD3 protein is a S100B- and PKC-regulated mitochondrial ATPase which is vital for mitochondrial biogenesis and early development. Even if suspected today to contribute in a lipid rafts transfer system, from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria, the precise function of ATAD3 is still unknown. However, ATAD3 has been previously shown to exhibits in vitro anti-proliferative and chemo resistant properties and to be a positive marker of different tumor subtypes, of tumor progression and of poor su...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410058

Diabetes in Rural Rwanda: High Retention and Positive Outcomes after 24 Months of Follow-up in the Setting of Chronic Care Integration

Neo Tapela, Hamissy Habineza, Sarah Anoke, Emmanuel Harerimana, Francis Mutabazi, Bethany L. Hedt-Gauthier, Symaque Dusabeyezu, Pie X F. Uwiragiye, Cadet Mutumbira, Gedeon Ngoga, Deogratias Ndagijimana, Emmanuel Rusingiza, Gene Bukhman and Charlotte Bavuma

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 20, 2016

Aims:This study describes the baseline characteristics and 24 month outcomes of diabetic patients managed in an integrated chronic care program at public facilities in rural Rwanda. Methods:Retrospective review of routine electronic medical records of patients treated for diabetes between October 1, 2006 and September 30, 2014 was conducted. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics are described. Outcomes of HbA1c values, loss to follow-up and death are reported....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410057

Continuous Insulin Releasing and Blood Sugar Monitoring via Dental Implant Supported Semi-Implanted Device

Yu-Jung Li

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 17, 2016

As life expectancy prolonged currently, geriatrics become important and therefore it is urgent to improve the life quality throughout the chronic and critical diseases among the elderly above sixty-fifth years old. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most famous chronic and metabolic disease which may lead to many cardiac, renal and infectious complications. Therefore regular blood sugar control is extremely important in diabetic management to avoid further complications. However, t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410056

The Effects of a One-week Short Intensive Insulin Intervention on Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

Jean-Claude Katte, Eugene Sobngwi, Vicky Kamwa, Mesmin Y Dehayem, Jean-Louis Nguewa, Andre-Pascal Kengne and Jean Claude Mbanya

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 12, 2016

A 3-4 week of intensive insulin intervention corrects hyperglycemia, improves insulin secretion, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the effect of a shorter course of intensive insulin therapy on insulin sensitivity in people with T2DM. Fifteen poorly controlled subjects with severe hyperglycemia were hospitalized and treated with intensive insulin therapy for 7 days. The short insulin tolerance test was performed before and after the in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410055

The Burden of Co-morbid Depression in Ambulatory Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Kanu Joseph E, Otieno CF Frederick, Karari Emma M, Okech-Helu Violet and Mutai Kenn

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 26, 2016

This was a cross-sectional study done on patients living with type-2 diabetes on follow-up at the diabetes out-patient clinic (DOPC) at the KNH. Systematic sampling method was used to recruit 220 study subjects. The PHQ-9 questionnaire was used to assess for co-morbid depression. Socio-demographic and clinical details were obtained both from the subjects and their medical records. Physical examination was done, including blood pressure and BMI determined. Blood samples were collected from the cu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410054

High Glycaemic Variability is Associated with Worse Diabetes-related Well-being in Type 2 Diabetes Patients on Insulin Therapy, an Observational Study

W L de Ranitz-Greven, D H Biesma, B Silvius, M Bons, H W de Valk and J W J Beulens

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 01, 2016

This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU), the Netherlands (February 2010-July 2013). Type 2 diabetes patients attending the (outpatient) clinic of the UMCU were approached to participate in a nationwide biobank study. In the UMCU, patients were also approached to participate in a local add-on study (this study), which required separate consent....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410053

African-origin Mitochondrial DNA Variants as a Contributing Factor to Susceptibilities for Diabetes and Age-related Diseases

Kenney MC, Falatoonzadeh P, Atilano SR, Chwa M, Caceres-del-Carpio J, Malik D, Boyer DS, Nesburn AB and Kuppermann BD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 13, 2016

African-origin populations are more susceptible to diabetes and other age-related diseases compared to European-origin populations, but mechanisms for the differential susceptibility remain unknown. Human mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups are maternally inherited ancient polymorphisms representing different geographic origins of populations. Haplogroups are defined by accumulations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which cause changes in amino acids and rates of mtDNA replicati...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410052

