International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research is a global peer reviewed open access journal that emphasis on the different aspects of clinical diabetes. It highlights the investigative reports focusing on areas such as the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, normal and pathologic pancreatic islet function and intermediary metabolism, pharmacological mechanisms of drug and hormone action, and biochemical and molecular aspects of normal and abnormal biological processes.
Clinical Diabetes acts as platform for the diabetes health care practitioners and clinicians to represent their Original Work, Reviews, Commentaries, Shorts Communications, Letters, Oral Presentations and Case Studies. The classification terms include but not limited to Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Insulin Resistance, Insulinotherapy, Endocrinology, Gestational Diabetes, Prediabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetic Risk Factors, Blood Glucose Dynamics and Diabetes-Therapeutic approaches.
International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research ensures the faster publication of high quality articles with the support of its eminent Editorial board members. Two independent review comments followed by editor's decision will be considered to publish the article. IJDCR is a permanent archive of Diabetes information which under open access category provides its global readers with free access to its content, thus serving the scientific community.
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Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410116
Joohee Sanders, PhD, Sinclair Smith, PhD and Carsten Sanders, PhD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 30, 2020
To compare oxidative stress, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, microvascular function, and exercise performance of type II diabetics (T2D) to that of control subjects and to determine whether Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation has any effects on these measures. Noted reduction in MDA seen in healthy, older individuals suggests a positive antioxidant effect of CoQ10 supplementation. However, when PAD is present, as can be the case of T2D, two weeks of CoQ10 supplementation at 2...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410115
Ogunmola Olarinde Jeffrey, Ajani Gbadebo Oladimeji and Olabinri Eunice Oluremi
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 16, 2019
To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with essential hypertension attending outpatient medical clinic in a rural community setting of a developing country. This cross-sectional study included patients of a medical outpatient clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital Ido Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Study patients were consecutively recruited from Cardiac clinic and baseline investigations obtained from the patients’ files were evaluated including Fasting Blood Glucose (FB...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410114
Jeanita W Richardson, Kelsie D Kelly, Trina K Kumodzi, Nicole Slack Liburd and Hazel Laws, MD
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 28, 2019
This study in collaboration with the St. Kitts & Nevis Ministry of Health (MOH) investigated the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, the second leading cause of death in the country. Medical records of patients between the ages of 18 and 75 as of January 1, 2010 treated between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 in the government-funded health centers (HCs) were eligible for inclusion (N = 2737). All HC visits (n = 4169) generated by a representative sample of patients (n = 76...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410113
Niveen M. Daoud, Ola A. Qadi, Dania O. Al-talhi and Hanan Kamal Al-sharabi
Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: October 21, 2019
Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are chronic medical conditions that frequently coexist. Our objective is to evaluate the effect of Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor blockers comparatively and in integration with Metformin, dipeptidyl 4 inhibitors and insulin on lipid profile, serum creatinine, liver enzymes and electrolytes in type II diabetic patients. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are chronic medical conditions that frequently coexist. Obesity, high s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410112
L Sinisterra-Loaiza, A Cardelle-Cobas, AG Abraham, MN Calderon, MA Espinoza, LG Gonzalez- Olivares, M Gotteland, A Pazos-Sierra, S San Martin, A Cepeda, JJ Gagliardino and IBEROBDIA Project Group
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2019
To review and update epidemiological data on type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Spain and four Latin American countries: Colombia, Mexico, Chile, and Argentina. Literature was reviewed by a search of PubMed, publications of the Ministry of Health, World Health Organization, International Diabetes Federation, and other public health agencies of each respective country. Of the five countries above, Mexico (13.6%) had the highest prevalence of diabetes, followed by Spain (10.4%). Within these countries, sign...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410111
Jacqueline E Sharpe, PhD, RN, CHES
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 23, 2019
There is an outstanding group of registered nurses who specialized in the care of wounds and working with DFUs. Since there are only about 1200 of them in the US and 30.3 million people who have diabetes, these nurses need some help and that help can come from the community. Looking at the increasing number of people with diabetes and their need to know preventive care information, there is no time better than this for community organizing and community building for health and wellness. One does...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410110
Le Minh Quang, MSc, MD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 19, 2019
Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are widely used as standardized measurements in diabetes management. HbA1c is a measure of the mean blood glucose level over a period of 8-12 weeks. This index is easy to measure, relatively inexpensive and internationally standardized. HbA1c helps to predict the complications, particularly microvascular complications in patients with diabetes. However, because HbA1c represents only an average measure of glucose levels, it does n...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410109
Hemant Thacker, MD, MRSH, FACE, FACP, Jothydev Kesavadev, MBBS, MD, FRCP, Shahu Ingole, Jayesh Rajgopal and Rishi Jain
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 22, 2019
Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are on insulin analogues which are costly as well as usage of higher units of insulin on a daily basis increases the cost of the monthly therapy. Concentrated insulin are a way forward for patients who needs higher units of insulin especially Human insulin which address the issues of higher cost and the need for higher concentration in the same or lesser volume of insulin. However, data on 24-hour glycemic control with concentrated insulin in In...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410108
Ravikumar Ravindran, Kofi Obuobie, Sian Ward and Elaine Hibbert Jones
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 27, 2019
To use Group learning event as an opportunity to bring young people with diabetes together, improve patient education, peer to peer learning of common themes, assess the satisfaction of the participants with regards to the services being offered and completion of Diabetes annual review checks. The event was conducted in the afternoon over 3 hours with refreshments being offered....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410107
Yahya Rabab Mahdi, Urwa Hashim and Abdullah MA
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 13, 2019
Immunepositive type one diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of diabetes in children worldwide. Seronegative cases are said to be more common among black Africans. In a previous study in Sudan 46% of cases were found to have positive GAD antibodies. The aim of this study was to find out the prdevalence of pancreatic autoantibodies among multiethnic group of newly diagnosed Sudanese children by testing for multiple antibodies and to see how common are seronegative cases as reported in black A...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410106
Abdulqawi Ali Al-Shammak, Abdullatif Daiffallah Ali and Hussein Al Jermozy
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 09, 2019
Diabetic nephropathy remains the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Microalbuminuria is the first clinical sign of renal dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. A urine total protein: creatinine ratio (TPCR) is a convenient and inexpensive measure of proteinuria and could be used to predict the presence of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of proteinuria among type-2 diabetic p...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410105
Okpe Aaron C, Shu Elvis N, Nwadike kenneth I, Udeinya Iroka J, Nubila, Nkoyo I and Aniagor Ebele N
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 04, 2019