Association of Uncontrolled Glycemia with Periodontal, Urinary Tract and Cervical Vaginal Infections in a Group of Type 2 Diabetic Women during Pregnancy and during the Postnatal Period

Rosa Maria Diaz-Romero, Gerardo Casanova-Roman, and Manuel Salvador Robles-Andrade

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 13, 2016

To determine whether periodontal infections (PI), urinary tract infections (UTI) and cervical vaginal infections (CVI) are associated with the incidence of uncontrolled glycemia (UCG) in type 2 diabetics in the third trimester of their pregnancy and during the postnatal period. An observational, prospective, longitudinal, comparative study was carried out. Patient selection was carried out through consecutive non-probability sampling....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410051

Quantitative Models for Evaluating the Correlation between Baseline Hba1c Levels and Sitagliptin as Monotherapy or Dual Therapy Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Regression Analysis

Jiajing Yin, Yi Lin, Mingyu Gu and Yongde Peng

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 04, 2016

Baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is critical in assessing anti-diabetic agent efficacy due to its ability to alter the response of HbA1c reduction to dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors. With meta-regression, we aim to investigate the quantitative relationship between baseline HbA1c levels and HbA1c reduction in response to sitagliptin as a monotherapy or metformin + sitagliptin as dual therapy. Additionally, we intend to study the slope difference between monotherapy and dual therap...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410050

A Comprehensive Analysis of the Financial Burden of Diabetes Mellitus at Rafik Hariri University Hospital: The Economic Implications from the Public Sector Perspective in Lebanon

Akram Echtay, Rita Nemr, Maya Chehabeddine, Ramona Abi Gerges, Wadih Baajour, Nader Kakoun, Marwan Charif and Selim Jambart

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 18, 2015

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a pandemic health problem with an unprecedented number of patients reaching hundreds of millions, and characterized by the vascular complications and premature mortality incurring a high cost of management. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of DM management and its complications in Beirut through comparing the hospitalization cost for patients with DM to that of patients not suffering from DM....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410049

Evidence Based Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Role of Lifestyle Intervention as Compared to Pharmacological Agents

V. Naik, R. Dave, J. W. Stephens and J.S. Davies

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 08, 2015

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most costly and burdensome of chronic diseases and is a global epidemic. Estimates by the International Diabetes Federation indicate that 387 million people have diabetes, and that this figure is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 with an additional 175 million cases currently undiagnosed. Individuals with T2DM are at a significantly higher risk of co-morbidities particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, pre-diabetes independently...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410048

Why, When and How We Propose Withdrawal Insulin Treatment in Type 2 Insulin Resistant Diabetes

Andreu Nubiola, Imma Remolins and Miquel Nubiola

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 17, 2015

Insulin treatment is the choice in insulinopenic diabetic patients, in order to prevent or delay microvascular lesions, related to hyperglycaemia. However in insulin resistant type 2 diabetes, the improvement in glycaemic control with insulin, is not without side effects, especially weight gain and hypoglycaemia. Many retrospective or case-control studies of insulin treatment have reported a higher prevalence of CVD in insulin-treated patients. However, many of these patients started insulin the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410047

Glucose Tolerance is Improved Following Surgery for Silent Somatotroph Adenoma

Aika Miya, Akinobu Nakamura, Hideaki Miyoshi, Hiraku Kameda, Hiroshi Nomoto, So Nagai, Yuko Omori, Kanako C. Hatanaka, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Chikara Shimizu, and Tatsuya Atsumi

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 05, 2015

Although the excessive secretion of GH leads to insulin resistance enhancement, the involvement of a silent somatotroph adenoma in abnormal glucose tolerance has not been elucidated. A 50 - year-old man was admitted with a headache and bitemporal hemianopia caused by a pituitary macroadenoma. He had no physical signs and symptoms of acromegaly nor hypopituitarism, and his base-line serum levels of GH and insulin - like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were normal. However, a 75 - g oral glucose tolerance...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410046

Why so Fat ?