This study evaluated the hypoglycaemic effects of fractionated neem leaf extract (IRC) on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats. IRC dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) PH 7.2 was administered as 50 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg single doses and 5 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg repeated doses in the diabetic rats while in the normoglycaemic rats 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg were used respectively. The positive control groups received single and repeated doses of glibencla...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410104
Mukhtar Ansari, Majed Al-Adeem and Mohammed Alshakka
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 22, 2019
Kidney diseases are emerging non-communicable ailments in Saudi Arabia and rest of the world. Among top ten diseases in 2017 in Saudi Arabia, chronic kidney disease was the 4th common cause of most of the deaths in the kingdom. Hence, the study aimed at determining the major concomitant chronic disorders and their association with kidney diseases in Hail region. This cross-sectional, retrospective study was carried out in King Khalid Hospital, and King Abdullah International Foundation for Haemo...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410103
Khalid S Aljabri, MD, FRCPC, FACP, Ibrahim M Alnasser, MD, Facharatz, Samia A Bokhari, MD, SBEM, Muneera A Alshareef, MD,SBIM, Patan M Khan, MD, MRCP, Abdulla M Mallosho, MD, Hesham M AbuElsaoud, MD, Mohammad M Jalal, MD, Rania F Safwat, MD, Rehab El Boraie, MD, Nawaf K Aljabri, MLT, Waleed O Bawzeer, MD, Mohammad A Melibari, MD, Bandari K Aljabri, MS, Arwa Y Alsuraihi, MS and Amjad I Hawsawi, MS
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 21, 2019
The burden of thyroid diseases in the general population and patients with Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is enormous. To estimate retrospectively the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with MetS in Saudi community based hospital. We analyzed retrospectively 3632 participants whom are between the age 18 to 105 years. All patients were from the population of the Primary health centre at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All data were collected on the basis of a review of el...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410102
Khalid S Aljabri, MD, FRCPC, FACP, Ibrahim M Alnasser, MD, Facharatz, Samia A Bokhari, MD, SBEM, Muneera A Alshareef, MD, SBIM, Patan M Khan, MD, MRCP, Abdulla M Mallosho, MD, Hesham M AbuElsaoud, MD, Mohammad M Jalal, MD, Rania F Safwat, MD, Rehab El Boraie, MD, Nawaf K Aljabri, MLT, Bandari K Aljabri, MS, Arwa Y Alsuraihi, MS and Amjad I Hawsawi, MS
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 20, 2019
The kidney is responsible for the excretion of thyroid hormones. The present retrospective study was conducted to find out the association of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) with urinary albumin excretion in euthyroid subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Saudi community based hospital. We analyzed retrospectively 939 participants whom are between the age 20 to 96 years. All patients were from the population of the Primary health centre at King Fahad ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410101
Paula Barrett-Brown, Donovan McGrowder and Dalip Ragoobirsingh
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 23, 2019
The burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing in low-income and middle-income countries, and it is a major contributor to premature mortality. The care of patients with diabetes mellitus is multidisciplinary and involves a number of healthcare personnel. Effective communication between diabetic patients and healthcare personnel influence self-management and health outcomes. The study evaluated the diabetic patient's assessment of the communication skills of the healthcare providers, as well as a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410100
Ravikumar Ravindran and Kofi Obuobie
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 21, 2019
Diagnosing the cause of abdominal pain in a young type 1 diabetic can be a challenging task and involves a wide array of differential diagnosis. Most commonly the pain is thought to be secondary to diabetic neuropathy. It becomes even more problematic if there is significant weight loss, if extensive investigations have not found any organic pathology and if the pain does not fit into any pattern of diabetic neuropathy. We present such a case where a young 21-years-old female diabetic had lost 1...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410099
Samya Ahmad Al Abdulla, Dahlia Mustafa Hassan, Azza Mustafa Mohammed and Joelle Bevington
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 12, 2019
The SMART clinic was firstly established at Al Wakra Health Center in the Southern region of Doha, Qatar. At the clinic individuals were screened for type II DM and depending on the outcome, a specific pathway was designed for them to follow ensuring patients and their families remained on the correct health initiative. A cross-sectional study design was used to study adult Qatari nationals registered at Al Wakra Health center's Smart Clinic using data obtained between (Jan 2015-Jan 2016). The s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410098
amelija Madacki-Todorovic, Izet Eminovic, Nadira Ibrisimovic Mehmedinovic and Mirza Ibrisimovic
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 05, 2018
In general, diabetic patients are more prone to microbial infections, which is believed to be caused due to high glucose levels in blood which compromise components of the immune system. However, it is little known about role of therapeutic insulin administration on dissemination of infectious diseases in people with diabetes mellitus. The study included the clinically isolated strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) with biofilm forming capacity as well as referent non-biofilm former E. coli stra...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410097
JGA Sachinthana, GM Kariyawasam, EMDT Edirisinghe, HSN Peiris, DARK Dayara-thna, FM Mowlana and JMKB Jayasekara
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 07, 2018
Urinary tract infections (UTI) and allergic conditions in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) may evolve to serious complications unless managed properly. Early diagnosis and evaluation of these conditions of DM pa-tients are important to maintain the quality of life of the patients. The objective of the current study was to identify the incidence of UTIs among type 2 DM patients....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410096
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 15, 2018
Insulin resistance, appearing years before diabetes main diagnostic sign, hyperglycemia, stands in the origin of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), generated by complex impairment of a spectrum biochemical processes the most important of which is the failure of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enzymatic chain responsible for glucose uptake and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activation. Therefore in conditions with insulin resistance the impairment of glucose uptake is strongly coupled with NO deficit ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410095
Samir Derouiche and Zine Kechrid
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 03, 2018
The bioavailability of zinc can be influenced by several dietary factors, among them calcium level, which leads to zinc metabolism disturbance. Thus, the present study was under taken to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on zinc status and carbohydrate metabolism in non-diabetic and diabetic rats fed high-calcium diet. Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from disorders of secretion or the action of insulin. This hyperglycemia is a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410094
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: September 29, 2018
With the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the United States, the use of insulin has increased along with the incidence of needle-stick injuries. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) published guidelines in 2017 on how to optimize safe subcutaneous insulin use in adults. One of the recurring themes of these guidelines is education, education, education. This is essential for self-management by patients with diabetes and also for the safety and effectiveness of the care they ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410093
Joel C. Exebio, Sahar Ajabshir, Adriana Campa, Tan Li, Gustavo G. Zarini and Fatma G. Huffman
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 29, 2018
Vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes are common among Hispanics and African Americans in the US. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplemental vitamin D intake (4000 IU/day or 6000 IU/day of vitamin D3 over a 6-month period) on blood lipids in a sample of African Americans and Hispanics with type 2 diabetes and vitamin D insufficiency. Participants (n = 75) were recruited by community outreach. Participants in both groups were required to take either 4000 IU or 6000 IU of ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410092
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 06, 2018
It has been shown that metabolic-based therapies, such as nutritional ketosis, are effective to contrast seizure disorders and various acute and chronic neurological disorders. From a physiological perspective, glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for cells. However, many neurodegenerative disorders have been recently associated with impaired glucose transport and metabolism and with mitochondrial dysfunction causing energy deficits, such as in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, general ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410091