Franco Contaldo, Maurizio Marra, Lidia Santarpia and Fabrizio Pasanisi

Article Type: Hypothesis | First Published: October 28, 2015

We selected, from our database of obese outpatients, 90 young severely obese subjects (60 females, 30 males) in a stable body weight since at least 6 months, age range 20 - 30 years, who underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry (VMax Sensor Medics) and body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Bio impedance analysis (BIA) was performed at 50 kHz (Human Im plus II, DS Medica) in standard conditions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410045

Perceptions of a Culturally Tailored Adapted Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

Angela Cooper Brathwaite and Manon Lemonde

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 19, 2015

Objective: To explore African and Caribbean immigrants' perceptions of a culturally tailored intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a purposive sampling scheme, 29 participants (26 women and 3 men, mean age 48 years and average length of residency of 22 years in Canada) participated in this study. The researchers used in-depth focus groups and individual surveys to collect qualitative data from participants. Following these interviews, participants individually reviewed the inte...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410044

The Safety, Efficacy and Treatment Satisfaction Comparison of Unchanged Premixed Insulin Regimen Plus Sitagliptin with Switch from the Premixed Insulin to Once-Daily Basal Insulin Plus Sitagliptin in Patients with Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes with Twice-Daily Premixed Insulin

Kanako Ono, Akinobu Nakamura, Junko Kawaguchi, Masahiro Takihata, Yuichiro Inoue, Jun Shirakawa, Akiko Kameda, Yu Togashi, Tsutomu Hayashi, Takayuki Furuki, Shun Ito, Tatsuro Takano, Satsuki Kawasaki, Hiroshi Takeda, Tetsuji Kaneko, Mari Kimura, Shunsaku Mizushima and Yasuo Terauchi

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 30, 2015

Background: While adding sitagliptin to insulin therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) showing poor response to therapy with premixed insulin alone, we compared the efficacy and safety and satisfaction from continuing treatment with the premixed insulin versus switching of the premixed insulin to basal insulin therapy. Methods: The study was an open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted at 7 institutions in Japan. The study participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410043

Vitamin B12 Levels in Rat Organs - No Change Following Prolonged Treatment with Metformin

Thagaard MS, Nexo E and Greibe E

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2015

Few studies have explored vitamin B12 (B12) distribution in control rats and in rats treated with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug known to decrease the plasma level of B12 in humans. Here we report B12 levels in both control rats and in rats treated by two different methods of delivering metformin....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410042

Renal Denervation, Blood Pressure and Metabolic Disease: Not a Simple Solution

Cathryn M. Kolka

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 01, 2015

Diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are frequently grouped together as the 'metabolic syndrome'. The prevalence of these diseases is increasing in the United States and worldwide. In recent years, overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system has been linked to obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Promising initial research investigated the role of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension: renal denervation using catheter-based radiofrequency ablation ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410041

Serum Endothelin-1 Elevation in Diabetes. A Reflection of Pathophysiological Process or a Biomarker beyond Expectation?

Behrouz Salehian

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 21, 2015

Endothelin or endothelium-derived constricting factor was first discovered by O'Brien et al. in 1987 as a potent vasoconstrictor protein from culture medium of bovine aortic and pulmonary endothelium. The culture medium was shown to cause aortic ring constriction in vitro and vasoconstriction when perfused into rabbit coronary arteries. Concomitantly, Yanagisawa et al. isolated and sequenced the 21 amino acid endothelin, which modulates voltage dependent channel and is a potent vasoconstrictor p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410040

Risk of Falls in People with Diabetes Mellitus

Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Mariana de Carvalho Pinto, Roselene Mondolo Regueiro Lorenconi, Mariana Romanholi Palma, Fernanda Elisa Ribeiro and Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 15, 2015

Aim: To identify the risk of falling through a functional mobility test in non-diabetics, individuals with diabetic neuropathy and individuals with diabetic neuropathy and vasculopathy. Methodology: The study was composed of 61 subjects of both genders divided into the control group CG (n=32), diabetic neuropathy group DNG (n=18) and diabetic neuropathy-vasculopathy group (DNVG) (12). The participants underwent initial an evaluation through somatosensory sensitivity tests, diagnosis of polyneuro...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410039

Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes - Time to Realign Clinical Priorities

Soon H Song

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 05, 2015

Traditionally considered as a disease of the middle-aged, type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become increasingly more prevalent in children, adolescence and young adults below the age of 40. Of concern, this evolution of young-onset T2D is a global phenomenon. Obesity is a major predisposing factor as the age of onset is inversely associated with body mass index, reflecting the consequences of sedentary lifestyle afflicting different nations and cultural backgrounds....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410038

Diabetes and Dementia

Mario Barbagallo and Ligia J. Dominguez

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 03, 2015

Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have an increased incidence of cognitive decline and dementia. An increased cortical and subcortical atrophy has been found after controlling for vascular disease and inadequate cerebral circulation. A possible role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia has been suggested to mediate the link between DM2 and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Altered insulin signaling may contribute to AD biochemical and histopathological lesions. Both hyperglycemia and hyp...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410037

Follow the Yellow Brick Road: The Pathway for NAFLD and NASH Drug Development in Early Phase Clinical Trials

Sabina Paglialunga and Clayton A. Dehn

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 31, 2015

The current market for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medications is saturated with a plethora of choices of therapeutic agents, many of which have very favorable safety profiles. It has been proposed that the combination of this crowded and competitive landscape along with the increased burden of thorough cardiovascular risk assessment required since 2008, have stifled innovation in the development of new anti-diabetic medications....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410036

Toxic AGEs (TAGE) Theory in the Pathogenesis of NAFLD and ALD

Masayoshi Takeuchi, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Jun-ichi Takino, Takanobu Takata, Tadashi Ueda and Mikihiro Tsutsumi

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 31, 2015

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have become serious health problems worldwide. These two diseases have similar pathological spectra, ranging from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including cardiovascular disease and malignancy, which influence patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet (sweetened beve...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410035

The Relationship between Diabetes and Retirement from Work: A Ten Year Follow-Up in National Registers

Bryan Cleal and Kjeld Poulsen

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 22, 2015

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between diabetes, mortality and exit from work using various Danish Pension schemes. Methods: We linked the Danish National Diabetes register with socioeconomic and population-based registers and followed prevalent and incident cases of diabetes for ten years, adjusting for gender, age and socio-occupational group. We analysed the proportion of individuals with diagnosed diabetes before and after entering a normal retirement pen-sion, voluntary early r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410034

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poorly Controlled Diabetes Mellitus in a Clinical Setting in Guayaquil, Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Study

Arosemena Coronel M, Sanchez Armijos J, Tettamanti Miranda D, Vasquez Cedeno D, Chang A and Navarro Chavez M

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 16, 2015

Objective: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (PCDM) in a clinic setting in Ecuador. Methods: A single-center, cross-sectional study conducted in the outpatient endocrinology clinic in Guayaquil, Ecuador registered 209 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, tested for glycosylated hemoglobin and interviewed face-to-face using questions from the Instrument to Measure Lifestyle in Diabetics (IMEVID) Questionnaire. Logi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410033

The Relation between Overweight, Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Saudi Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Khalid S. Aljabri, Samia A. Bokhari and Ahmad Akl

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2015

Diabetes mellitus is the third greatest cause of death all over the world and is responsible for many complications affecting various organs in the body. Th prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. Th prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults in Saudi Arabia is 30%. Worldwide and nationally epidemic exists with respect to diabetes mellitus, primarily because of increased rates of obesity. Obesity has become widespread in developed ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410032

The Crossroad of Inflammation and Diabetes: Role of Toll-Like Receptor

Behrouz Salehian and Vahid Mahabadi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2015

A different facet of type 2 diabetes was recognized in the early 80s with the demonstration of the 'state of coagulation activation' and 'endothelial dysfunction / activation' in not only type 2 diabetes but also in obesity. The discovery of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and its physiological role including many aspects of coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction was later found to have a correlation with adiposity and type 2 diabetes. Further knowledge in the metabolic function of...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410031

The Hypoglucemic Effect of the Antioxidant Drug

C. Τsompos, C. Panoulis, K Τοutouzas, G. Ζografos and A. Papalois

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 04, 2015

The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of the antioxidant drug 'U-74389G', on rat model and particularly in an ischemia - reperfusion protocol. The beneficial effects or noneffectiveness of that molecule were studied biochemically using blood mean glucose levels. Materials and methods: 40 rats of mean weight 231.875gr were used in the study. Glucose levels were measured at 60 min of reperfusion (groups A and C) and 120 min of reperfusion (groups B and D), A and B without bu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410030