Nahid MH Elamin, IMT Fadlalla, Shadia A Omer and Hala AM Ibrahim
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 06, 2018
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. The rapid increasing prevalence, high morbidity and mortality of the disease must be encountered by an increase in scientific research. Animal models are very important in the preclinical studies to validate the use of new drugs. Streptozotocin - nicotinamide (STZ-NA) is used to induce T2DM in animals....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410090
Nandita K Shankar, Clayton A Dehn, Robert V Considine and Helmut O Steinberg
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 23, 2018
Omentin, fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4), chemerin and irisin are chemokines whose circulating levels are altered in insulin resistant states. However, there is limited insight into function of these chemokines as well as the potential role of insulin in the modulation of these chemokines. We tested the hypothesis that insulin alters these chemokines by measuring changes in their circulating levels in response to elevated insulin in a group of healthy non-obese subjects....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410089
Tugba Karadeniz and Muammer Karadeniz
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 04, 2018
Based on the key role of hyperglycemia-caused oxidative stress in the formation of diabetic cardiomyopathy, increased antioxidant process would best restorative approach for control of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The increased nitrative stress and peroxynitrite, activation of iNOS and TGF-B1 play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Reduction of the expressions of the NOS-2 and TGF-B1 appears to be one of the important mechanisms for resveratrol effect on heart....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410088
Sylvia Rannyelle Teixeira Lima, Joao Kennedy Teixeira Lima, Antonio Leonel de Lima Junior, Indira Ravena Pereira Alves Fernandes Macedo, Jaine Dantas Peixoto, Debora Laesia Sariava Ribeiro, Maria Mirelle Ferreira Leite Barbosa and Marcia Meyrilane de Alencar Aquino
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 19, 2018
The first case of pyomyositis was described by Scriba in the 19th century, being found endemically in tropical regions. Until recently, pyomyositis was considered uncommon in the temperate zone. Currently there is an increase in the number of cases of pyomyositis in temperate climates....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410087
Bulathsinghalage Poornima Reshamie Cooray, Hana Morrissey, Eisha Indumani Waidyarathne, Patrick Anthony Ball and Manilka Sumanathilake
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 14, 2018
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications is increasingly prevalent in Sri Lanka. Patients with low health literacy worsen the glycaemic control and diabetes complications. However, lack of studies on the effect of health literacy that affects clinical health outcomes and the effect of health education on it....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410086
EG Siegel, J Lorenzo Bermejo, I Flade and C Hasslacher
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 28, 2018
Cardiovascular complications (CVCs) are still the most frequent cause of morbidity and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. The current options for the treatment of the classic risk factors such as dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension, and diabetes have so far not been able to alter this situation to a fundamental extent, meaning that new therapeutic approaches must be identified....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410085
Bulathsinghalage Poornima Reshamie Cooray, Hana Morrissey, Eisha Indumani Waidyarathne, Patrick Anthony Ball and Manilka Sumanathilake
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 23, 2018
Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease, affecting more than 180 million people worldwide. It is estimated to reach 592 million by 2035; of which the majority are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Sri Lanka is one of the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world. There were 1.16 million cases of all types of diabetes were recorded in Sri Lanka in 2016 as stated in an International Federation of Diabetes Atlas....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410084
Kai-Chun Cheng, Yingxiao Li and Juei-Tang Cheng
Article Type: Letter To Editor | First Published: March 16, 2018
Glucose Tolerance Test in Clinical Practice is Varied in Basic Research...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410083
Mir Mudassir Ali , Khin Thida Aung, Meela Ali, VS Eligar, JS Davies and Madelein Young
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 24, 2018
The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study has shown that beta-cell function declines over time, and insulin will be needed to achieve good glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies show that initiating insulin early, especially when HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) is > 9% improves glycaemic control and patient outcome....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410082
Dalip Ragoobirsingh, Errol Morrison and Herbert Thompson
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 22, 2018
Thirteen diabetic patients who had a history of exposure to herbal treatment and/or food toxins were compared to 10 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients and 10 normal controls. Each group was matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and in the case of the diabetic controls duration of diabetes. Microalbumin, urinary amylase, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood pressure were measured using standard techniques....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410081
Gloria-Bottini F, Antonacci E, Neri A, Magrini A and Bottini E
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 15, 2018
Several lines of evidence suggests that cytosolic Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (cLMWPTP), encoded by ACP1 gene, could be a candidate gene for T2D. Previous studies, however, have not found a direct association between the enzyme phenotype and susceptibility to the disease but have only found associations with its clinical manifestations....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410080
Alec B Chaves, Jacob M Haus and Joseph A Houmard
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 08, 2018
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a major contributor to the natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A common underpinning that exists behind the mechanisms of insulin resistance is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which may be exacerbated by a protein target known as thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410079
Ezequiel Pinto, Nidia Braz, Tania Nascimento and Eurico Gomes
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: December 28, 2017
Type 2 diabetes patients' adherence to pharmacotherapy is higher than adherence to nutritional therapy or lifestyle change behaviours, and patients do not value nutritional therapy in the same level as they value other types of interventions....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410078
Hostalek U, Ametov A, Barykina I, Bondar I, Vaysberg A, Verbovaya N, Zhukova L, Zamyatina O, Kiseleva T, Morugova T, Shabalina E and Hildemann S
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 16, 2017
Major guidelines support the use of metformin the initiation of pharmacologic antihyperglycaemic therapy within the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is available as a standard, immediate-release formulation (usually taken two or three times daily) and also in Extended-Release (XR) formulations (designed to be taken once-daily)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410077
Zhongxia Lu, Wenjun Xu, Xi Chen, Changyu Li and Yitao Chen
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 04, 2017
Partly due to the failure of single-target drugs, diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease with complex pathogenesis and long-term medication requirements, is increasing in prevalence worldwide and urgently needs multi-component and multi-target treatments....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410076
Reza B Jalili and Aziz Ghahary
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 17, 2017
Islets of Langerhans are endocrine units of the pancreas. Local microenvironment of islets includes their immediate extracellular matrix and other molecules that surround islets within the exocrine pancreas. Transplantation of pancreatic islets, which is a promising method for treatment of type 1 diabetes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410075
John P Bernot, Manali Patel, Holly Borders, Jade Hairston, Steven Davis and Julienne Kirk
Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: November 16, 2017
A prospective study was performed in 10 patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Subjects received a wireless glucose monitor with the capability to transmit their glucose measurements to an external server via cellular service. The clinician analyzed these measurements, and communicated with the patient via the glucometer....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410074
Hasan Hareem, Everman Sarah, Alawi A Al sheikh Ali, Farooqi Hamed, Blanchon Bruno and Hassoun Ahmed
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 11, 2017
Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) has been associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in both healthy individuals and those with diabetes. We examined the association between Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and post-exercise HRR in patients with diabetes. Participants who were free from known cardiac disease or severe orthopedic problems referred to an exercise specialist for a fitness assessment....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410073
Summaya Abdul Latif and and Pooja Luthra
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 26, 2017
We report a patient with new onset hypoglycemia due to the consumption of the Ackee fruit. Patient is a 95-year-old Jamaican male with history of uncontrolled, insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes mellitus. He presented with new onset of hypoglycemia and improvement in hemoglobin A1C without any changes in diabetes regimen....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410072
Edson da Silva, Marileila Marques Toledo and Luciana de Freitas Campos
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: September 28, 2017
The growing life expectancy of the population has shown significant increase in the number of elderly and seniors have more diabetes than any other age-group. Worldwide, the number of people aged 60 or older is growing faster than all younger age groups, with most of the increase in developing countries....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410071
Klaus-Dieter Kohnert, Peter Heinke, Lutz Vogt, Petra Augstein, Andreas Thomas and Eckhard Salzsieder
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 26, 2017
Continuous glucose monitoring data obtained during an observational study involved 256 subjects with type 1 (n = 22), type 2 diabetes (n = 222), and 12 non-diabetic control subjects. We compared the indices for the quality of glycemic control and determined their relationship with glucose profile complexity....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410070
Article Type: Letter to Editor | First Published: May 20, 2017
For thousands of years, mankind has used plants as a source of medicine either in their crude mixture forms or purified single chemical entities. While the use of crude plant extracts in prescription drugs today is extremely rare, we still have a significant number of our drug therapies tracing their origin back to natural products. In principle, drug therapeutic approach for complex metabolic disorders like diabetes and associated diseases, where a single key universally accepted biological tar...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410069
R Barba, R Gomez Huelgas, J Marco, J Ena, M Romero, J Ruiz, J Marrero, J Canora and A Zapatero
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 27, 2017
Overweight and obesity increase overall mortality and predict premature death (7-10). Furthermore, obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors like increased insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidemia....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410068
Piero Balice, Gerald Theintz and Mario G Bianchetti
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 09, 2017
Intensive insulin therapy is progressively replacing conventional therapy in young children to improve diabetes control. However, the specific skills required to manage insulin pumps may hamper social integration as much as the fear of severe hypoglycemia using conventional therapy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410067
Yael Levy Shraga, Uri Hamiel and Orit Pinhas Hamiel
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 08, 2017
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and its complications are the most common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents with established diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The overall incidence of recurrent DKA episodes is estimated as 8 per 100 patient years. Interestingly, almost 60% of recurrent DKA episodes occur in 5% of patients....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410066
Alan R Hipkiss
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 25, 2016
It is suggested that the glycolytic enzyme triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) is the "Achilles' heel" in carbohydrate metabolism under conditions of excessive glycolysis. The catalytic activity of TPI can induce permanent changes in its structure and a decline in activity. Under conditions of high glycolytic flux, insufficient TPI activity may eventually cause the accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (TPI substrate) which spontaneously decomposes into methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive bi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410065
Mayuko Harada, Yasuhisa Abe, Yuki Maeda, Michiko Kajikawa and Mitsuru Hashiramoto
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 04, 2016
The application of sulfonylurea (SU) remains one of the most popular approaches in pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients because SU exerts potent stimulatory effects on insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells and is relatively inexpensive and well tolerated. Hypoglycemia, however, is a major safety concern that is associated with the use of SUs, because it impairs a patient's quality of life and can become life threatening when protracted....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410064
Muazu Salisu Babura, Okpe Innocent Onoja, Anumah Felicia and Bakari Adamu Girei
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 28, 2016
Background: Secondary oral hypoglycaemic agent (OHA) failure is one of the many challenges of diabetes management, the consequence of which is poor diabetes control and early development of chronic complications. Prospective studies on secondary OHA failure have not been done in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with development of secondary failure of OHA among T2DM subjects....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410063
Dingwei Dai, Susannah Higgins and Natan Szapiro
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2016
Healthcare claims data for all diabetes patients aged 65 years or older and continuously enrolled in Medicare Advantage plans in Independence Blue Cross from 2013 to 2014 and had ≥ 3 HbA1c measurements in the 2013 measurement year (MY). We used patients' zip codes to link to US census data to get socioeconomic status information. Poor glycemic control was identified as the most recent HbA1c level > 9.0% during the MY. HbA1c variability was defined as within-subject standard deviation of Hb...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410062
R Matthew Brothers
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 07, 2016
Vascular endothelial dysfunction contributes to a variety of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Despite anecdotal reports of adverse cardiovascular and hemodynamic effects of energy drink consumption there has been very little scientific research conducted on this important topic. Furthermore, the limited research available has not yielded consistent results. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of a commercially available energy drink would have no effect on endothelial functio...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410061
Liana de Oliveira Gomes, Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis Livero, Aline Maria Stolf, Carlos Eduardo Alves de Souza, Michele Pontes Werneck, Cristiane Vizioli de Castro Ghizoni, Maria Helena Verdan, Jose Ederaldo Queiroz Telles, Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich, Maria Elida Alves Stefanello, Jurandir Fernando Comar and Alexandra Acco
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 06, 2016
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia and associated complications, such as dysfunction and failure of the eyes, kidneys, nerves, brain, heart, and blood vessels. Diabetes may result from defects in secretion and/or insulin action involving specific pathogenic processes, including destruction of pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion disorders. The estimated prevalence of diabetes nowadays is about 150 million people worldwide, and thi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410060
Rahel Nussbaumer, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Robert Thomann and Anne Katrin Borm
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: May 31, 2016
Background: Diabetes is a common comorbidity in hospitalized patients. The necessity of blood glucose control in those patients with low variability and avoidance of hypoglycemic episodes is well-known. Yet, there is still only marginal literature about the optimal therapy of hyperglycemia in non critically ill hospitalized patients using tools of modern electronic patients charts. Objectives:The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility, the safety and efficiency of a standardized inpa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410059
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 27, 2016
ATAD3 protein is a S100B- and PKC-regulated mitochondrial ATPase which is vital for mitochondrial biogenesis and early development. Even if suspected today to contribute in a lipid rafts transfer system, from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria, the precise function of ATAD3 is still unknown. However, ATAD3 has been previously shown to exhibits in vitro anti-proliferative and chemo resistant properties and to be a positive marker of different tumor subtypes, of tumor progression and of poor su...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410058
Neo Tapela, Hamissy Habineza, Sarah Anoke, Emmanuel Harerimana, Francis Mutabazi, Bethany L. Hedt-Gauthier, Symaque Dusabeyezu, Pie X F. Uwiragiye, Cadet Mutumbira, Gedeon Ngoga, Deogratias Ndagijimana, Emmanuel Rusingiza, Gene Bukhman and Charlotte Bavuma
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 20, 2016
Aims:This study describes the baseline characteristics and 24 month outcomes of diabetic patients managed in an integrated chronic care program at public facilities in rural Rwanda. Methods:Retrospective review of routine electronic medical records of patients treated for diabetes between October 1, 2006 and September 30, 2014 was conducted. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics are described. Outcomes of HbA1c values, loss to follow-up and death are reported....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410057
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 17, 2016
As life expectancy prolonged currently, geriatrics become important and therefore it is urgent to improve the life quality throughout the chronic and critical diseases among the elderly above sixty-fifth years old. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most famous chronic and metabolic disease which may lead to many cardiac, renal and infectious complications. Therefore regular blood sugar control is extremely important in diabetic management to avoid further complications. However, t...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410056
Jean-Claude Katte, Eugene Sobngwi, Vicky Kamwa, Mesmin Y Dehayem, Jean-Louis Nguewa, Andre-Pascal Kengne and Jean Claude Mbanya
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 12, 2016
A 3-4 week of intensive insulin intervention corrects hyperglycemia, improves insulin secretion, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the effect of a shorter course of intensive insulin therapy on insulin sensitivity in people with T2DM. Fifteen poorly controlled subjects with severe hyperglycemia were hospitalized and treated with intensive insulin therapy for 7 days. The short insulin tolerance test was performed before and after the in...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410055
Kanu Joseph E, Otieno CF Frederick, Karari Emma M, Okech-Helu Violet and Mutai Kenn
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 26, 2016
This was a cross-sectional study done on patients living with type-2 diabetes on follow-up at the diabetes out-patient clinic (DOPC) at the KNH. Systematic sampling method was used to recruit 220 study subjects. The PHQ-9 questionnaire was used to assess for co-morbid depression. Socio-demographic and clinical details were obtained both from the subjects and their medical records. Physical examination was done, including blood pressure and BMI determined. Blood samples were collected from the cu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410054
W L de Ranitz-Greven, D H Biesma, B Silvius, M Bons, H W de Valk and J W J Beulens
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 01, 2016
This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU), the Netherlands (February 2010-July 2013). Type 2 diabetes patients attending the (outpatient) clinic of the UMCU were approached to participate in a nationwide biobank study. In the UMCU, patients were also approached to participate in a local add-on study (this study), which required separate consent....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410053
Kenney MC, Falatoonzadeh P, Atilano SR, Chwa M, Caceres-del-Carpio J, Malik D, Boyer DS, Nesburn AB and Kuppermann BD
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 13, 2016
African-origin populations are more susceptible to diabetes and other age-related diseases compared to European-origin populations, but mechanisms for the differential susceptibility remain unknown. Human mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups are maternally inherited ancient polymorphisms representing different geographic origins of populations. Haplogroups are defined by accumulations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which cause changes in amino acids and rates of mtDNA replicati...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410052
Rosa Maria Diaz-Romero, Gerardo Casanova-Roman, and Manuel Salvador Robles-Andrade
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 13, 2016
To determine whether periodontal infections (PI), urinary tract infections (UTI) and cervical vaginal infections (CVI) are associated with the incidence of uncontrolled glycemia (UCG) in type 2 diabetics in the third trimester of their pregnancy and during the postnatal period. An observational, prospective, longitudinal, comparative study was carried out. Patient selection was carried out through consecutive non-probability sampling....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410051
Jiajing Yin, Yi Lin, Mingyu Gu and Yongde Peng
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 04, 2016
Baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is critical in assessing anti-diabetic agent efficacy due to its ability to alter the response of HbA1c reduction to dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors. With meta-regression, we aim to investigate the quantitative relationship between baseline HbA1c levels and HbA1c reduction in response to sitagliptin as a monotherapy or metformin + sitagliptin as dual therapy. Additionally, we intend to study the slope difference between monotherapy and dual therap...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410050
Akram Echtay, Rita Nemr, Maya Chehabeddine, Ramona Abi Gerges, Wadih Baajour, Nader Kakoun, Marwan Charif and Selim Jambart
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 18, 2015
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a pandemic health problem with an unprecedented number of patients reaching hundreds of millions, and characterized by the vascular complications and premature mortality incurring a high cost of management. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of DM management and its complications in Beirut through comparing the hospitalization cost for patients with DM to that of patients not suffering from DM....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410049
V. Naik, R. Dave, J. W. Stephens and J.S. Davies
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 08, 2015
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most costly and burdensome of chronic diseases and is a global epidemic. Estimates by the International Diabetes Federation indicate that 387 million people have diabetes, and that this figure is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 with an additional 175 million cases currently undiagnosed. Individuals with T2DM are at a significantly higher risk of co-morbidities particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, pre-diabetes independently...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410048
Andreu Nubiola, Imma Remolins and Miquel Nubiola
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 17, 2015
Insulin treatment is the choice in insulinopenic diabetic patients, in order to prevent or delay microvascular lesions, related to hyperglycaemia. However in insulin resistant type 2 diabetes, the improvement in glycaemic control with insulin, is not without side effects, especially weight gain and hypoglycaemia. Many retrospective or case-control studies of insulin treatment have reported a higher prevalence of CVD in insulin-treated patients. However, many of these patients started insulin the...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410047
Aika Miya, Akinobu Nakamura, Hideaki Miyoshi, Hiraku Kameda, Hiroshi Nomoto, So Nagai, Yuko Omori, Kanako C. Hatanaka, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Chikara Shimizu, and Tatsuya Atsumi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 05, 2015
Although the excessive secretion of GH leads to insulin resistance enhancement, the involvement of a silent somatotroph adenoma in abnormal glucose tolerance has not been elucidated. A 50 - year-old man was admitted with a headache and bitemporal hemianopia caused by a pituitary macroadenoma. He had no physical signs and symptoms of acromegaly nor hypopituitarism, and his base-line serum levels of GH and insulin - like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were normal. However, a 75 - g oral glucose tolerance...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410046
Franco Contaldo, Maurizio Marra, Lidia Santarpia and Fabrizio Pasanisi
Article Type: Hypothesis | First Published: October 28, 2015
We selected, from our database of obese outpatients, 90 young severely obese subjects (60 females, 30 males) in a stable body weight since at least 6 months, age range 20 - 30 years, who underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry (VMax Sensor Medics) and body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Bio impedance analysis (BIA) was performed at 50 kHz (Human Im plus II, DS Medica) in standard conditions....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410045
Angela Cooper Brathwaite and Manon Lemonde
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 19, 2015
Objective: To explore African and Caribbean immigrants' perceptions of a culturally tailored intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a purposive sampling scheme, 29 participants (26 women and 3 men, mean age 48 years and average length of residency of 22 years in Canada) participated in this study. The researchers used in-depth focus groups and individual surveys to collect qualitative data from participants. Following these interviews, participants individually reviewed the inte...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410044