Diabetes - A Systemic Risk Factor for the Development of Chronic Periodontitis in Bulgarian Patients

Nina M. Musurlieva and Mariya S. Bratoycheva

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 02, 2015

Aim: Diabetes is an important systemic factor for the development of periodontitis. This study examines the association between the diabetes type 2 and development of chronic periodontitis in the sample of Bulgarian patients. Material: 228 patients with chronic periodontitis were surveyed using a questionnaire specially designed for the study, and a casecontrol study was carried out....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410029

Alpha- and Beta-Cell Proliferation and Extracellular Signaling - A Hypothesis

Cyril J Craven

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 01, 2015

A model is offered towards an understanding of the cellular communications of two major cell types of the pancreas. The beta and alpha cells of the pancreas are considered to be coupled by the insulin and glucagon hormones that they produce, respectively. In this model, insulin stimulates the alpha cells to release glucagon and grow, especially by cell division, while glucagon similarly stimulates the beta cells to release insulin and grow....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410028

Prevalence of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Type II Diabetes in Females within the Slum Nuevo Jerusalen, Peru

Sudesh S. Raju and Vinayak Kumar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2015

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type II diabetes (T2D) are the leading causes of death worldwide, including those within developing countries. Few studies have measured the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and T2D within Latin America and even fewer have focused on socioeconomically depressed populations within Peru....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410027

Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Metabolic Biomarker Levels in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease or Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

J. Saluk, Bansal V, Banos A, Hopkinson W, Rees H, Syed D, Hoppensteadt D, Abro S and Iqbal O and Fareed J

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28, 2015

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a proven risk factor for diseases such as end stage renal disease (ESRD) and osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, it is not unreasonable to assume that some of the ESRD/ OA pathogenesis, namely inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, could be attributed to DM as a comorbitity. This study aims to investigate DM's effect on metabolic biomarker levels in patients with ESRD or undergoing total joint arthroplasty....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410026

Trends in the Occurrence of Type 2 Diabetes in Community-Dwelling Trinidadian Subjects, 1993-2014

Koreen Peter, Lilly Paul, Renee Richardson, Brandon Ramdass, Aisha Ali and Kameel Mungrue

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 24, 2015

301 participants were entered into the study. There was ethnic disparity but a reversal from South East to Africans. A strong inverse linear relationship (Pearson's coefficient r=-0.82, p ≤ 0.05) was found between BMI and age at diabetes onset. Between the 1990's and 2004-2014 in two regions of Trinidad the number of patients with T2DM doubled, occurring more commonly among females, the obese and overweight, a tendency towards younger age groups and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410024

Assessment of Circulatory Levels of Endothelin-1 in Diabetic Subjects Screened Through a Cross Sectional Study from Rural Women in Bangladesh

Md. Arifur Rahman, Subrina Jesmin, Chishimba Nathan Mowa, Farzana Sohae, Junko Kamiyama, AKM Ahsan Habib, Nobutake Shimojo, Md. Majedul Islam, Masao Moroi, Osamu Okazaki, Naoto Yamaguchi, Satoru Kawano, Taro Mizutani and Yoshio Iwashima

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 26, 2015

Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potential marker of endothelial dysfunction, has been shown to be elevated in diabetic mellitus (DM) subjects. However, to date, the circulatory profile of ET-1 and its association with DM have not been investigated in any South Asian country, including Bangladesh. The present study assessed circulating levels of ET-1 in subjects with or without DM and further examined the association of ET-1 with clinical and metabolic parameters in Bangladeshi rural women....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410023

An Oral Antioxidant Formulation Delaying and Potentially Reversing Canine Diabetic Cataract: A Placebo Controlled Masked Pilot Study

David Williams, Angus Fitchie and Carmen Colitz

Article Type: Clinical Trial | First Published: February 24, 2015

The majority of dogs with diabetes mellitus develop blinding mature cataracts through the action of the enzyme aldose reductase producing sorbitol with osmotic action drawing water into the lens thus causing opacification. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410022