The Safety, Efficacy and Treatment Satisfaction Comparison of Unchanged Premixed Insulin Regimen Plus Sitagliptin with Switch from the Premixed Insulin to Once-Daily Basal Insulin Plus Sitagliptin in Patients with Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes with Twice-Daily Premixed Insulin
Kanako Ono, Akinobu Nakamura, Junko Kawaguchi, Masahiro Takihata, Yuichiro Inoue, Jun Shirakawa, Akiko Kameda, Yu Togashi, Tsutomu Hayashi, Takayuki Furuki, Shun Ito, Tatsuro Takano, Satsuki Kawasaki, Hiroshi Takeda, Tetsuji Kaneko, Mari Kimura, Shunsaku Mizushima and Yasuo Terauchi
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 30, 2015
Background: While adding sitagliptin to insulin therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) showing poor response to therapy with premixed insulin alone, we compared the efficacy and safety and satisfaction from continuing treatment with the premixed insulin versus switching of the premixed insulin to basal insulin therapy. Methods: The study was an open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted at 7 institutions in Japan. The study participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410043
Thagaard MS, Nexo E and Greibe E
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2015
Few studies have explored vitamin B12 (B12) distribution in control rats and in rats treated with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug known to decrease the plasma level of B12 in humans. Here we report B12 levels in both control rats and in rats treated by two different methods of delivering metformin....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410042
Cathryn M. Kolka
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 01, 2015
Diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are frequently grouped together as the 'metabolic syndrome'. The prevalence of these diseases is increasing in the United States and worldwide. In recent years, overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system has been linked to obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Promising initial research investigated the role of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension: renal denervation using catheter-based radiofrequency ablation ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410041
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: August 21, 2015
Endothelin or endothelium-derived constricting factor was first discovered by O'Brien et al. in 1987 as a potent vasoconstrictor protein from culture medium of bovine aortic and pulmonary endothelium. The culture medium was shown to cause aortic ring constriction in vitro and vasoconstriction when perfused into rabbit coronary arteries. Concomitantly, Yanagisawa et al. isolated and sequenced the 21 amino acid endothelin, which modulates voltage dependent channel and is a potent vasoconstrictor p...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410040
Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Mariana de Carvalho Pinto, Roselene Mondolo Regueiro Lorenconi, Mariana Romanholi Palma, Fernanda Elisa Ribeiro and Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 15, 2015
Aim: To identify the risk of falling through a functional mobility test in non-diabetics, individuals with diabetic neuropathy and individuals with diabetic neuropathy and vasculopathy. Methodology: The study was composed of 61 subjects of both genders divided into the control group CG (n=32), diabetic neuropathy group DNG (n=18) and diabetic neuropathy-vasculopathy group (DNVG) (12). The participants underwent initial an evaluation through somatosensory sensitivity tests, diagnosis of polyneuro...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410039
Soon H Song
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 05, 2015
Traditionally considered as a disease of the middle-aged, type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become increasingly more prevalent in children, adolescence and young adults below the age of 40. Of concern, this evolution of young-onset T2D is a global phenomenon. Obesity is a major predisposing factor as the age of onset is inversely associated with body mass index, reflecting the consequences of sedentary lifestyle afflicting different nations and cultural backgrounds....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410038
Mario Barbagallo and Ligia J. Dominguez
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 03, 2015
Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have an increased incidence of cognitive decline and dementia. An increased cortical and subcortical atrophy has been found after controlling for vascular disease and inadequate cerebral circulation. A possible role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia has been suggested to mediate the link between DM2 and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Altered insulin signaling may contribute to AD biochemical and histopathological lesions. Both hyperglycemia and hyp...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410037
Sabina Paglialunga and Clayton A. Dehn
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 31, 2015
The current market for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medications is saturated with a plethora of choices of therapeutic agents, many of which have very favorable safety profiles. It has been proposed that the combination of this crowded and competitive landscape along with the increased burden of thorough cardiovascular risk assessment required since 2008, have stifled innovation in the development of new anti-diabetic medications....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410036
Masayoshi Takeuchi, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Jun-ichi Takino, Takanobu Takata, Tadashi Ueda and Mikihiro Tsutsumi
Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 31, 2015
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have become serious health problems worldwide. These two diseases have similar pathological spectra, ranging from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including cardiovascular disease and malignancy, which influence patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet (sweetened beve...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410035
Bryan Cleal and Kjeld Poulsen
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 22, 2015
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between diabetes, mortality and exit from work using various Danish Pension schemes. Methods: We linked the Danish National Diabetes register with socioeconomic and population-based registers and followed prevalent and incident cases of diabetes for ten years, adjusting for gender, age and socio-occupational group. We analysed the proportion of individuals with diagnosed diabetes before and after entering a normal retirement pen-sion, voluntary early r...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410034
Arosemena Coronel M, Sanchez Armijos J, Tettamanti Miranda D, Vasquez Cedeno D, Chang A and Navarro Chavez M
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 16, 2015
Objective: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (PCDM) in a clinic setting in Ecuador. Methods: A single-center, cross-sectional study conducted in the outpatient endocrinology clinic in Guayaquil, Ecuador registered 209 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, tested for glycosylated hemoglobin and interviewed face-to-face using questions from the Instrument to Measure Lifestyle in Diabetics (IMEVID) Questionnaire. Logi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410033
Khalid S. Aljabri, Samia A. Bokhari and Ahmad Akl
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 30, 2015
Diabetes mellitus is the third greatest cause of death all over the world and is responsible for many complications affecting various organs in the body. Th prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. Th prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults in Saudi Arabia is 30%. Worldwide and nationally epidemic exists with respect to diabetes mellitus, primarily because of increased rates of obesity. Obesity has become widespread in developed ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410032
Behrouz Salehian and Vahid Mahabadi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2015
A different facet of type 2 diabetes was recognized in the early 80s with the demonstration of the 'state of coagulation activation' and 'endothelial dysfunction / activation' in not only type 2 diabetes but also in obesity. The discovery of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and its physiological role including many aspects of coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction was later found to have a correlation with adiposity and type 2 diabetes. Further knowledge in the metabolic function of...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410031
C. Τsompos, C. Panoulis, K Τοutouzas, G. Ζografos and A. Papalois
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 04, 2015
The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of the antioxidant drug 'U-74389G', on rat model and particularly in an ischemia - reperfusion protocol. The beneficial effects or noneffectiveness of that molecule were studied biochemically using blood mean glucose levels. Materials and methods: 40 rats of mean weight 231.875gr were used in the study. Glucose levels were measured at 60 min of reperfusion (groups A and C) and 120 min of reperfusion (groups B and D), A and B without bu...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410030
Nina M. Musurlieva and Mariya S. Bratoycheva
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 02, 2015
Aim: Diabetes is an important systemic factor for the development of periodontitis. This study examines the association between the diabetes type 2 and development of chronic periodontitis in the sample of Bulgarian patients. Material: 228 patients with chronic periodontitis were surveyed using a questionnaire specially designed for the study, and a casecontrol study was carried out....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410029
Cyril J Craven
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 01, 2015
A model is offered towards an understanding of the cellular communications of two major cell types of the pancreas. The beta and alpha cells of the pancreas are considered to be coupled by the insulin and glucagon hormones that they produce, respectively. In this model, insulin stimulates the alpha cells to release glucagon and grow, especially by cell division, while glucagon similarly stimulates the beta cells to release insulin and grow....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410028
Sudesh S. Raju and Vinayak Kumar
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 30, 2015
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type II diabetes (T2D) are the leading causes of death worldwide, including those within developing countries. Few studies have measured the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and T2D within Latin America and even fewer have focused on socioeconomically depressed populations within Peru....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410027
J. Saluk, Bansal V, Banos A, Hopkinson W, Rees H, Syed D, Hoppensteadt D, Abro S and Iqbal O and Fareed J
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28, 2015
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a proven risk factor for diseases such as end stage renal disease (ESRD) and osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, it is not unreasonable to assume that some of the ESRD/ OA pathogenesis, namely inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, could be attributed to DM as a comorbitity. This study aims to investigate DM's effect on metabolic biomarker levels in patients with ESRD or undergoing total joint arthroplasty....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410026
Koreen Peter, Lilly Paul, Renee Richardson, Brandon Ramdass, Aisha Ali and Kameel Mungrue
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 24, 2015
301 participants were entered into the study. There was ethnic disparity but a reversal from South East to Africans. A strong inverse linear relationship (Pearson's coefficient r=-0.82, p ≤ 0.05) was found between BMI and age at diabetes onset. Between the 1990's and 2004-2014 in two regions of Trinidad the number of patients with T2DM doubled, occurring more commonly among females, the obese and overweight, a tendency towards younger age groups and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410024
Md. Arifur Rahman, Subrina Jesmin, Chishimba Nathan Mowa, Farzana Sohae, Junko Kamiyama, AKM Ahsan Habib, Nobutake Shimojo, Md. Majedul Islam, Masao Moroi, Osamu Okazaki, Naoto Yamaguchi, Satoru Kawano, Taro Mizutani and Yoshio Iwashima
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 26, 2015
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potential marker of endothelial dysfunction, has been shown to be elevated in diabetic mellitus (DM) subjects. However, to date, the circulatory profile of ET-1 and its association with DM have not been investigated in any South Asian country, including Bangladesh. The present study assessed circulating levels of ET-1 in subjects with or without DM and further examined the association of ET-1 with clinical and metabolic parameters in Bangladeshi rural women....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410023
David Williams, Angus Fitchie and Carmen Colitz
Article Type: Clinical Trial | First Published: February 24, 2015
The majority of dogs with diabetes mellitus develop blinding mature cataracts through the action of the enzyme aldose reductase producing sorbitol with osmotic action drawing water into the lens thus causing opacification. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410022
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 23, 2015
Background: Diabetic amputees are at increased risk for receiving a second amputation, which may be prevented by proper selfcare. Although existing literature suggests self-care is inadequate among diabetic patients, self-care behaviour after an amputation is unknown. This study aims to identify strategies used by diabetic patients who received a lower-extremity amputation to prevent further amputation. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on patients over 18 years of age who were regi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410021
Naohiro Iwata, Mari Okazaki, Shinya Kamiuchi, Meiyan Xuan, Hirokazu Matsuzaki, Takeshi Sakamoto and Yasuhide Hibino
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 22, 2015
Objective: High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) released extracellularly from necrotic cells evokes delayed inflammatory processes via interaction with the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) or Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in postischemic brain. The diabetic state (DM) aggravated cerebral ischemic injury following the stroke in rats. Therefore, we examined the behavior of HMGB1 and the expression of RAGE in non-DM and DM rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by rep...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410020
Jorge Berlanga-Acosta, Yssel Mendoza-Mari, Maday Fernandez-Mayola, Ariana GarciaOjalvo, Calixto Valdes-Perez, William Savigne-Gutierrez, Daniel Reynaldo-Concepcion, Ileydis Iglesias-Marichal, Angel Abreu-Cruz, Celso Suarez-Lescay, Ana Mir-Benitez, Natacha Sancho-Soutelo and Luis Herrera-Martinez
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2015
The increasing number of diabetes patients represents a health challenge due to disease-related, end-organs complications. Hyperglycemia is considered the proximal trigger of an intricate cascade of molecular processes that progressively deteriorate tissues and organs, leading to the onset of clinical complications. Lower extremity ulcerations and their ensued refractoriness to heal can potentially result in amputation and disability and remain the second most feared diabetic complication. We ha...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410019
Mario Barbagallo and Ligia J. Dominguez
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 26, 2015
The link between magnesium (Mg) deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus is well known. Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular Mg deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesaemia is common in subjects with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulin and glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role in regulating insulin action, insulin-mediated-gl...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410018
Ixba-Villegas Mario Alberto, Marquez-Gonzalez Horacio, Jimenez-Baez Maria Valeria and Cantellano-Garcia Diana Michelle
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2015
Objective: To estimate the association between familiar function and metabolic control in patients with T2DM treated in a DiabetIMSS module in a first-level medical unit in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective and analytical study was conducted. In patients with T2DM and the target population included patients with T2DM who attended the module DiabetIMSS in Cancun, Quintana Roo. Included patients with T2DM between 20 and 80 years of age who received attention in ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410017
Yuzuru Kishitani, Hideyuki Okuda, Daisuke Kinoshita, Kanyun Hata and Toshihiko Kawasaki
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2014
Background: DPP-4 inhibitor has been shown to improve not only blood glucose levels but also dyslipidemia, but the effect remains controversial. Further, there are few reports regarding the influence on Apo B, Apo A-1 and Apo B/Apo A-1 in alogliptin. Objective: Using the alogliptin, we focused on Apo B and Apo A-1, in addition to LDL-C, HDL-C and TG, and investigated the effect of alogliptin on markers predicting cardiovascular events, such as Apo B/Apo A-1 and LDL-C/Apo B....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410016
Jiang Xiao-zhen, Xi Feng, Chen Rui-Hua, Jiang Quan and Zou Yu-Feng
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 29, 2014
Aim: To determine whether carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) was elevated in diabetic patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), and correlations of OSA severity with IMT and other clinical characteristics. Materials and methods: The study subjects were composed of 36 diabetic patients with OSA (group A), and 34 patients without OSA (group B). In both groups, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, C-IMT and carotid resistance index (C-RI) were a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410015
Chenghu Huang, Li Yuan and Shuyi Cao
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 08, 2014
Aims: The aim of this study is to further elaborate the improving effects of telmisartan on insulin resistance, beta-cell dysfunction and islet inflammation in a PPAR-γ signaling-dependent manner. Methods: The mRNA levels of renin-angiotensin system components were detected. We compared the effects of telmisartan and telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR-γ antagonist) in mice fed a high-fat diet or isolated non-diabetic mouse islets. Immunoflorescence or real-time PCR was used to de...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410014