Self-Care among Diabetic Amputee

David Berbrayer

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 23, 2015

Background: Diabetic amputees are at increased risk for receiving a second amputation, which may be prevented by proper selfcare. Although existing literature suggests self-care is inadequate among diabetic patients, self-care behaviour after an amputation is unknown. This study aims to identify strategies used by diabetic patients who received a lower-extremity amputation to prevent further amputation. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on patients over 18 years of age who were regi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410021

Early Release of HMGB1 may Aggravate Neuronal Damage after Transient Focal Ischemia in Diabetic Rat Brain

Naohiro Iwata, Mari Okazaki, Shinya Kamiuchi, Meiyan Xuan, Hirokazu Matsuzaki, Takeshi Sakamoto and Yasuhide Hibino

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 22, 2015

Objective: High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) released extracellularly from necrotic cells evokes delayed inflammatory processes via interaction with the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) or Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in postischemic brain. The diabetic state (DM) aggravated cerebral ischemic injury following the stroke in rats. Therefore, we examined the behavior of HMGB1 and the expression of RAGE in non-DM and DM rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by rep...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410020

Torpid Diabetic Wound Healing: Evidence on the Role of Epigenetic Forces

Jorge Berlanga-Acosta, Yssel Mendoza-Mari, Maday Fernandez-Mayola, Ariana GarciaOjalvo, Calixto Valdes-Perez, William Savigne-Gutierrez, Daniel Reynaldo-Concepcion, Ileydis Iglesias-Marichal, Angel Abreu-Cruz, Celso Suarez-Lescay, Ana Mir-Benitez, Natacha Sancho-Soutelo and Luis Herrera-Martinez

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2015

The increasing number of diabetes patients represents a health challenge due to disease-related, end-organs complications. Hyperglycemia is considered the proximal trigger of an intricate cascade of molecular processes that progressively deteriorate tissues and organs, leading to the onset of clinical complications. Lower extremity ulcerations and their ensued refractoriness to heal can potentially result in amputation and disability and remain the second most feared diabetic complication. We ha...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410019

Magnesium and Type 2 Diabetes: An Update

Mario Barbagallo and Ligia J. Dominguez

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 26, 2015

The link between magnesium (Mg) deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus is well known. Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular Mg deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesaemia is common in subjects with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulin and glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role in regulating insulin action, insulin-mediated-gl...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410018

Relationship between Type of Family and its Relationship to Metabolic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ixba-Villegas Mario Alberto, Marquez-Gonzalez Horacio, Jimenez-Baez Maria Valeria and Cantellano-Garcia Diana Michelle

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2015

Objective: To estimate the association between familiar function and metabolic control in patients with T2DM treated in a DiabetIMSS module in a first-level medical unit in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective and analytical study was conducted. In patients with T2DM and the target population included patients with T2DM who attended the module DiabetIMSS in Cancun, Quintana Roo. Included patients with T2DM between 20 and 80 years of age who received attention in ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410017

Effect of Alogliptin, a DPP-4 Inhibitor, on Markers of Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Yuzuru Kishitani, Hideyuki Okuda, Daisuke Kinoshita, Kanyun Hata and Toshihiko Kawasaki

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2014

Background: DPP-4 inhibitor has been shown to improve not only blood glucose levels but also dyslipidemia, but the effect remains controversial. Further, there are few reports regarding the influence on Apo B, Apo A-1 and Apo B/Apo A-1 in alogliptin. Objective: Using the alogliptin, we focused on Apo B and Apo A-1, in addition to LDL-C, HDL-C and TG, and investigated the effect of alogliptin on markers predicting cardiovascular events, such as Apo B/Apo A-1 and LDL-C/Apo B....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410016

Correlations of OSA Severity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Jiang Xiao-zhen, Xi Feng, Chen Rui-Hua, Jiang Quan and Zou Yu-Feng

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 29, 2014

Aim: To determine whether carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) was elevated in diabetic patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), and correlations of OSA severity with IMT and other clinical characteristics. Materials and methods: The study subjects were composed of 36 diabetic patients with OSA (group A), and 34 patients without OSA (group B). In both groups, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, C-IMT and carotid resistance index (C-RI) were a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410015

Involvement of Telmisartan on the Protective Effects Mediated by the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Pathway in Mice