Ljiljana M Jowitt
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 02, 2014
The aim of this review was to present ethnic characteristics of type 2 diabetes in Pacific Island adults in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted in a search using the terms 'Pacific Island populations', 'New Zealand', 'ethnicity', 'obesity', 'metabolic syndrome', 'type 2diabetes', 'food security, and their combinations, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization, International Diabetes Federation, and the Ministry of Health New Zea...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410013
Beatriz Barquiel, Lucrecia Herranz, Javier Riveiro, Natalia Hillman, Noemi Gonzalez, Ma Angeles Burgos and Luis F Pallardo
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2014
Aim: To analyze the influence of ethnicity, Body Mass Index (BMI) and gestational diabetes (GDM) severity on abnormal glucose metabolism at the early postpartum. Methods: Glucose tolerance (WHO criteria) was evaluated at 3-9 months after delivery in a group of 71 GDM women (NDDG criteria) coming from Latin America, 43 from Africa and 14 from Asia or Pacific Islands. Their glucose tolerance was compared to 1,948 European control women by prepregnancy and postpartum BMI and by GDM severity. The ef...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410012
Jennifer Louise Cooper, Suhad Marjei, Rachel Rossiter and Sharon Brownie
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 25, 2014
A childhood diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes is a life changing event for both the child and his/her family. The impact is experienced strongly by mothers who most frequently fulfil the primary caregiver role for children12 yrs old and younger. Studies which have sought to understand mothers' experiences and perceptions of managing a child newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes are mostly questionnaire-based and few, if any, explore the issues within the uniqueness of a Middle-Eastern context. The qua...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410011
Manmohan K. Kamboj, Kathryn J. Stephens, Richard J. Brilli, Heather L. Yardley, Jeff Lewis, Richard E. McClead, Jr. and David R. Repaske
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 17, 2014
Aims: To develop objective assessment tools to evaluate proficiency of well-day (WD) and sick-day (SD) diabetes knowledge and management skills in families of pediatric type 1 diabetes patients and to utilize this information to modify our diabetes education (DE) program to improve learning of the desired knowledge and skills. Methods: Vignette-based assessment quizzes were developed to evaluate WD and SD diabetes knowledge and management skills. Vignettes assessed basic knowledge and skills i...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410010
Anders Thelin and Sara Holmberg
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2014
The risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is related to lifestyle but less is known about how lifestyle factors interact and how they impact the risk when combined. This study was performed to analyze how lifestyle factors relate to the cumulative incidence of T2D in a Swedish rural population. Outcomes were generated from national registers and from two surveys. Two hundred sixty men (11%) with diabetes were found in the registers, and 193 men with T2D were identified in the surveyed population (9.8%)....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410009
Poovazhagi Varadarajan and Saradha suresh
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 06, 2014
Cerebral edema is the commonest cause of mortality in DKA worldwide. Infections are known to precipitate new onset DKA, they also adversely affect the outcome of DKA in children from developing countries. Infections are major contributory factors for DKA in children with established diabetes mellitus (DM) along with poor compliance to therapy. This study among 118 episodes of DKA from a pediatric tertiary care Institute has identifid infections as a signifiant risk factor for severe metabolic de...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410008
Wenyi Wu and Luosheng Tang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 06, 2014
Netrin-1 which belongs to axon guidance cue is necessary for neural and vascular development. It involves in regulating axon guidance for attraction or repulsion and it has a dual function in endothelial tip cell migration during angiogenesis. Many evidences have proved that netrin-1 plays an important role in angiogenesis, cancer progression and inflmmation disease. Here we provide a comprehensive review on the role of netrin-1 in retinal and angiogenesis developments. What's more, some associa...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410007
J. Pizarro-Delgado and J. Tamarit-Rodriguez
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 05, 2014
It was recognized quite a few years ago that islet GABA metabolism might be implicated in the stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose. Since then, some studies have been addressed to investigate how GABA release by β-cells might exert a negative autocrine control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and a parallel paracrine inhibition of glucagon release trough the activation of GABAB and GABA A receptors, respectively. More recently, it has been shown that some nutrient secretagogue...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410006
Aiman Ahmad, Iekhsan Othman, Anuar Zaini Md Zain and Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 27, 2014
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting a great number of the world's population. Insulin therapy for diabetes is most commonly delivered via subcutaneous injections, up to four times a day. Long-term insulin therapy, compounded by the invasive nature of its administration, has caused problems with patient compliance, ultimately inflencing patient outcomes. Extensive research has been carried out to date, to explore possible improvements to insulin therapy for diabetic patients, with so...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410005
Fiona Haxho, Farah Alghamdi, Ronald J Neufeld and Myron R Szewczuk
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 30, 2014
Insulin receptor (IR) signaling plays a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. A dysfunctional and/or unregulated IR activation has been shown to cause a range of clinical manifestations including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, hypertension, and cardiovascular disorders. The molecular mechanisms mediating IR activation have become an important area of scientifi and clinical research. Here, we summarize the current understanding of IR structure, function, and si...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410004
Marco Matteo Ciccone, Pietro Scicchitano, Francesca Cortese, Michele Gesualdo, Fara Fornarelli, et al.
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 22, 2014
Objective: To assess the effect of olive oil, non fried fih and nuts on endothelial function in overweight/obese patients. Methods: 47 overweight/obese patients (24 men, mean age 54 +/- 11 years) fed healthy diet (HD) defied according to the NuretaPREDIMED study for 3 months; after this 3 months of HD, the patients were blindly divided into 4 groups: Controls (24: HD), Group A (8: HD+olive oil), Group B (8: HD+not-fried fih), Group C (7: HD+nuts). These four groups were also followed-up for fur...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410003
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 03, 2014
Obesity and diabetes are currently a major health problem worldwide with growing in prevalence. The incidence of metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes with obesity, is increased to epidemic levels. Obesity and diabetes induce secondary diseases with various pathophysiologic states, which are important in clinical aspects including cardiovascular disease, neural disturbance, kidney disease, osteoporosis and cancer. Obesity is based on stimulation of adipogenesis. Bone marrow mesenchymal st...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410002
Kameel Mungrue and Verna Farrell-Williams
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 02, 2014
Introduction: The role of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) in patients with type 2 diabetes remains inconclusive. As part of the approach to improve glycaemic control in patients with T2DM in Trinidad a high prevalence setting for T2DM, the Ministry of Heath distributes free glucometers and strips. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of SMBG on glycaemic control and to determine patients' behaviors and responses. Methods: A large outpatient clinic for patients with T2DM was s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410001
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: October 01, 2014
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a frequent disorder in the general population, and even more common in the diabetic population, with incidences reported ranging from 17 to 48%, although these figures are probably an underestimation. As this disorder is so widespread, it is often accepted and dismissed. Patients themselves, often omit mentioning that they suffer from sleep apnea to the doctor. In extreme cases various surgical interventions have used, however with not great success, some reports...
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