Chenghu Huang, Li Yuan and Shuyi Cao

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 08, 2014

Aims: The aim of this study is to further elaborate the improving effects of telmisartan on insulin resistance, beta-cell dysfunction and islet inflammation in a PPAR-γ signaling-dependent manner. Methods: The mRNA levels of renin-angiotensin system components were detected. We compared the effects of telmisartan and telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR-γ antagonist) in mice fed a high-fat diet or isolated non-diabetic mouse islets. Immunoflorescence or real-time PCR was used to de...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410014

Ethnicity and Type 2 Diabetes in Pacific Island Adults in New Zealand

Ljiljana M Jowitt

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 02, 2014

The aim of this review was to present ethnic characteristics of type 2 diabetes in Pacific Island adults in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted in a search using the terms 'Pacific Island populations', 'New Zealand', 'ethnicity', 'obesity', 'metabolic syndrome', 'type 2diabetes', 'food security, and their combinations, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization, International Diabetes Federation, and the Ministry of Health New Zea...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410013

The Relative Contribution of Ethnicity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Severity to Postpartum Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

Beatriz Barquiel, Lucrecia Herranz, Javier Riveiro, Natalia Hillman, Noemi Gonzalez, Ma Angeles Burgos and Luis F Pallardo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2014

Aim: To analyze the influence of ethnicity, Body Mass Index (BMI) and gestational diabetes (GDM) severity on abnormal glucose metabolism at the early postpartum. Methods: Glucose tolerance (WHO criteria) was evaluated at 3-9 months after delivery in a group of 71 GDM women (NDDG criteria) coming from Latin America, 43 from Africa and 14 from Asia or Pacific Islands. Their glucose tolerance was compared to 1,948 European control women by prepregnancy and postpartum BMI and by GDM severity. The ef...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410012

Qualitative Research: A pathway to Gain an Understanding of UAE Mothers' experiences and Perceptions of Managing a Child Newly Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes

Jennifer Louise Cooper, Suhad Marjei, Rachel Rossiter and Sharon Brownie

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 25, 2014

A childhood diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes is a life changing event for both the child and his/her family. The impact is experienced strongly by mothers who most frequently fulfil the primary caregiver role for children12 yrs old and younger. Studies which have sought to understand mothers' experiences and perceptions of managing a child newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes are mostly questionnaire-based and few, if any, explore the issues within the uniqueness of a Middle-Eastern context. The qua...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410011

Assessment of Learning Guides Improvement in Diabetes Education Program: A QI Initiative for Type I Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents

Manmohan K. Kamboj, Kathryn J. Stephens, Richard J. Brilli, Heather L. Yardley, Jeff Lewis, Richard E. McClead, Jr. and David R. Repaske

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 17, 2014

Aims: To develop objective assessment tools to evaluate proficiency of well-day (WD) and sick-day (SD) diabetes knowledge and management skills in families of pediatric type 1 diabetes patients and to utilize this information to modify our diabetes education (DE) program to improve learning of the desired knowledge and skills. Methods: Vignette-based assessment quizzes were developed to evaluate WD and SD diabetes knowledge and management skills. Vignettes assessed basic knowledge and skills i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410010

Type 2 Diabetes and Lifestyle- A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study among Rural Men

Anders Thelin and Sara Holmberg

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2014

The risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is related to lifestyle but less is known about how lifestyle factors interact and how they impact the risk when combined. This study was performed to analyze how lifestyle factors relate to the cumulative incidence of T2D in a Swedish rural population. Outcomes were generated from national registers and from two surveys. Two hundred sixty men (11%) with diabetes were found in the registers, and 193 men with T2D were identified in the surveyed population (9.8%)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410009

Role of Infections in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis- A Study from South India

Poovazhagi Varadarajan and Saradha suresh

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 06, 2014

Cerebral edema is the commonest cause of mortality in DKA worldwide. Infections are known to precipitate new onset DKA, they also adversely affect the outcome of DKA in children from developing countries. Infections are major contributory factors for DKA in children with established diabetes mellitus (DM) along with poor compliance to therapy. This study among 118 episodes of DKA from a pediatric tertiary care Institute has identifid infections as a signifiant risk factor for severe metabolic de...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410008

The Role of Netrin-1 in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy

Wenyi Wu and Luosheng Tang

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 06, 2014

Netrin-1 which belongs to axon guidance cue is necessary for neural and vascular development. It involves in regulating axon guidance for attraction or repulsion and it has a dual function in endothelial tip cell migration during angiogenesis. Many evidences have proved that netrin-1 plays an important role in angiogenesis, cancer progression and inflmmation disease. Here we provide a comprehensive review on the role of netrin-1 in retinal and angiogenesis developments. What's more, some associa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410007

Does GABA Metabolism Play any Specific Role in the Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in Β-Cells?

J. Pizarro-Delgado and J. Tamarit-Rodriguez

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 05, 2014

It was recognized quite a few years ago that islet GABA metabolism might be implicated in the stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose. Since then, some studies have been addressed to investigate how GABA release by β-cells might exert a negative autocrine control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and a parallel paracrine inhibition of glucagon release trough the activation of GABAB and GABA A receptors, respectively. More recently, it has been shown that some nutrient secretagogue...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410006

Recent Advances in Insulin Therapy for Diabetes

Aiman Ahmad, Iekhsan Othman, Anuar Zaini Md Zain and Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 27, 2014

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting a great number of the world's population. Insulin therapy for diabetes is most commonly delivered via subcutaneous injections, up to four times a day. Long-term insulin therapy, compounded by the invasive nature of its administration, has caused problems with patient compliance, ultimately inflencing patient outcomes. Extensive research has been carried out to date, to explore possible improvements to insulin therapy for diabetic patients, with so...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410005

Novel Insulin Receptor-Signaling Platform

Fiona Haxho, Farah Alghamdi, Ronald J Neufeld and Myron R Szewczuk

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 30, 2014

Insulin receptor (IR) signaling plays a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. A dysfunctional and/or unregulated IR activation has been shown to cause a range of clinical manifestations including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, hypertension, and cardiovascular disorders. The molecular mechanisms mediating IR activation have become an important area of scientifi and clinical research. Here, we summarize the current understanding of IR structure, function, and si...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410004

Endothelial Function in Obese and Overweight Patients: The Role of Olive Oil, Fish and Nuts

Marco Matteo Ciccone, Pietro Scicchitano, Francesca Cortese, Michele Gesualdo, Fara Fornarelli, et al.

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 22, 2014

Objective: To assess the effect of olive oil, non fried fih and nuts on endothelial function in overweight/obese patients. Methods: 47 overweight/obese patients (24 men, mean age 54 +/- 11 years) fed healthy diet (HD) defied according to the NuretaPREDIMED study for 3 months; after this 3 months of HD, the patients were blindly divided into 4 groups: Controls (24: HD), Group A (8: HD+olive oil), Group B (8: HD+not-fried fih), Group C (7: HD+nuts). These four groups were also followed-up for fur...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410003

Involvement of Regucalcin in Lipid Metabolic Disorder and Diabetes

Masayoshi Yamaguchi

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 03, 2014

Obesity and diabetes are currently a major health problem worldwide with growing in prevalence. The incidence of metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes with obesity, is increased to epidemic levels. Obesity and diabetes induce secondary diseases with various pathophysiologic states, which are important in clinical aspects including cardiovascular disease, neural disturbance, kidney disease, osteoporosis and cancer. Obesity is based on stimulation of adipogenesis. Bone marrow mesenchymal st...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410002

The Impact Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) on Metabolic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. A Developing Country Perspective

Kameel Mungrue and Verna Farrell-Williams

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 02, 2014

Introduction: The role of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) in patients with type 2 diabetes remains inconclusive. As part of the approach to improve glycaemic control in patients with T2DM in Trinidad a high prevalence setting for T2DM, the Ministry of Heath distributes free glucometers and strips. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of SMBG on glycaemic control and to determine patients' behaviors and responses. Methods: A large outpatient clinic for patients with T2DM was s...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410001

The Role of OSA on Metabolic Disorders

Patrizio Tatti

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 01, 2014

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a frequent disorder in the general population, and even more common in the diabetic population, with incidences reported ranging from 17 to 48%, although these figures are probably an underestimation. As this disorder is so widespread, it is often accepted and dismissed. Patients themselves, often omit mentioning that they suffer from sleep apnea to the doctor. In extreme cases various surgical interventions have used, however with not great success, some reports...


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24



Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42



Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69



International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97



Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55